Search results for 'Quantity' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jennifer McRobert, Kant on Mathematical Construction and Quantity of Matter.score: 24.0
    Kant's special metaphysics is intended to provide the a priori foundation for Newtonian science, which is to be achieved by exhibiting the a priori content of Newtonian concepts and laws. Kant envisions a two-step mathematical construction of the dynamical concept of matter involving a geometrical construction of matter’s bulk and a symbolic construction of matter’s density. Since Newton himself defines quantity of matter in terms of bulk and density, there is no reason why we shouldn’t interpret Kant’s Dynamics as (...)
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  2. Alessandro Giordani & Luca Mari, Quantity and Quantity Value. Proc. TC1-TC7-TC13 14th IMEKO Joint Symposium.score: 24.0
    The concept system around ‘quantity’ and ‘quantity value’ is fundamental for measurement science, but some very basic issues are still open on such concepts and their relations. This paper proposes a duality between quantities and quantity values, a proposal that simplifies their characterization and makes it consistent.
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  3. Luca Mari & Alessandro Giordani (2012). Quantity and Quantity Value. Metrologia 49 (6):756-764.score: 24.0
    The concept system around 'quantity' and 'quantity value' is fundamental for measurement science, but some very basic issues are still open on such concepts and their relation. This paper argues that quantity values are in fact individual quantities, and that a complementarity exists between measurands and quantity values. This proposal is grounded on the analysis of three basic 'equality' relations: (i) between quantities, (ii) between quantity values and (iii) between quantities and quantity values. A (...)
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  4. Olga Vygonyailova Sofia Panteleeva, Zhanna Reznikova (2013). Quantity Judgments in the Context of Risk/Reward Decision Making in Striped Field Mice: First “Count,” Then Hunt. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    We simulated the vital situation of risky hunting in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius in order to examine whether these animals are able to make a choice between small and large quantities of live prey (ants). In the first (preliminary) experiment we investigated to what extent mice were interested in ants as a live prey and how their hunting activity depended on the quantity of these edible but rather aggressive insects. We placed mice one by one into arenas (...)
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  5. Michael Beran, Bonnie Perdue, Audrey E. Parrish & Theodore Evans (2012). Do Social Conditions Affect Capuchin Monkeys' (Cebus Apella) Choices in a Quantity Judgment Task? Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Beran et al. (2012) reported that capuchin monkeys closely matched the performance of humans in a quantity judgment test in which information was incomplete but a judgment still had to be made. In each test session, subjects first made quantity judgments between two known options. Then, they made choices where only one option was visible. Both humans and capuchin monkeys were guided by past outcomes, as they shifted from selecting a known option to selecting an unknown option at (...)
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  6. Luis M. Gómez-Laplaza & Robert Gerlai (2012). Activity Counts: The Effect of Swimming Activity on Quantity Discrimination in Fish. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Human infants and nonhuman animals can discriminate the larger of two sets of discrete items. This quantity discrimination may be based upon the number of items, or upon non-numerical variables of the sets that co-vary with number. We have demonstrated that angelfish select the larger of two shoals of conspecifics without using inter-fish distance or space occupied by the stimuli as cues. However, density appeared to influence the choice between large shoals. Here, we examine the role of another non-numerical (...)
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  7. Yuki Henselek, Julia Fischer & Christian Schloegl (2012). Does the Stimulus Type Influence Horses' Performance in a Quantity Discrimination Task? Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    The ability to understand the relation between quantities has been documented in a wide range of species. Such quantity discrimination competences are commonly demonstrated by a choice of the larger quantity or numerosity in a two-choice task. However, despite their overall success, many subjects commit a surprisingly large number of errors even in simple discriminations such as 1 vs. 3. Recently, it had been suggested that this is a result of the testing procedure. When monkeys could choose between (...)
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  8. Joseph M. Baker, Justice Morath, Katrina S. Rodzon & Kerry E. Jordan (2012). A Shared System of Representation Governing Quantity Discrimination in Canids. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (C. latrans). Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical “less/more” discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber’s Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously (...)
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  9. Kerry E. Jordan Joseph M. Baker, Justice Morath, Katrina S. Rodzon (2012). A Shared System of Representation Governing Quantity Discrimination in Canids. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (C. latrans). Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical “less/more” discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber’s Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously (...)
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  10. Pau Carazo, Reyes Fernández-Perea & Enrique Font (2012). Quantity Estimation Based on Numerical Cues in the Mealworm Beetle (Tenebrio Molitor). Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    In this study, we used a biologically relevant experimental procedure to ask whether mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) are spontaneously capable of assessing quantities based on numerical cues. Like other insect species, mealworm beetles adjust their reproductive behaviour (i.e. investment in mate guarding) according to the perceived risk of sperm competition (i.e. probability that a female will mate with another male). To test whether males have the ability to estimate numerosity based on numerical cues, we staged matings between virgin females and (...)
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  11. Anna Lambrechts, Vjaceslavs Karolis, Sara Garcia, Jennifer Obende & Marinella Cappelletti (2013). Age Does Not Count: Resilience of Quantity Processing in Healthy Aging. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Quantity skills have been extensively studied in terms of their development and pathological decline. Recently, numerosity discrimination has been shown to be remarkably resilient to healthy ageing, but whether processing continuous quantities such as time and space is equally well maintained in ageing participants is not known. Longer exposure to quantity-related problems may progressively refine proficiency in quantity tasks, or alternatively quantity skills may decline with age. In addition, is not known whether the tight relationship between (...)
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  12. Enrique Font Pau Carazo, Reyes Fernández-Perea (2012). Quantity Estimation Based on Numerical Cues in the Mealworm Beetle (Tenebrio Molitor). Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    In this study, we used a biologically relevant experimental procedure to ask whether mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) are spontaneously capable of assessing quantities based on numerical cues. Like other insect species, mealworm beetles adjust their reproductive behaviour (i.e. investment in mate guarding) according to the perceived risk of sperm competition (i.e. probability that a female will mate with another male). To test whether males have the ability to estimate numerosity based on numerical cues, we staged matings between virgin females and (...)
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  13. Jorge Secada (2012). Suárez on Continuous Quantity. In Benjamin Hill & Henrik Lagerlund (eds.), The Philosophy of Francisco Suárez. Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York.score: 24.0
    A discussion of Suarez's views on continuous quantity in the context of his place in the history of philosophy. The paper raises issues about conceptual change in intellectual history. It advances original interpretations of Aristotle and Suarez on continuous quantity.
     
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  14. Brian Skyrms (2012). From Zeno to Arbitrage: Essays on Quantity, Coherence, and Induction. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Pt. I. Zeno and the metaphysics of quantity. Zeno's paradox of measure -- Tractarian nominalism -- Logical atoms and combinatorial possibility -- Strict coherence, sigma coherence, and the metaphysics of quantity -- pt. II. Coherent degrees of belief. Higher-order degrees of belief -- A mistake in dynamic coherence arguments? -- Dynamic coherence and probability kinematics -- Updating, supposing, and MAXENT -- The structure of radical probabilism -- Diachronic coherence and radical probabilism -- pt. III. Induction. Carnapian inductive logic (...)
     
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  15. Sarah Mychal Jones & Elizabeth M. Brannon (2012). Prosimian Primates Show Ratio Dependence in Spontaneous Quantity Discriminations. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 22.0
    We directly tested the predictions of the approximate number system (ANS) and the object file system in the spontaneous numerical judgments of prosimian primates. Prior work indicates that when human infants and a few species of nonhuman animals are given a single-trial choice between two sequentially baited buckets they choose the bucket with the greater amount of food but only when the quantities are small. This pattern of results has been interpreted as evidence that a limited capacity object-file system is (...)
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  16. Roberto P. Franzosi (2010). Sociology, Narrative, and the Quality Versus Quantity Debate (Goethe Versus Newton): Can Computer-Assisted Story Grammars Help Us Understand the Rise of Italian Fascism (1919–1922)? [REVIEW] Theory and Society 39 (6):593-629.score: 21.0
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  17. V. V. Szeliski (1924). Relation Between the Quantity Perceived and the Time of Perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology 7 (2):135.score: 21.0
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  18. Alessandra Chirco, Caterina Colombo & Marcella Scrimitore (2013). Quantity Competition, Endogenous Motives and Behavioral Heterogeneity. Theory and Decision 74 (1):55-74.score: 21.0
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  19. Brent Mundy (1987). The Metaphysics of Quantity. Philosophical Studies 51 (1):29 - 54.score: 18.0
    A formal theory of quantity T Q is presented which is realist, Platonist, and syntactically second-order (while logically elementary), in contrast with the existing formal theories of quantity developed within the theory of measurement, which are empiricist, nominalist, and syntactically first-order (while logically non-elementary). T Q is shown to be formally and empirically adequate as a theory of quantity, and is argued to be scientifically superior to the existing first-order theories of quantity in that it does (...)
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  20. Michael Friedman (2012). Newton and Kant: Quantity of Matter in the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):482-503.score: 18.0
    Immanuel Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (1786) provides metaphysical foundations for the application of mathematics to empirically given nature. The application that Kant primarily has in mind is that achieved in Isaac Newton's Principia (1687). Thus, Kant's first chapter, the Phoronomy, concerns the mathematization of speed or velocity, and his fourth chapter, the Phenomenology, concerns the empirical application of the Newtonian notions of true or absolute space, time, and motion. This paper concentrates on Kant's second and third chapters—the Dynamics (...)
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  21. Christoph Schmidt-Petri (2003). Mill on Quality and Quantity. Philosophical Quarterly 53 (210):102-104.score: 18.0
    A well known paragraph in Mill’s ‘Utilitarianism’ has standardly been misread. Mill does not claim that if some pleasure is of ‘higher quality’, then it will be (or ought to be) chosen over the pleasure of lower quality regardless of their respective quantities. Instead he says that if some pleasure will be chosen over another available in larger quantity, then we are justified in saying that the pleasure so chosen is of higher quality than the other. This assertion is (...)
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  22. Sungho Choi (2003). The Conserved Quantity Theory of Causation and Closed Systems. Philosophy of Science 70 (3):510-530.score: 18.0
    Advocates of the conserved quantity (CQ) theory of causation have their own peculiar problem with conservation laws. Since they analyze causal process and interaction in terms of conserved quantities that are in turn defined as physical quantities governed by conservation laws, they must formulate conservation laws in a way that does not invoke causation, or else circularity threatens. In this paper I will propose an adequate formulation of a conservation law that serves CQ theorists' purpose.
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  23. Patrick De Pelsmacker & Wim Janssens (2007). A Model for Fair Trade Buying Behaviour: The Role of Perceived Quantity and Quality of Information and of Product-Specific Attitudes. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 75 (4):361-380.score: 18.0
    In a sample of 615 Belgians a model for fair trade buying behaviour was developed. The impact of fair trade knowledge, general attitudes towards fair trade, attitudes towards fair trade products, and the perception of the quality and quantity of fair trade information on the reported amount of money spent on fair trade products were assessed. Fair trade knowledge, overall concern and scepticism towards fair trade, and the perception of the perceived quantity and quality of fair trade information, (...)
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  24. Caleb Everett & Keren Madora (2012). Quantity Recognition Among Speakers of an Anumeric Language. Cognitive Science 36 (1):130-141.score: 18.0
    Recent research has suggested that the Pirahã, an Amazonian tribe with a number-less language, are able to match quantities > 3 if the matching task does not require recall or spatial transposition. This finding contravenes previous work among the Pirahã. In this study, we re-tested the Pirahãs’ performance in the crucial one-to-one matching task utilized in the two previous studies on their numerical cognition, as well as in control tasks requiring recall and mental transposition. We also conducted a novel (...) recognition task. Speakers were unable to consistently match quantities > 3, even when no recall or transposition was involved. We provide a plausible motivation for the disparate results previously obtained among the Pirahã. Our findings are consistent with the suggestion that the exact recognition of quantities > 3 requires number terminology. (shrink)
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  25. Elizabeth Ferch (2013). Scopeless Quantity Words in Shona. Natural Language Semantics 21 (4):373-400.score: 18.0
    In Shona , bare plurals and bare singulars seem to have different scope possibilities with respect to a class of modifiers which I term “scopeless quantity words” few’, and ose ‘all’). I argue that this is due to two factors. First, the scopeless quantity words are intersective modifiers rather than quantifying determiners, so that DPs containing them denote entities rather than generalised quantifiers. Second, transitive sentences involving plural arguments are usually interpreted using the **-operator, which gives a cumulative (...)
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  26. Omprakash K. Gupta & Anna S. Rominger (1996). Blind Man's Bluff: The Ethics of Quantity Surcharges. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 15 (12):1299 - 1312.score: 18.0
    Empirical evidence, including a recent field study in Northwest Indiana, indicates that supermarkets and other retail merchants frequently incorporate quantity surcharges in their product pricing strategy. Retailers impose surcharges by charging higher unit prices for products packaged in a larger quantity than smaller quantity of the same goods and brand. The purpose of this article is to examine the business ethics of such pricing strategy in light of empirical findings, existing government regulations, factors that motivate quantity (...)
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  27. Brent Mundy (1989). Elementary Categorial Logic, Predicates of Variable Degree, and Theory of Quantity. Journal of Philosophical Logic 18 (2):115 - 140.score: 18.0
    Developing some suggestions of Ramsey (1925), elementary logic is formulated with respect to an arbitrary categorial system rather than the categorial system of Logical Atomism which is retained in standard elementary logic. Among the many types of non-standard categorial systems allowed by this formalism, it is argued that elementary logic with predicates of variable degree occupies a distinguished position, both for formal reasons and because of its potential value for application of formal logic to natural language and natural science. This (...)
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  28. Mitchell S. Green (1995). Quantity, Volubility, and Some Varieties of Discourse. Linguistics and Philosophy 18 (1):83 - 112.score: 18.0
    Grice's Quantity maxims have been widely misinterpreted as enjoining a speaker to make the strongest claim that she can, while respecting the other conversational maxims. Although many writers on the topic of conversational implicature interpret the Quantity maxims as enjoining such volubility, so construed the Quantity maxims are unreasonable norms for conversation. Appreciating this calls for attending more closely to the notion of what a conversation requires. When we do so, we see that eschewing an injunction to (...)
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  29. Phil Dowe (2000). The Conserved Quantity Theory Defended. Theoria 15 (1):11-31.score: 18.0
    I defend the conserved quantity theory of causation against two objections: firstly, that to tie the notion of “cause” to conservation laws is impossible, circular or metaphysically counterintuitive; and secondly, that the conserved quantity theory entails an undesired notion of identity through time. My defence makes use of an important meta-philosophical distinction between empirical analysis and conceptual analysis. My claim is that the conserved quantity theory of causation must be understood primarily as an empirical, not a conceptual, (...)
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  30. Christopher Hitchcock (2009). Problems for the Conserved Quantity Theory. The Monist 92 (1):72-93.score: 18.0
    The conserved quantity theory of causation aims to analyze causal processes and interactions in terms of conserved quantities. In order to be successful, the theory must correctly distinguish between causal processes and interactions, on the one hand, and pseudoprocesses and mere intersections on the other.Moreover, it must do this while satisfying two further criteria: it must avoid circularity; and the appeal to conserved quantities must not be redundant. I argue that the theory is not successful in meeting these criteria.
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  31. Paul Kiparsky, Fenno-Swedish Quantity: Contrast in Stratal OT.score: 18.0
    Compared to more familiar varieties of Swedish, the dialects spoken in Finland have rather diverse syllable structures. The distribution of distinctive syllable weight is determined by grammatical factors, and by varying effects of final consonant weightlessness. In turn it constrains several gemination processes which create derived superheavy syllables, in an unexpected way which provides evidence for an anti-neutralization constraint. Stratal OT, which integrates OT with Lexical Phonology, sheds light on these complex quantity systems.
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  32. C. Schmidt–Petri (2003). Mill on Quality and Quantity. Philosophical Quarterly 53 (210):102–104.score: 18.0
    A well known paragraph in Mill's 'Utilitarianism' has standardly been misread. Mill does not claim that if some pleasure is of 'higher quality', then it will be (or ought to be) chosen over the pleasure of lower quality regardless of their respective quantities. Instead he says that if some pleasure will be chosen over another available in larger quantity, then we are justified in saying that the pleasure so chosen is of higher quality than the other. This assertion is (...)
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  33. M. J. Rave (2008). Interpreting Quantum Interference Using a Berry's Phase-Like Quantity. Foundations of Physics 38 (12):1073-1081.score: 18.0
    We show that quantum interference can be interpreted in terms of a phase invariant quantity, not unlike the Berry’s phase. Under this interpretation, closed loops in time become fundamental quantum entities, and all quantum states become periodic. Decoherence is then seen to occur naturally as a consequence. This formalism, although counterintuitive, provides another useful way of assigning meaning to quantum probabilities and quasi-probabilities.
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  34. Robin Hanson, The Determinants of the Quantity of Health Insurance: Evidence From Self-Insured and Not Self-Insured Employer-Based Health Plans.score: 18.0
    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the determinants of quantity of health insurance in the context of employer-based health insurance using the micro-level data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES). It extends the previous research by including additional factors in the analysis, which significantly affect health insurance offers by employers. This paper emphasizes two determinants of employers’ insurance offer decisions that are particularly relevant: union membership and selfinsured versus not self-insured health plans. The conducted empirical analysis (...)
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  35. Joseph Nechvatal (2002). Review of Paul Virilio's 'Ce Qui Arrive' / 'Unknown Quantity'. [REVIEW] Film-Philosophy 6 (3).score: 18.0
    'Ce qui arrive' / 'Unknown Quantity' An Exhibition Conceived by Paul Virilio November 29th 2002 till March 30th 2003 Fondation Cartier pour l'art contemporain 261 Boulevard Raspail, 75014 Paris, France.
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  36. Dowe Phil (2000). The Conserved Quantity Theory Defended. Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 15 (37):11-31.score: 18.0
    I defend the conserved quantity theory of causation against two objections: firstly, that to tie the notion of "cause"to conservation laws is impossible, circular or metaphysically counterintuitive ; and secondly, that the conser quantity theory entails an undesired notion of identity through time. My defence makes use of an important meta-philosophical distinction between empirical analysis and conceptual analysis. My claim is that the conserved quantity theory of causation must be understood primarily as an empirical, not a conceptual, (...)
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  37. Paul Rozin, Abigail K. Remick & Claude Fischler (2011). Broad Themes of Difference Between French and Americans in Attitudes to Food and Other Life Domains: Personal Versus Communal Values, Quantity Versus Quality, and Comforts Versus Joys. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 18.0
    Analysis of previous literature on the role of food in life in France and the United States suggests some fundamental differences in attitudes which may generalize outside of the food domain. Questionnaire results from French and American adults suggest that, compared to the French, Americans emphasize quantity rather than quality in making choices, Americans have a higher preference for variety, and Americans usually prefer comforts (things that make life easier) over joys (unique things that make life interesting). The American (...)
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  38. Carmelo M. Vicario, Mark J. Yates & Michael E. R. Nicholls (2013). Shared Deficits in Space, Time, and Quantity Processing in Childhood Genetic Disorders. Frontiers in Psychology 4:43-1.score: 18.0
    Shared deficits in space, time, and quantity processing in childhood genetic disorders.
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  39. René Guénon (1953). The Reign of Quantity and the Signs of the Times. [London]Luzac.score: 18.0
    QUALITY AND QUANTITY are fairly generally regarded as complementary terms, although the profound reason for their comple- mentarism is often far from being understood, this reason lying in the 'polar' correspondence referred to toward ...
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  40. Manuela Piazza & Veronique Izard (2009). What is an (Abstract) Neural Representation of Quantity? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (3-4):348-349.score: 18.0
    We argue that Cohen Kadosh & Walsh's (CK&W's) definitions of neural coding and of abstract representations are overly shallow, influenced by classical cognitive psychology views of modularity and seriality of information processing, and incompatible with the current knowledge on principles of neural coding. As they stand, the proposed dichotomies are not very useful heuristic tools to guide our research towards a better understanding of the neural computations underlying the processing of numerical quantity in the parietal cortex.
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  41. Robert Rooij & Tikitu Jager (2012). Explaining Quantity Implicatures. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (4):461-477.score: 18.0
    We give derivations of two formal models of Gricean Quantity implicature and strong exhaustivity in bidirectional optimality theory and in a signalling games framework. We show that, under a unifying model based on signalling games, these interpretative strategies are game-theoretic equilibria when the speaker is known to be respectively minimally and maximally expert in the matter at hand. That is, in this framework the optimal strategy for communication depends on the degree of knowledge the speaker is known to have (...)
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  42. Christian Agrillo, Laura Piffer & Angelo Bisazza (2011). Number Versus Continuous Quantity in Numerosity Judgments by Fish. Cognition 119 (2):281-287.score: 18.0
    In quantity discrimination tasks, adults, infants and animals have been sometimes observed to process number only after all continuous variables, such as area or density, have been controlled for. This has been taken as evidence that processing number may be more cognitively demanding than processing continuous variables. We tested this hypothesis by training mosquitofish to discriminate two items from three in three different conditions. In one condition, continuous variables were controlled while numerical information was available; in another, the number (...)
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  43. Christian Agrillo & Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini (2012). The Importance of Replication in Comparative Psychology: The Lesson of Elephant Quantity Judgments. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    The Importance of Replication in Comparative Psychology: The Lesson of Elephant Quantity Judgments.
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  44. Allison M. Barnard, Kelly D. Hughes, Regina R. Gerhardt, Louis DiVincenti Jr, Jenna M. Bovee & Jessica Francine Cantlon (2013). Inherently Analog Quantity Representations in Olive Baboons (Papio Anubis). Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 18.0
    Strong evidence indicates that non-human primates possess a numerical representation system, but the inherent nature of that system is still debated. Two cognitive mechanisms have been proposed to account for non-human primate numerical performance: (1) a discrete object-file system limited to quantities 4), or span (small vs. large) numbers of food items presented simultaneously or sequentially. The prediction from the object-file hypothesis is that baboons will only accurately choose the larger quantity in small pairs, but not large or span (...)
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  45. Friederike Range Ewelina Utrata, Zsófia Virányi (2012). Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis Lupus). Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested eleven hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed (...)
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  46. Klaus Willmes Frank Domahs, Elise Klein, Korbinian Moeller, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Byung-Chen Yoon (2011). Multimodal Semantic Quantity Representations: Further Evidence From Korean Sign Language. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 18.0
    Korean deaf signers performed a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic digits. In their RT profiles, the expected magnitude effect was systematically modified by properties of number signs in Korean Sign Language in a culture-specific way (not observed in hearing and deaf Germans or hearing Chinese). We conclude that finger-based quantity representations are automatically activated even in simple tasks with symbolic input although this may be irrelevant and even detrimental for task performance. These finger-based numerical representations are accessed (...)
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  47. Thomas Mayer (1997). The Rhetoric of Friedman's Quantity Theory Manifesto. Journal of Economic Methodology 4 (2):199-220.score: 18.0
    Friedman's 1956 essay, ?The Quantity Theory of Money: A Restatement?, in his Studies in the Quantity Theory of Money should be read in the context of the prevailing Keynesian consensus of the time. His primary task had to be to convince economists to reconsider this theory. This required an ecumenical presentation that would not drive off potential readers. At the same time it required making some strong claims for the quantity theory to induce readers to reconsider it. (...)
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  48. Robert van Rooij & Tikitu de Jager (2012). Explaining Quantity Implicatures. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (4):461-477.score: 18.0
    We give derivations of two formal models of Gricean Quantity implicature and strong exhaustivity in bidirectional optimality theory and in a signalling games framework. We show that, under a unifying model based on signalling games, these interpretative strategies are game-theoretic equilibria when the speaker is known to be respectively minimally and maximally expert in the matter at hand. That is, in this framework the optimal strategy for communication depends on the degree of knowledge the speaker is known to have (...)
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  49. Phil Dowe (1992). Wesley Salmon's Process Theory of Causality and the Conserved Quantity Theory. Philosophy of Science 59 (2):195-216.score: 16.0
    This paper examines Wesley Salmon's "process" theory of causality, arguing in particular that there are four areas of inadequacy. These are that the theory is circular, that it is too vague at a crucial point, that statistical forks do not serve their intended purpose, and that Salmon has not adequately demonstrated that the theory avoids Hume's strictures about "hidden powers". A new theory is suggested, based on "conserved quantities", which fulfills Salmon's broad objectives, and which avoids the problems discussed.
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