Search results for 'Quantum Space' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Lucien Hardy & William K. Wootters (2012). Limited Holism and Real-Vector-Space Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 42 (3):454-473.score: 192.0
    Quantum theory has the property of “local tomography”: the state of any composite system can be reconstructed from the statistics of measurements on the individual components. In this respect the holism of quantum theory is limited. We consider in this paper a class of theories more holistic than quantum theory in that they are constrained only by “bilocal tomography”: the state of any composite system is determined by the statistics of measurements on pairs of components. Under a (...)
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  2. D. J. Hurley & M. A. Vandyck (2009). Mathfrak{D} -Differentiation in Hilbert Space and the Structure of Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 39 (5):433-473.score: 192.0
    An appropriate kind of curved Hilbert space is developed in such a manner that it admits operators of $\mathcal{C}$ - and $\mathfrak{D}$ -differentiation, which are the analogues of the familiar covariant and D-differentiation available in a manifold. These tools are then employed to shed light on the space-time structure of Quantum Mechanics, from the points of view of the Feynman ‘path integral’ and of canonical quantisation. (The latter contains, as a special case, quantisation in arbitrary curvilinear coordinates (...)
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  3. Christopher A. Fuchs & Rüdiger Schack (2011). A Quantum-Bayesian Route to Quantum-State Space. Foundations of Physics 41 (3):345-356.score: 192.0
    In the quantum-Bayesian approach to quantum foundations, a quantum state is viewed as an expression of an agent’s personalist Bayesian degrees of belief, or probabilities, concerning the results of measurements. These probabilities obey the usual probability rules as required by Dutch-book coherence, but quantum mechanics imposes additional constraints upon them. In this paper, we explore the question of deriving the structure of quantum-state space from a set of assumptions in the spirit of quantum (...)
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  4. William K. Wootters (2012). Entanglement Sharing in Real-Vector-Space Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 42 (1):19-28.score: 192.0
    The limitation on the sharing of entanglement is a basic feature of quantum theory. For example, if two qubits are completely entangled with each other, neither of them can be at all entangled with any other object. In this paper we show, at least for a certain standard definition of entanglement, that this feature is lost when one replaces the usual complex vector space of quantum states with a real vector space. Moreover, the difference between the (...)
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  5. P. Watson & A. J. Bracken (2014). Quantum Phase Space From Schwinger's Measurement Algebra. Foundations of Physics 44 (7):762-780.score: 192.0
    Schwinger’s algebra of microscopic measurement, with the associated complex field of transformation functions, is shown to provide the foundation for a discrete quantum phase space of known type, equipped with a Wigner function and a star product. Discrete position and momentum variables label points in the phase space, each taking \(N\) distinct values, where \(N\) is any chosen prime number. Because of the direct physical interpretation of the measurement symbols, the phase space structure is thereby related (...)
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  6. E. Papp (1983). Light-Cone Approach to the Quantum Space-Time Description. Foundations of Physics 13 (11):1155-1165.score: 174.0
    Proofs have been given that the light-cone approximation can be analyzed in terms of the extended quantum-mechanical description of the space-time measurements by the complex numbers. It is then proved that the so established description is able to support both the asymptotical scale-invariant cross sections and the threshold behavior of the high-energy production processes.
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  7. Roger Penrose & C. J. Isham (eds.) (1986). Quantum Concepts in Space and Time. New York ;Oxford University Press.score: 174.0
    Recent developments in quantum theory have focused attention on fundamental questions, in particular on whether it might be necessary to modify quantum mechanics to reconcile quantum gravity and general relativity. This book is based on a conference held in Oxford in the spring of 1984 to discuss quantum gravity. It brings together contributors who examine different aspects of the problem, including the experimental support for quantum mechanics, its strange and apparently paradoxical features, its underlying philosophy, (...)
     
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  8. L. Castell, M. Drieschner & Carl Friedrich Weizsäcker (eds.) (1975). Quantum Theory and the Structures of Time and Space: Papers Presented at a Conference Held in Feldafing, July 1974. C. Hanser.score: 168.0
  9. Eugene V. Stefanovich (2002). Is Minkowski Space-Time Compatible with Quantum Mechanics? Foundations of Physics 32 (5):673-703.score: 156.0
    In quantum relativistic Hamiltonian dynamics, the time evolution of interacting particles is described by the Hamiltonian with an interaction-dependent term (potential energy). Boost operators are responsible for (Lorentz) transformations of observables between different moving inertial frames of reference. Relativistic invariance requires that interaction-dependent terms (potential boosts) are present also in the boost operators and therefore Lorentz transformations depend on the interaction acting in the system. This fact is ignored in special relativity, which postulates the universality of Lorentz transformations and (...)
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  10. Gregg Jaeger (2010). Individuation in Quantum Mechanics and Space-Time. Foundations of Physics 40 (9-10):1396-1409.score: 156.0
    Two physical approaches—as distinct, under the classification of Mittelstaedt, from formal approaches—to the problem of individuation of quantum objects are considered, one formulated in spatiotemporal terms and one in quantum mechanical terms. The spatiotemporal approach itself has two forms: one attributed to Einstein and based on the ontology of space-time points, and the other proposed by Howard and based on intersections of world lines. The quantum mechanical approach is also provided here in two forms, one based (...)
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  11. Alexey Kryukov (2003). Coordinate Formalism on Abstract Hilbert Space: Kinematics of a Quantum Measurement. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 33 (3):407-443.score: 156.0
    Coordinate form of tensor algebra on an abstract (infinite-dimensional) Hilbert space is presented. The developed formalism permits one to naturally include the improper states in the apparatus of quantum theory. In the formalism the observables are represented by the self-adjoint extensions of Hermitian operators. The unitary operators become linear isometries. The unitary evolution and the non-unitary collapse processes are interpreted as isometric functional transformations. Several experiments are analyzed in the new context.
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  12. H.-J. Treder & H.-H. Von Borzeszkowski (2006). Covariance and Quantum Principles–Censors of the Space-Time Structure. Foundations of Physics 36 (5):757-763.score: 156.0
    It is shown that the covariance together with the quantum principle speak for an affinely connected structure which, for distances greater than Planck’s length, goes over in a metrically connected structure of space-time.
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  13. Diego L. Rapoport (2007). Torsion Fields, Cartan–Weyl Space–Time and State-Space Quantum Geometries, Their Brownian Motions, and the Time Variables. Foundations of Physics 37 (4-5):813-854.score: 156.0
    We review the relation between spacetime geometries with trace-torsion fields, the so-called Riemann–Cartan–Weyl (RCW) geometries, and their associated Brownian motions. In this setting, the drift vector field is the metric conjugate of the trace-torsion one-form, and the laplacian defined by the RCW connection is the differential generator of the Brownian motions. We extend this to the state-space of non-relativistic quantum mechanics and discuss the relation between a non-canonical quantum RCW geometry in state-space associated with the gradient (...)
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  14. George Svetlichny (2000). The Space-Time Origin of Quantum Mechanics: Covering Law. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 30 (11):1819-1847.score: 150.0
    A Hilbert-space model for quantum logic follows from space-time structure in theories with consistent state collapse descriptions. Lorentz covariance implies a condition on space-like separated propositions that if imposed on generally commuting ones would lead to the covering law, and such a generalization can be argued if state preparation can be conditioned to space-like separated events using EPR-type correlations. The covering law is thus related to space-time structure, though a final understanding of it, through (...)
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  15. Douglas Kutach (2010). A Connection Between Minkowski and Galilean Space-Times in Quantum Mechanics. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 24 (1):15 – 29.score: 144.0
    Relativistic quantum theories are equipped with a background Minkowski spacetime and non-relativistic quantum theories with a Galilean space-time. Traditional investigations have distinguished their distinct space-time structures and have examined ways in which relativistic theories become sufficiently like Galilean theories in a low velocity approximation or limit. A different way to look at their relationship is to see that both kinds of theories are special cases of a certain five-dimensional generalization involving no limiting procedures or approximations. When (...)
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  16. Gordon Belot, Whatever is Never and Nowhere is Not: Space, Time, and Ontology in Classical and Quantum Gravity.score: 144.0
    Substantivalists claim that spacetime enjoys an existence analogous to that of material bodies, while relationalists seek to reduce spacetime to sets of possible spatiotemporal relations. The resulting debate has been central to the philosophy of space and time since the Scientific Revolution. Recently, many philosophers of physics have turned away from the debate, claiming that it is no longer of any relevance to physics. At the same time, there has been renewed interest in the debate among physicists working on (...)
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  17. K. Kong Wan, Jason Bradshaw, Colin Trueman & F. E. Harrison (1998). Classical Systems, Standard Quantum Systems, and Mixed Quantum Systems in Hilbert Space. Foundations of Physics 28 (12):1739-1783.score: 144.0
    Traditionally, there has been a clear distinction between classical systems and quantum systems, particularly in the mathematical theories used to describe them. In our recent work on macroscopic quantum systems, this distinction has become blurred, making a unified mathematical formulation desirable, so as to show up both the similarities and the fundamental differences between quantum and classical systems. This paper serves this purpose, with explicit formulations and a number of examples in the form of superconducting circuit systems. (...)
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  18. Jeffrey Bub (1973). On the Possibility of a Phase-Space Reconstruction of Quantum Statistics: A Refutation of the Bell-Wigner Locality Argument. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 3 (1):29-44.score: 144.0
    J. S. Bell's argument that only “nonlocal” hidden variable theories can reproduce the quantum statistical correlations of the singlet spin state in the case of two separated spin-1/2 particles is examined in terms of Wigner's formulation. It is shown that a similar argument applies to a single spin-1/2 particle, and that the exclusion of hidden variables depends on an obviously untenable assumption concerning conditional probabilities. The problem of completeness is discussed briefly, and the grounds for rejecting a phase-space (...)
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  19. J. V. Narlikar (1984). The Vanishing Likelihood of Space-Time Singularity in Quantum Conformal Cosmology. Foundations of Physics 14 (5):443-456.score: 144.0
    A general formalism is developed for studying the behavior of quantized conformal fluctuations near the space-time singularity of classical relativistic cosmology. It is shown that if the material contents of space-time are made of massive particles which obey the principle of asymptotic freedom and interact only gravitationally, then it is possible to estimate the quantum mechanical probability that, of the various possible conformal transforms of the classical Einstein solution, the actual model had a singularity in the past. (...)
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  20. Diederik Aerts (2013). The Quantum Mechanics and Conceptuality: Matter, Histories, Semantics, and Space-Time. Scientiae Studia 11 (1):75-99.score: 144.0
    Elaboramos aquí una nueva interpretación propuesta recientemente de la teoría cuántica, según la cual las partículas cuánticas son consideradas como entidades conceptuales que median entre los pedazos de materia ordinaria los cuales son considerados como estructuras de memoria para ellos. Nuestro objetivo es identificar qué es lo equivalente para el ámbito cognitivo humano de lo que el espacio-tiempo físico es para el ámbito de las partículas cuánticas y de la materia ordinaria. Para ello, se identifica la noción de "historia" como (...)
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  21. Bradley Monton (2006). Quantum Mechanics and 3N‐Dimensional Space. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):778-789.score: 144.0
    I maintain that quantum mechanics is fundamentally about a system of N particles evolving in three-dimensional space, not the wave function evolving in 3N-dimensional space.
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  22. R. Eugene Collins (1977). Quantum Theory: A Hilbert Space Formalism for Probability Theory. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 7 (7-8):475-494.score: 144.0
    It is shown that the Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics can be derived as a corrected form of probability theory. These constructions yield the Schrödinger equation for a particle in an electromagnetic field and exhibit a relationship of this equation to Markov processes. The operator formalism for expectation values is shown to be related to anL 2 representation of marginal distributions and a relationship of the commutation rules for canonically conjugate observables to a topological relationship of two (...)
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  23. Andrew Khrennikov (1996). The Ultrametric Hilbert-Space Description of Quantum Measurements with a Finite Exactness. Foundations of Physics 26 (8):1033-1054.score: 144.0
    We provide a mathematical description of quantum measurements with a finite exactness. The exactness of a quantum measurement is used as a new metric on the space of quantum states. This metric differs very much from the standard Euclidean metric. This is the so-called ultrametric. We show that a finite exactness of a quantum measurement cannot he described by real numbers. Therefore, we must change the basic number field. There exist nonequivalent ultrametric Hilbert space (...)
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  24. M. Klüppel & H. Neumann (1989). The Space-Time Structure of Quantum Systems in External Fields. Foundations of Physics 19 (8):985-998.score: 144.0
    An axiomatic foundation of a quantum theory for microsystems in the presence of external fields is developed. The space-time structure is introduced by considering the invariance of the theory under a kinematic invariance group. The formalism is illustrated by the example of charged particles in electromagnetic potentials. In the example, gauge invariance is discussed.
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  25. F. Jenč (1979). The Conceptual Analysis (CA) Method in Theories of Microchannels: Application to Quantum Theory. Part III. Idealizations. Hilbert Space Representation. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 9 (11-12):897-928.score: 144.0
    We illustrate the application of the conceptual analysis (CA) method outlined in Part I by the example of quantum mechanics. In the present part the Hilbert space structure of conventional quantum mechanics is deduced as a consequence of postulates specifying further idealized concepts. A critical discussion of the idealizations of quantum mechanics is proposed. Quantum mechanics is characterized as a “statistically complete” theory and a simple and elegant formal recipe for the construction of the fundamental (...)
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  26. P. R. Holland, A. Kyprianidis & J. P. Vigier (1987). Trajectories and Causal Phase-Space Approach to Relativistic Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 17 (5):531-548.score: 144.0
    We analyze phase-space approaches to relativistic quantum mechanics from the viewpoint of the causal interpretation. In particular, we discuss the canonical phase space associated with stochastic quantization, its relation to Hilbert space, and the Wigner-Moyal formalism. We then consider the nature of Feynman paths, and the problem of nonlocality, and conclude that a perfectly consistent relativistically covariant interpretation of quantum mechanics which retains the notion of particle trajectory is possible.
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  27. Giancarlo Ghirardi (1996). Quantum Dynamical Reduction and Reality: Replacing Probability Densities with Densities in Real Space. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 45 (2-3):349 - 365.score: 144.0
    Consideration is given to recent attempts to solve the objectification problem of quantum mechanics by considering nonlinear and stochastic modifications of Schrödinger's evolution equation. Such theories agree with all predictions of standard quantum mechanics concerning microsystems but forbid the occurrence of superpositions of macroscopically different states. It is shown that the appropriate interpretation for such theories is obtained by replacing the probability densities of standard quantum mechanics with mass densities in real space. Criteria allowing a precise (...)
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  28. H. S. Green (1978). Quantum Mechanics of Space and Time. Foundations of Physics 8 (7-8):573-591.score: 144.0
    A formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics is presented independent of the theory of Hilbert space and also independent of the hypothesis of spacetime manifold. A hierarchy is established in the nondistributive lattice of physical ensembles, and it is shown that the projections relating different members of the hierarchy form a semigroup. It is shown how to develop a statistical theory based on the definition of a statistical operator. Involutions defined on the matrix representations of the semigroup are interpreted (...)
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  29. Bill Poirier (2001). Phase Space Optimization of Quantum Representations: Non-Cartesian Coordinate Spaces. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 31 (11):1581-1610.score: 144.0
    In an earlier article [Found. Phys. 30, 1191 (2000)], a quasiclassical phase space approximation for quantum projection operators was presented, whose accuracy increases in the limit of large basis size (projection subspace dimensionality). In a second paper [J. Chem. Phys. 111, 4869 (1999)], this approximation was used to generate a nearly optimal direct-product basis for representing an arbitrary (Cartesian) quantum Hamiltonian, within a given energy range of interest. From a few reduced-dimensional integrals, the method determines the optimal (...)
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  30. Thomas Muller (2007). A Branching Space-Times View on Quantum Error Correction. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 38 (3):635-652.score: 144.0
    In this paper we describe some first steps for bringing the framework of branching space-times to bear on quantum information theory. Our main application is quantum error correction. It is shown that branching space-times offers a new perspective on quantum error correction: as a supplement to the orthodox slogan, ``fight entanglement with entanglement'', we offer the new slogan, ``fight indeterminism with indeterminism''.
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  31. D. Bohm & B. J. Hiley (1981). On a Quantum Algebraic Approach to a Generalized Phase Space. Foundations of Physics 11 (3-4):179-203.score: 144.0
    We approach the relationship between classical and quantum theories in a new way, which allows both to be expressed in the same mathematical language, in terms of a matrix algebra in a phase space. This makes clear not only the similarities of the two theories, but also certain essential differences, and lays a foundation for understanding their relationship. We use the Wigner-Moyal transformation as a change of representation in phase space, and we avoid the problem of “negative (...)
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  32. W. Guz (1985). On the Nonclassical Character of the Phase-Space Representations of Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 15 (2):121-128.score: 144.0
    The quasiclassical representations of quantum theory, generalizing the concept of a phase-space representation of quantum mechanics, are studied with particular emphasis on some questions connected with the Jordan structure of the classical and quantum algebras of observables. A generalized version of the theorem of Gleason, Kahane, and Zelazko is used to establish some nonclassical features of these representations.
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  33. A. Smida, M. Hachemane & M. Fellah (1995). Geometro-Differential Conception of Extended Particles and Their Quantum Theory in de Sitter Space. Foundations of Physics 25 (12):1769-1795.score: 144.0
    A geometro-differential quantum theory of extended particles is presented. The geometrical selling is that of Hilbert fiber bundles whose base manifolds are pseudo-Riemannian space-times of points χ which are interpreted as partial aspects of physical reality (the extended particle). The fibers are carrier spaces of induced (internal configuration and momentum) representations of the structural group (the de Sitter group here). Sections of these bundles are seen as physical representations of the particle, and their values in the fibers are (...)
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  34. B. E. (2003). Quantum Mechanics Does Not Require the Continuity of Space. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 34 (2):319-328.score: 144.0
    We argue that the experimental verification of Newtonian mechanics and of non-relativistic quantum mechanics do not imply that space is continuous. This provides evidence against the realist interpretation of the most mathematical parts of physics.
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  35. M. Banai (1985). Quantization of Space-Time and the Corresponding Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 15 (12):1203-1245.score: 144.0
    An axiomatic framework for describing general space-time models is presented. Space-time models to which irreducible propositional systems belong as causal logics are quantum (q) theoretically interpretable and their event spaces are Hilbert spaces. Such aq space-time is proposed via a “canonical” quantization. As a basic assumption, the time t and the radial coordinate r of aq particle satisfy the canonical commutation relation [t,r]=±i $h =$ . The two cases will be considered simultaneously. In that case the (...)
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  36. Robert C. Bishop, The Arrow of Time in Rigged Hilbert Space Quantum Mechanics.score: 144.0
    Arno Bohm and Ilya Prigogine's Brussels-Austin Group have been working on the quantum mechanical arrow of time and irreversibility in rigged Hilbert space quantum mechanics. A crucial notion in Bohm's approach is the so-called preparation/registration arrow. An analysis of this arrow and its role in Bohm's theory of scattering is given. Similarly, the Brussels-Austin Group uses an excitation/de-excitation arrow for ordering events, which is also analyzed. The relationship between the two approaches is discussed focusing on their semi-group (...)
     
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  37. Michael Esfeld & Nicolas Gisin (forthcoming). The GRW Flash Theory: A Relativistic Quantum Ontology of Matter in Space-Time? Philosophical Explorations 81 (2):248-264.score: 144.0
    John Bell proposed an ontology for the GRW (Ghirardi, Rimini, and Weber) modification of quantum mechanics in terms of flashes occurring at space-time points. This article spells out the motivation for this ontology, inquires into the status of the wave function in it, critically examines the claim of its being Lorentz invariant, and considers whether it is a parsimonious but nevertheless physically adequate ontology.
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  38. J. V. Narlikar (1981). Quantum Conformal Fluctuations Near the Classical Space-Time Singularity. Foundations of Physics 11 (5-6):473-492.score: 144.0
    This paper investigates the behavior of conformal fluctuations of space-time geometry that are admissible under the quantized version of Einstein's general relativity. The approach to quantum gravity is via path integrals. It is shown that considerable simplification results when only the conformal degrees of freedom are considered under this scheme, so much so that it is possible to write down a formal kernel in the most general case where the space-time contains arbitrary distributions of particles with no (...)
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  39. Sylvia Pulmannová (1994). Quantum Logics and Hilbert Space. Foundations of Physics 24 (10):1403-1414.score: 144.0
    Starting with a quantum logic (a σ-orthomodular poset) L. a set of probabilistically motivated axioms is suggested to identify L with a standard quantum logic L(H) of all closed linear subspaces of a complex, separable, infinite-dimensional Hilbert space.
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  40. N. Sanchez & B. F. Whiting (1986). Quantum Fields, Curvilinear Coordinates, and Curved Space-Time. In. In Roger Penrose & C. J. Isham (eds.), Quantum Concepts in Space and Time. New York ;Oxford University Press. 1--318.score: 144.0
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  41. Reinhard Werner (1983). Physical Uniformities on the State Space of Nonrelativisitic Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 13 (8):859-881.score: 144.0
    Uniformities describing the distinguishability of states and of observables are discussed in the context of general statistical theories and are shown to be related to distinguished subspaces of continuous observables and states, respectively. The usual formalism of quantum mechanics contains no such physical uniformity for states. Using recently developed tools of quantum harmonic analysis, a natural one-to-one correspondence between continuous subspaces of nonrelativistic quantum and classical mechanics is established, thus exhibiting a close interrelation between physical uniformities for (...)
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  42. David Finkelstein & Ernesto Rodriguez (1986). Quantum Time-Space and Gravity. In. In Roger Penrose & C. J. Isham (eds.), Quantum Concepts in Space and Time. New York ;Oxford University Press. 1--247.score: 144.0
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  43. R. Penrose & C. J. Isham (1986). Quantum Concepts in Space and Time. Proceedings of the Third Oxford Symposium on Quantum Gravity, Held at Oxford, UK, March 1984. In. In Roger Penrose & C. J. Isham (eds.), Quantum Concepts in Space and Time. New York ;Oxford University Press. 1.score: 144.0
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  44. Andor Frenkel (2002). A Tentative Expression of the Károlyházy Uncertainty of the Space-Time Structure Through Vacuum Spreads in Quantum Gravity. Foundations of Physics 32 (5):751-771.score: 138.0
    In the existing expositions of the Károlyházy model, quantum mechanical uncertainties are mimicked by classical spreads. It is shown how to express those uncertainties through entities of the future unified theory of general relativity and quantum theory.
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  45. Alexey Kryukov (2004). On the Problem of Emergence of Classical Space—Time: The Quantum-Mechanical Approach. Foundations of Physics 34 (8):1225-1248.score: 138.0
    The Riemannian manifold structure of the classical (i.e., Einsteinian) space-time is derived from the structure of an abstract infinite-dimensional separable Hilbert space S. For this S is first realized as a Hilbert space H of functions of abstract parameters. The space H is associated with the space of states of a macroscopic test-particle in the universe. The spatial localization of state of the particle through its interaction with the environment is associated with the selection of (...)
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  46. Graciela Domenech, Federico Holik & Décio Krause (2008). Q-Spaces and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 38 (11):969-994.score: 132.0
    Our aim in this paper is to take quite seriously Heinz Post’s claim that the non-individuality and the indiscernibility of quantum objects should be introduced right at the start, and not made a posteriori by introducing symmetry conditions. Using a different mathematical framework, namely, quasi-set theory, we avoid working within a label-tensor-product-vector-space-formalism, to use Redhead and Teller’s words, and get a more intuitive way of dealing with the formalism of quantum mechanics, although the underlying logic should be (...)
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  47. Stuart R. Hameroff (2003). Time, Consciousness, and Quantum Events in Fundamental Space-Time Geometry. In R. Buccheri (ed.), The Nature of Time: Geometry, Physics and Perception. 77-89.score: 126.0
    1. Introduction: The problems of time and consciousness What is time? St. Augustine remarked that when no one asked him, he knew what time was; however when someone asked him, he did not. Is time a process which flows? Is time a dimension in which processes occur? Does time actually exist? The notion that time is a process which "flows" directionally may be illusory (the "myth of passage") for if time did flow it would do so in some medium or (...)
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  48. Richard F. W. Bader & Chérif F. Matta (2013). Atoms in Molecules as Non-Overlapping, Bounded, Space-Filling Open Quantum Systems. Foundations of Chemistry 15 (3):253-276.score: 126.0
    The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) uses physics to define an atom and its contribution to observable properties in a given system. It does so using the electron density and its flow in a magnetic field, the current density. These are the two fields that Schrödinger said should be used to explain and understand the properties of matter. It is the purpose of this paper to show how QTAIM bridges the conceptual gulf that separates the observations of (...)
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  49. Geoffrey Hemion (1980). A Quantum Theory of Space and Time. Foundations of Physics 10 (11-12):819-840.score: 126.0
    In the usual description of space and time, particles are represented by continuous world lines. We replace these world lines by discrete rows of points, obtaining a locally finite, partially ordered set. The “distances” between points along these discrete world lines, and also the “distances” between different world lines, are measured not simply as the distances within the space-time manifold in which the partially ordered set happens to be embedded, but rather in terms of the partially ordered set (...)
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  50. P. L. Huddleston, M. Lorente & P. Roman (1975). Contractions of Space-Time Groups and Relativistic Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 5 (1):75-87.score: 126.0
    The relation of the conformal group to various earlier proposed relativistic quantum mechanical dynamical groups (and other related groups) is studied in the framework of projective geometry, by explicitly constructing the contractions of the six-dimensional coordinate transformations. Five-dimensional realizations are then derived. An attempt is made to improve our physical insight through geometry.
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