Search results for 'Quality' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jacob Stegenga (forthcoming). Herding QATs: Quality Assessment Tools for Evidence in Medicine. In Huneman, Silberstein & Lambert (eds.), Herding QATs: Quality Assessment Tools for Evidence in Medicine.
    Medical scientists employ ‘quality assessment tools’ (QATs) to measure the quality of evidence from clinical studies, especially randomized controlled trials (RCTs). These tools are designed to take into account various methodological details of clinical studies, including randomization, blinding, and other features of studies deemed relevant to minimizing bias and error. There are now dozens available. The various QATs on offer differ widely from each other, and second-order empirical studies show that QATs have low inter-rater reliability and low inter-tool (...)
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  2.  12
    Patrick M. Erwin (2011). Corporate Codes of Conduct: The Effects of Code Content and Quality on Ethical Performance. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 99 (4):535 - 548.
    Corporate codes of conduct are a practical corporate social responsibility (CSR) instrument commonly used to govern employee behavior and establish a socially responsible organizational culture. The effectiveness of these codes has been widely discussed on theoretical grounds and empirically tested in numerous previous reports that directly compare companies with and without codes of conduct. Empirical research has yielded inconsistent results that may be explained by multiple ancillary factors, including the quality of code content and implementation, which are excluded from (...)
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  3.  59
    T. L. P. Tang (2007). Income and Quality of Life: Does the Love of Money Make a Difference? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 72 (4):375 - 393.
    This paper examines a model of income and quality of life that controls the love of money, job satisfaction, gender, and marital status and treats employment status (full-time versus part-time), income level, and gender as moderators. For the whole sample, income was not significantly related to quality of life when this path was examined alone. When all variables were controlled, income was negatively related to quality of life. When (1) the love of money was negatively correlated to (...)
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  4.  28
    Ton van der Wiele, Peter Kok, Richard McKenna & Alan Brown (2001). A Corporate Social Responsibility Audit Within a Quality Management Framework. Journal of Business Ethics 31 (4):285 - 297.
    In this paper a corporate social responsibility audit is developed following the underlying methodology of the quality award/excellence models. Firstly the extent to which the quality awards already incorporate the development of social responsibility is examined by looking at the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and the European Quality Award. It will be shown that the quality awards do not yet include ethical aspects in relation to social responsibility. Both a clear definition of social responsibility (...)
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  5. Matthew A. Benton (2017). Gricean Quality. Noûs (1).
    Some philosophers oppose recent arguments for the Knowledge Norm of Assertion by claiming that assertion, being an act much like any other, will be subject to norms governing acts generally, such as those articulated by Grice for the purpose of successful, cooperative endeavours. But in fact, Grice is a traitor to their cause; or rather, they are his dissenters, not his disciples. Drawing on Grice's unpublished papers, I show that he thought of asserting as a special linguistic act in need (...)
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  6.  50
    Gopal V. Krishnan & Linda M. Parsons (2008). Getting to the Bottom Line: An Exploration of Gender and Earnings Quality. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 78 (1-2):65 - 76.
    For stakeholders, such as investors and lenders, to appropriately assess a company's financial performance, the reported accounting earnings must closely reflect the economic reality of the organization's financial activity throughout the reporting period. The degree to which reported earnings capture economic reality is called earnings quality. Managers have an ethical obligation to report high quality earnings to interested stakeholders in a timely matter. Accounting research has identified conditions within an organization, such as management compensation contracts and pending litigation (...)
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  7.  16
    Steven E. Kaplan & Joseph J. Schultz (2007). Intentions to Report Questionable Acts: An Examination of the Influence of Anonymous Reporting Channel, Internal Audit Quality, and Setting. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 71 (2):109 - 124.
    The Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002 requires audit committees of public companies’ boards of directors to install an anonymous reporting channel to assist in deterring and detecting accounting fraud and control weaknesses. While it is generally accepted that the availability of such a reporting channel may reduce the reporting cost of the observer of a questionable act, there is concern that the addition of such a channel may decrease the overall effectiveness compared to a system employing only non-anonymous reporting options. The (...)
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  8.  7
    Hongwei He & Yan Li (2011). CSR and Service Brand: The Mediating Effect of Brand Identification and Moderating Effect of Service Quality. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 100 (4):673 - 688.
    This article examines the mediation effect of brand identification and the moderating effect of service quality (SQ) on the effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) association on service brand performance. A survey of customers of mobile telecommunications services was conducted. The study finds, first, that both CSR and SQ have direct effects on brand identification and customer satisfaction and indirect effects on customer satisfaction (via brand identification) and on service brand loyalty (via customer satisfaction and via "brand identification/customer satisfaction"). (...)
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  9.  11
    David B. Resnik & Susan A. Elmore (2016). Ensuring the Quality, Fairness, and Integrity of Journal Peer Review: A Possible Role of Editors. Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (1):169-188.
    A growing body of literature has identified potential problems that can compromise the quality, fairness, and integrity of journal peer review, including inadequate review, inconsistent reviewer reports, reviewer biases, and ethical transgressions by reviewers. We examine the evidence concerning these problems and discuss proposed reforms, including double-blind and open review. Regardless of the outcome of additional research or attempts at reforming the system, it is clear that editors are the linchpin of peer review, since they make decisions that have (...)
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  10. Martha Craven Nussbaum & Amartya Kumar Sen (1999). The Quality of Life. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  11.  47
    Réal Labelle, Rim Makni Gargouri & Claude Francoeur (2010). Ethics, Diversity Management, and Financial Reporting Quality. Journal of Business Ethics 93 (2):335 - 355.
    This article proposes and empirically tests a theoretical framework incorporating Reidenbach and Robin’s (J Bus Ethics 10(4):273–284, 1991 ) conceptual model of corporate moral development. The framework is used to examine the relation between governance and business ethics, as proxied by diversity management (DM), and financial reporting quality, as proxied by the magnitude of earnings management (EM). The level of DM and governance quality are measured in accordance with the ratings of Jantzi Research (JR), a leading provider of (...)
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  12.  6
    Giovanni Maria Garegnani, Emilia Piera Merlotti & Angeloantonio Russo (2015). Scoring Firms’ Codes of Ethics: An Explorative Study of Quality Drivers. Journal of Business Ethics 126 (4):541-557.
    Research in the field of management has increasingly focused on strategies and tools related to corporate sustainability. Of the tools examined, codes of ethics have been found to play a primary role. Many studies have investigated the content of such codes, as well as their capacity to condition the behaviour of people within organizations. However, few studies have considered the intrinsic quality of codes of ethics. This study aims to investigate the impact that specific factors—firm size, degree of internationalization (...)
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  13.  11
    Michael McKenna (2016). Quality of Will, Private Blame and Conversation: Reply to Driver, Shoemaker, and Vargas. Criminal Law and Philosophy 10 (2):243-263.
    In this paper, I defend my book Conversation and Responsibility in response to three critics: Julia Driver, David Shoemaker, and Manuel Vargas. Driver raises questions about my account of private blame. Shoemaker finds problems with my account of quality of will. And Vargas questions the conversational nature of my account.
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  14.  14
    Diana Stuart (2009). Constrained Choice and Ethical Dilemmas in Land Management: Environmental Quality and Food Safety in California Agriculture. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (1):53-71.
    As environmental and conservation efforts increasingly turn towards agricultural landscapes, it is important to understand how land management decisions are made by agricultural producers. While previous studies have explored producer decision-making, many fail to recognize the importance of external structural influences. This paper uses a case study to explore how consolidated markets and increasing corporate power in the food system can constrain producer choice and create ethical dilemmas over land management. Crop growers in the Central Coast region of California (...)
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  15. Maya J. Goldenberg (2012). Defining Quality of Care Persuasively. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (4):243-261.
    As the quality movement in health care now enters its fourth decade, the language of quality is ubiquitous. Practitioners, organizations, and government agencies alike vociferously testify their commitments to quality and accept numerous forms of governance aimed at improving quality of care. Remarkably, the powerful phrase ‘‘quality of care’’ is rarely defined in the health care literature. Instead it operates as an accepted and assumed goal worth pursuing. The status of evidence-based medicine, for instance, hinges (...)
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  16.  34
    Nonna Martinov-Bennie & Gary Pflugrath (2009). The Strength of an Accounting Firm's Ethical Environment and the Quality of Auditors' Judgments. Journal of Business Ethics 87 (2):237 - 253.
    This study examines the impact of the strength of an accounting firm’s ethical environment (presence and reinforcement vis-à-vis the presence of a code of conduct) on the quality of auditor judgment, across different levels of audit expertise. Using a 2 × 2 full factorial ‹between subjects’ experimental design, with audit managers and audit seniors, the impact of different levels of strength of the ethical environment on auditor judgments was assessed with a realistic audit scenario, requiring participants to (...)
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  17.  64
    Fernando Prieto Ramos (2015). Quality Assurance in Legal Translation: Evaluating Process, Competence and Product in the Pursuit of Adequacy. International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 28 (1):11-30.
    Building on a functionalist framework for decision-making in legal translation, a holistic approach to quality is presented in order to respond to the specificities of this field and overcome the shortcomings of general models of translation quality evaluation. The proposed approach connects legal, contextual, macrotextual and microtextual variables for the definition of the translation adequacy strategy, which guides problem-solving and the rest of the translation process. The same parameters remain traceable between the translation brief and the translation product (...)
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  18.  21
    Zhiqiang Liu, Fue Zeng & Chenting Su (2009). Does Relationship Quality Matter in Consumer Ethical Decision Making? Evidence From China. Journal of Business Ethics 88 (3):483 - 496.
    This study explores the linear logic between consumer ethical beliefs (CEBs) and consumer unethical behavior (CUB) in a Chinese context. A relational view helps fill the belief (...)behavior gap by exploring the moderating role of relationship quality in reducing CUBs. Specifically, when consumers are more receptive to a set of actions that may be deemed inappropriate by moral principles, they are more likely to engage in unethical behaviors. However, when consumers perceive their misconduct as possibly damaging to the relationship developed with the seller, they tend to refrain from unethical behaviors. CEBs and relationship quality also combine to affect unethical behaviors. Although consumers find the misconduct acceptable according to their ethical beliefs, they become less likely to conduct the behavior if they have a close relationship with the seller. The results contribute to a better understanding of the simplistic logic that connects CEBs and their unethical behaviors and shed light on how close relationships with consumers help contain CUBs. (shrink)
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  19.  8
    Leah McClimans (2010). Towards Self-Determination in Quality of Life Research: A Dialogic Approach. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (1):67-76.
    Health-related quality of life measures aim to assess patients’ subjective experience in order to gauge an increasingly wide variety of health care issues such as patient needs; satisfaction; side effects; quality of care; disease progression and cost effectiveness. Their popularity is undoubtedly due to a larger initiative to provide patient-centered care. The use of patient perspectives to guide health care improvements and spending is rooted in the idea that we must respect patients as self-determining agents. In this paper (...)
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  20.  17
    Peter Kok, Ton van der Wiele, Richard McKenna & Alan Brown (2001). A Corporate Social Responsibility Audit Within a Quality Management Framework. Journal of Business Ethics 31 (4):285 - 297.
    In this paper a corporate social responsibility audit is developed following the underlying methodology of the quality award/excellence models. Firstly the extent to which the quality awards already incorporate the development of social responsibility is examined by looking at the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and the European Quality Award. It will be shown that the quality awards do not yet include ethical aspects in relation to social responsibility. Both a clear definition of social responsibility (...)
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  21.  10
    Per-Anders Tengland (2006). The Goals of Health Work: Quality of Life, Health and Welfare. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 9 (2):155-167.
    Health-related quality of life is the ultimate general goal for medicine, health care and public health, including health promotion and health education. The other important general goal is health-related welfare. The aim of the paper is to explain what this means and what the consequences of these assumptions are for health work. This involves defining the central terms “health”, “quality of life” and “welfare” and showing what their conceptual relations are. Health-related quality of life has two central (...)
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  22.  6
    Karijn Bonne & Wim Verbeke (2008). Religious Values Informing Halal Meat Production and the Control and Delivery of Halal Credence Quality. Agriculture and Human Values 25 (1):35-47.
    This paper investigates the socio-technical construction, quality control, and coordination of the credence quality attribute “halal” throughout the halal meat chain. The paper is framed within Actor-Network Theory and economic Conventions Theory. Islamic dietary laws or prescriptions, and how these are translated into production and processing standards using a HACCP-like approach, are discussed. Current halal quality coordination is strongly based on civic and domestic logics in which Muslim consumers prefer transacting with Muslim butchers, that is, individuals of (...)
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  23.  64
    Aaron Preston (2005). Quality Instances and the Structure of the Concrete Particular. Axiomathes 15 (2):267-292.
    In this paper, I examine a puzzle that emerges from what J. P. Moreland has called the traditional realist view of quality instances. Briefly put, the puzzle is to figure out how quality instances fit into the overall structure of a concrete particular, given that the traditional realist view of quality instances prima facie seems incompatible with what might be called the traditional realist view of concrete particulars. After having discussed the traditional realist views involved and the (...)
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  24. Jerome R. Ravetz (2002). Food Safety, Quality, and Ethics – a Post-Normal Perspective. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 15 (3):255-265.
    I argue that the issues of foodquality, in the most general sense includingpurity, safety, and ethics, can no longer beresolved through ``normal'' science andregulation. The reliance on reductionistscience as the basis for policy andimplementation has shown itself to beinadequate. I use several borderline examplesbetween drugs and foods, particularly coffeeand sucrose, to show that ``quality'' is now acomplex attribute. For in those cases thesubstance is either a pure drug, or a bad foodwith drug-like properties; both are marketed asif they were (...)
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  25.  21
    Tae Hee Choi & Jinhan Pae (2011). Business Ethics and Financial Reporting Quality: Evidence From Korea. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 103 (3):403-427.
    This study examines the relationship between corporate commitment to business ethics and financial reporting quality. We posit that companies with a higher level of ethical commitment exhibit better quality financial reporting than those with a lower level of ethical commitment. Consistent with our prediction, we find that companies with a higher level of ethical commitment are engaged in less earnings management, report earnings more conservatively, and predict future cash flows more accurately than those with a lower level of (...)
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  26.  5
    Gerard Magill (forthcoming). Quality in Ethics Consultations. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy:1-14.
    There is an increasing need for quality in ethics consultations, though there have been significant achievements in the United States and Europe. However, fundamental concerns that place the profession in jeopardy are discussed from the perspective of the U.S. in a manner that will be helpful for other countries. The descriptive component of the essay (the first two points) explains the achievements in ethics quality (illustrated by the IntegratedEthics program of the Veterans Health Administration) and the progress on (...)
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  27.  16
    Juan José Tarí (2011). Research Into Quality Management and Social Responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics 102 (4):623-638.
    This article presents a systematic literature review on quality management and social responsibility (focusing on ethical and social issues). It uses the literature review to identify the parallels between quality management and social responsibility, the extent to which qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods are used, the countries that have contributed most to this area, and how the most common quality management practices facilitate social responsibility. The literature review covers articles about quality management and social responsibility (focusing (...)
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  28.  36
    Terence J. Lovat (2010). Synergies and Balance Between Values Education and Quality Teaching. Educational Philosophy and Theory 42 (4):489-500.
    The article will focus on the implicit values dimension that is evident in research findings concerning quality teaching. Furthermore, it sets out to demonstrate that maximizing the effects of quality teaching requires explicit attention to this values dimension and that this can be achieved through a well-crafted values education program. Evidence for this latter claim will come from international studies as well as from the Australian Government's Values Education Program and, especially from the Values Education Good (...)
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  29.  74
    Jennifer McKitrick (2002). Reid's Foundation for the Primary/Secondary Quality Distinction. Philosophical Quarterly 52 (209):478-494.
    Reid offers an under-appreciated account of the primary/secondary quality distinction. He gives sound reasons for rejecting the views of Locke, Boyle, Galileo and others, and presents a better alternative, according to which the distinction is epistemic rather than metaphysical. Primary qualities, for Reid, are qualities whose intrinsic natures can be known through sensation. Secondary qualities, on the other hand, are unknown causes of sensations. Some may object that Reid's view is internally inconsistent, or unacceptably relativistic. However, a deeper understanding (...)
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  30.  14
    Simon Cohn (2015). ‘Trust My Doctor, Trust My Pancreas’: Trust as an Emergent Quality of Social Practice. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 10 (1):9.
    Growing attention is being paid to the importance of trust, and its corollaries such as mistrust and distrust, in health service and the central place they have in assessments of quality of care. Although initially focussing on doctor-patient relationships, more recent literature has broadened its remit to include trust held in more abstract entities, such as organisations and institutions. There has consequently been growing interest to develop rigorous and universal measures of trust.
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  31.  28
    Eike-Henner W. Kluge (2009). Quality-of-Life Considerations in Substitute Decision-Making for Severely Disabled Neonates: The Problem of Developing Awareness. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (5):351-366.
    Substitute decision-makers for severely disabled neonates who can be kept alive but who will require constant medical interventions and will die at the latest in their teens are faced with a difficult decision when trying to decide whether to keep the infant alive. By and large, the primary focus of their decision-making centers on what is in the best interests of the newborn. The best-interests criterion, in turn, is importantly conditioned by quality-of-life considerations. However, the concept of quality (...)
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  32.  13
    Leah McClimans & John P. Browne (2012). Quality of Life is a Process Not an Outcome. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (4):279-292.
    Quality improvement mechanisms increasingly use outcome measures to evaluate health care providers. This move toward outcome measures is a radical departure from the traditional focus on process measures. More radical still is the proposal to shift from relatively simple and proximal measures of outcome, such as mortality, to complex outcomes, such as quality of life. While the practical, scientific, and ethical issues associated with the use of outcomes such as mortality and morbidity to compare health care providers have (...)
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  33.  19
    Jude Smith Rachele (2012). The Diversity Quality Cycle: Driving Culture Change Through Innovative Governance. [REVIEW] AI and Society 27 (3):399-416.
    Corporate diversity initiatives have neither yielded higher financial returns for companies nor created significantly greater equity and equality of outcome for socially disadvantaged groups within organisations. There has been a systematic failure of diversity initiatives, as the strategic business importance of diversity has been avoided. Researchers argue that effective diversity management is dependent upon appropriate structures and systems, not upon human resource management training alone. This article discusses the impact of the design, introduction and application of the ‘Diversity Quality (...)
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  34.  19
    Rebekah Nahai & Sophie Österberg (2012). Higher Education in a State of Crisis: A Perspective From a Students' Quality Circle. [REVIEW] AI and Society 27 (3):387-398.
    This article introduces a Students’ Quality Circle in higher education, in the context of current debates. With increasing numbers of students entering the university and constrained financial resources in the sector, new approaches are needed, with new partnership between lecturers and students. The first Students’ Quality Circle at Kingston is located in a wider international context.
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  35.  7
    Esther van Loon & Teun Zuiderent-Jerak (2012). Framing Reflexivity in Quality Improvement Devices in the Care for Older People. Health Care Analysis 20 (2):119-138.
    Health care organizations are constantly seeking ways to improve quality of care and one of the often-posed solutions to deliver ‘good care’ is reflexivity. Several authors stress that enhancing the organizations’ and caregivers’ reflexivity allows for more situated, and therefore better care. Within quality improvement initiatives, devices that guarantee quality are also seen as key to the delivery of good care. These devices do not solely aim at standardizing work practices, but are also of importance in facilitating (...)
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  36.  8
    James A. Marcum (forthcoming). Clinical Decision-Making, Gender Bias, Virtue Epistemology, and Quality Healthcare. Topoi:1-8.
    Robust clinical decision-making depends on valid reasoning and sound judgment and is essential for delivering quality healthcare. It is often susceptible, however, to a clinician’s biases such as towards a patient’s age, gender, race, or socioeconomic status. Gender bias in particular has a deleterious impact, which frequently results in cognitive myopia so that a clinician is unable to make an accurate diagnosis because of a patient’s gender—especially for female patients. Virtue epistemology provides a means for confronting gender bias in (...)
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  37.  9
    Marie-Ange Einaudi, Catherine Gire, Pascal Auquier & Pierre Le Coz (2015). How Do Physicians Perceive Quality of Life? Ethical Questioning in Neonatology. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):50.
    The outcome of very preterm infants is marked by the development of complications that can have an impact on the quality of life of the children and their families. The concept of quality of life and its evaluation in the long term raise semantic and ethical problems for French physicians in perinatal care. Our reflection aims to gain a better understanding of the representations surrounding quality of life in neonatal medicine.
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  38.  7
    Caroline Harnacke (2016). The Ashley Treatment: Improving Quality of Life or Infringing Dignity and Rights? Bioethics 30 (3):141-150.
    The ‘Ashley treatment’ has raised much ethical controversy. This article starts from the observation that this debate suffers from a lack of careful philosophical analysis which is essential for an ethical assessment. I focus on two central arguments in the debate, namely an argument defending the treatment based on quality of life and an argument against the treatment based on dignity and rights. My analysis raises doubts as to whether these arguments, as they stand in the debate, are (...)
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  39.  7
    Paulus Smeyers & Nicholas Burbules (2011). How to Improve Your Impact Factor: Questioning the Quantification of Academic Quality. Journal of Philosophy of Education 787 (45):1-17.
    A broad-scale quantification of the measure of quality for scholarship is under way. This trend has fundamental implications for the future of academic publishing and employment. In this essay we want to raise questions about these burgeoning practices, particularly how they affect philosophy of education and similar sub-disciplines. First, details are given of how an 'impact factor' is calculated. The various meanings that can be attached to it are scrutinised. Second, we examine how impact factors are used to make (...)
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  40.  17
    Egon Noe, Niels Halberg & Jens Reddersen (2005). Indicators of Biodiversity and Conservational Wildlife Quality on Danish Organic Farms for Use in Farm Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Indicator Development and Testing. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (4):383-414.
    Organic farming is expected to contribute to conserving national biodiversity on farms, especially remnant, old, and undisturbed small biotopes, forests, and permanent grassland. This objective cannot rely on the legislation of organic farming solely, and to succeed, farmers need to understand the goals behind it. A set of indicators with the purpose of facilitating dialogues between expert and farmer on wildlife quality has been developed and tested on eight organic farms. “Weed cover in cereal fields,” was used as an (...)
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  41.  22
    Cláudia Sarrico, Maria Rosa, Pedro Teixeira & Margarida Cardoso (2010). Assessing Quality and Evaluating Performance in Higher Education: Worlds Apart or Complementary Views? Minerva 48 (1):35-54.
    This paper reflects on quality assessment and performance evaluation in higher education, namely by analysing the insufficient link between those two aspects. We start by reviewing the current state of the art regarding different processes and mechanisms of quality assessment and performance evaluation and discuss some of the major issues regarding the implementation of some of them. In particular, we analyse the current limitations regarding data collected, available and publicised on the performance of HEIs and the problems those (...)
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  42.  23
    Dietrer Birnbacher (1999). Quality of Life - Evaluation or Description. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 2 (1):25-36.
    Quality of life is part of many different discourses and has been used in a variety of meanings ranging from purely descriptive (as in some medical contexts) to distinctly evaluative meanings (as in some social science and political contexts). The paper argues that there are good normative reasons to make the concept as descriptive as possible at least in its medical applications and, furthermore, to reconstruct it in a thoroughgoing subjectivist way, making the reflexive self-evaluation of the subject him- (...)
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  43.  26
    David Shoemaker (2015). McKenna’s Quality of Will. Criminal Law and Philosophy 9 (4):695-708.
    In this paper, I investigate the role played by Quality of Will in Michael McKenna’s conversational theory of responsibility. I articulate and press the skeptical challenge against it, and then I show that McKenna has the resources in his account to deflect it.
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  44.  42
    Mick Power (2013). Well-Being, Quality of Life, and the Naïve Pursuit of Happiness. Topoi 32 (2):145-152.
    The pursuit of happiness is a long-enshrined tradition that has recently become the cornerstone of the American Positive Psychology movement. However, “happiness” is an over-worked and ambiguous word, which, it is argued, should be restricted and only used as the label for a brief emotional state that typically lasts a few seconds or minutes. The corollary proposal for positive psychology is that optimism is a preferable stance over pessimism or realism. Examples are presented both from psychology and economics that illustrate (...)
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  45.  54
    Paresh Kathrani (2012). Quality Circles and Human Rights: Tackling the Universalism and Cultural Relativism Divide. [REVIEW] AI and Society 27 (3):369-375.
    The implementation of international human rights law has traditionally been undermined by the dichotomy between universalism and cultural relativism. Some groups regard human rights as more reflective of other culture’s and are unwilling to subscribe to them. One response to this is to enable groups to take co-ownership of human rights. Quality Circles based on institutions and technology, and the collaboration they encourage, provide one such means for doing so. What is required is for states to facilitate rather than (...)
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  46.  3
    Mohamad R. Nayebpour & Daryl Koehn (2003). The Ethics of Quality: Problems and Preconditions. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 44 (1):37 - 48.
    A number of advocates for TQM contend that firms who embrace TQM will automatically and naturally act in ethically sound ways (Roth, 1993; Pace, 1999; Steeples, 1994). This claim is a strong one. This paper assesses its truth. We consider the many ways in which quality initiatives, if undertaken in good faith, can foster sound ethics. We explore the various ways in which TQM presupposes, and thus cannot engender, ethical behavior. And, finally, we identify some of the ethical blind (...)
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  47.  57
    Peter Sondøe (1999). Quality of Life - Three Competing Views. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 2 (1):11-23.
    The aim of the present paper is to describe three different attempts, which have been made by philosophers, to define what quality of life is; and to spell out some of the difficulties that faces each definition. One, Perfectionism, focuses on the capacities that human beings possess: capacities for friendship, knowledge and creative activity, for instance. It says that the good life consists in the development and use of these capacities. Another account, the Preference Theory, urges that satisfying one's (...)
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  48.  4
    Kevin Fiscella, Jonathan N. Tobin, Jennifer K. Carroll, Hua He & Gbenga Ogedegbe (2015). Ethical Oversight in Quality Improvement and Quality Improvement Research: New Approaches to Promote a Learning Health Care System. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):63.
    Institutional review boards distinguish health care quality improvement and health care quality improvement research based primarily on the rigor of the methods used and the purported generalizability of the knowledge gained. Neither of these criteria holds up upon scrutiny. Rather, this apparently false dichotomy may foster under-protection of participants in QI projects and over-protection of participants within QIR.
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  49.  25
    Dorota Śwituła (2006). The Concept of Quality in Clinical Research. Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (1):147-156.
    Quality in clinical research may be defined as compliance with requirements together with credibility and reliability of the data obtained. Sponsors usually apply Quality Management Systems (QMS) to ensure, control, maintain, and improve quality. These systems encompass several preventive measures, tools, and controls. Standard QMS applied by clinical research sponsors may be based on ISO 9000.
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  50.  43
    Daniel Kostic (2012). The Vagueness Constraint and the Quality Space for Pain. Philosophical Psychology 25 (6):929-939.
    This paper is concerned with a quality space model as an account of the intelligibility of explanation. I argue that descriptions of causal or functional roles (Chalmers Levine, 2001) are not the only basis for intelligible explanations. If we accept that phenomenal concepts refer directly, not via descriptions of causal or functional roles, then it is difficult to find role fillers for the described causal roles. This constitutes a vagueness constraint on the intelligibility of explanation. Thus, I propose to (...)
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