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Robert Arp [73]R. Arp [3]
  1. Robert Arp & Barry Smith, Function, Role and Disposition in Basic Formal Ontology. Nature Precedings.
    Numerous research groups are now utilizing Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level framework to assist in the organization and integration of biomedical information. This paper provides elucidation of the three existing BFO subcategories of realizable entity, namely function, role, and disposition. It proposes one further sub-category of tendency, and considers the merits of recognizing two sub-categories of function for domain ontologies, namely, artifactual and biological function. The motivation is to help advance the coherent ontological treatment of functions, roles, and dispositions, (...)
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  2. R. Arp (2006). The Environments of Our Hominin Ancestors, Tool-Usage, and Scenario Visualization. Biology and Philosophy 21 (1):95-117.
    In this paper, I give an account of how our hominin ancestors evolved a conscious ability I call scenario visualization that enabled them to manufacture novel tools so as to survive and flourish in the ever-changing and complex environments in which they lived. I first present the ideas and arguments put forward by evolutionary psychologists that the mind evolved certain mental capacities as adaptive responses to environmental pressures. Specifically, Steven Mithen thinks that the mind has evolved cognitive fluidity, viz., an (...)
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  3. Robert Arp (2005). The Pragmatic Value of Frege's Platonism for the Pragmatist. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 19 (1):22-41.
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  4.  1
    Robert Arp (2008). Scenario Visualization: An Evolutionary Account of Creative Problem Solving. A Bradford Book.
    In order to solve problems, humans are able to synthesize apparently unrelated concepts, take advantage of serendipitous opportunities, hypothesize, invent, and engage in other similarly abstract and creative activities, primarily through the use of their visual systems. In _Scenario Visualization_, Robert Arp offers an evolutionary account of the unique human ability to solve nonroutine vision-related problems. He argues that by the close of the Pleistocene epoch, humans evolved a conscious creative problem-solving capacity, which he terms scenario visualization, that enabled them (...)
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  5.  25
    Francisco José Ayala & Robert Arp (eds.) (2010). Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Biology. Wiley-Blackwell Pub..
    This collection of specially commissioned essays puts top scholars head to head to debate the central issues in the lively and fast growing field of philosophy ...
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  6.  26
    Robert Arp (2005). Scenario Visualization: One Explanation of Creative Problem Solving. Journal of Consciousness Studies 12 (3):31-60.
    In this paper, I first present the ideas and arguments put forward by evolutionary psychologists that humans evolved certain capacities to creatively problem solve. Specifically, Steven Mithen thinks that creative problem solving is possible because the mind has evolved a conscious capacity he calls cognitive fluidity, the flexible exchange of information between and among mental modules. While I agree with Mithen that cognitive fluidity acts as a necessary condition for creative problem solving, I disagree that cognitive fluidity alone will suffice (...)
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  7.  26
    Robert Arp (2005). Frege, as-If Platonism, and Pragmatism. Journal of Critical Realism 4 (1):1-27.
    This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first, I attempt to show that the characterization of Frege as a redundancy theorist is not accurate. Using one of Wolfgang Carl's recent works as a foil, I argue that Frege countenances a realm of abstract objects including truth, and that Frege's Platonist commitments inform his epistemology and embolden his antipsychologistic project. In the second section, contrasting Frege's Platonism with pragmatism, I show that even though Frege's metaphysical position concerning truth (...)
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  8.  24
    David Koepsell, Robert Arp, Jennifer Fostel & Barry Smith (2009). Creating a Controlled Vocabulary for the Ethics of Human Research: Towards a Biomedical Ethics Ontology. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics 4 (1):43-58.
    Ontologies describe reality in specific domains in ways that can bridge various disciplines and languages. They allow easier access and integration of information that is collected by different groups. Ontologies are currently used in the biomedical sciences, geography, and law. A Biomedical Ethics Ontology would benefit members of ethics committees who deal with protocols and consent forms spanning numerous fields of inquiry. There already exists the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI); the proposed BMEO would interoperate with OBI, creating a powerful (...)
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  9. Robert Arp (2005). Selectivity, Integration, and the Psycho-Neuro-Biological Continuum. Journal of Mind and Behavior 26 (1-2):35-64.
    An important insight derived from Kant about the workings of the mind is that conscious activity involves both the selection of relevant information, and the integration of that information, so as to form mental coherency. The conscious mind can then utilize this coherent information to solve problems, invent tools, synthesize concepts, produce works of art, and the like. In this paper, it will be suggested that just as biological processes, in general, exhibit selective and integrative functions, and just as visual (...)
     
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  10.  37
    Robert Arp (2004). Husserl and the Penetrability of the Transcendental and Mundane Spheres. Human Studies 27 (3):221-239.
    There is a two-fold problem the phenomenologist must face: the first has to do with thinking like a phenomenologist given that one is always already steeped in the mundane sphere; the second has to do with the phenomenologist entering into dialogue with those scientists, psychologists, sociologists and other laypersons who still remain in the mundane sphere. I address the first problem by giving an Husserlian-inspired account of the movement from the mundane to the transcendental, and show that there are decent (...)
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  11.  36
    Robert Arp (1998). Hume's Mitigated Skepticism and the Design Argument. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 72 (4):539-558.
  12.  47
    Robert Arp (2007). Consciousness and Awareness - Switched-on Rheostats: A Response to de Quincey. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (3):101-106.
    I question whether it is completely accurate to think of the philosophical meaning of consciousness as being switched-on or switched-off. It may be that, once consciousness is switched-on, it is then found in degrees in animals we deem conscious. In which case, consciousness is more like a switched-on rheostat, rather than a simple on-off switch. Christian de Quincey (2006) gives a list of what would be considered the marks of consciousness, including 'experience, subjectivity, sentience, feeling, or mentality of any kind'. (...)
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  13.  11
    Robert Arp (2007). Resolving A Few Conflicts in Evolutionary Psychology with Cognitive Fluidity. Southwest Philosophy Review 23 (1):105-115.
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  14.  4
    Robert Arp (1999). The "Quinque Viae" of Thomas Hobbes. History of Philosophy Quarterly 16 (4):367 - 394.
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  15.  7
    Robert Arp (2013). The Evolution of Scenario Visualization and the Early Hominin Mind. In Liz Swan (ed.), Origins of Mind. 143--159.
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  16.  33
    Robert Arp (2007). Evolution and Two Popular Proposals for the Definition of Function. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (1):19 - 30.
    In the biological realm, a complete explanation of a trait seems to include an explanation in terms of function. It is natural to ask of some trait, "What is its function?" or "What purpose in the organism does the particular trait serve?" or "What is the goal of its activity?" There are several views concerning the appropriate definition of function for biological matters. Two popular views of function with respect to living things are Cummins' organizational account and the Griffiths/Godfrey-Smith modern (...)
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  17.  17
    Robert Arp (2004). An Analysis of Freedom in the Political Doctrines of Suárez and Filmer. Philosophical Inquiry 26 (1-2):53-82.
  18.  20
    Robert Arp (2007). Vindicating Kant's Morality. International Philosophical Quarterly 47 (1):5-22.
    Among others, four significant criticisms have been leveled against Kant’s morality. These criticisms are that Kant’s morality lacks a motivational component, thatit ignores the spiritual dimensions of morality espoused by a virtue-based ethics, that it overemphasizes the principle of autonomy in neglecting the communal context of morality, and that it lacks a theological foundation in being detached from God. In this paper I attempt to show that, when understood in the broader context of his religious doctrines and the overall philosophical (...)
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  19.  10
    Robert Arp (2008). Life and the Homeostatic Organization View of Biological Phenomena. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 4 (1-2):260-285.
    In this paper, I argue that starting with the organelles that constitute a cell – and continuing up the hierarchy of components in processes and subsystems of an organism – there are clear instances of emergent biological phenomena that can be considered “living” entities. These components and their attending processes are living emergent phenomena because of the way in which the components are organized to maintain homeostasis of the organism at the various levels in the hierarchy. I call this view (...)
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  20.  17
    Robert Arp (2000). Freud's Wretched Makeshift and Scheler's Religious Act. Journal of Philosophical Research 25:405-429.
    Freud finds it impossible to accept the existence of a Supreme Being because he thinks that there is no way to scientifically demonstrate or prove the existence of a being so defined. Consequently, Freud maintains that individuals who claim to have a religious experience of God suffer from a delusion. Such individuals remain in an infantile state of neurotic denial, fooling themselves about the reality of extramental existence.In contradistinction, Max Scheler, a student of Husserlian phenomenology, can accept the existence of (...)
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  21.  12
    Robert Arp (2002). Re-Thinking Hobbes's Materialistic and Mechanistic Projects. Hobbes Studies 15 (1):3-31.
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  22.  6
    Robert Arp (2008). Suárez and Filmer on Freedom. Philosophical Frontiers: A Journal of Emerging Thought 3 (2).
  23.  5
    Robert Arp (1999). Hegel's Prospect of Perpetual Peace. Dialogos 34 (74):71-100.
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  24.  12
    Robert Arp, Memetics Does Provide a Useful Way of Understanding Cultural Evolution.
    Imagine a planet on which a self-replicating molecule appears, is copied with variation and selection, and evolves to build itself living creatures that protect and propagate it; those creatures eventually spread all over the planet, changing its atmosphere and environment as they do so. Now imagine that one of those creatures begins to copy behaviours from one individual to another, and this information gets copied with variation and selection. In other words, a second kind of replicator emerges. This transforms the (...)
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  25.  15
    Robert Arp (2007). Homeostatic Organization, Emergence, and Reduction in Biological Phenomena. Philosophia Naturalis 44 (2):238-270.
    In this paper, I argue that starting with the organelles that constitute a cell - and continuing up the hierarchy of components in processes and subsystems of an organism - there exist clear instances of emergent biological phenomena that can be considered,,living" entities. These components and their attending processes are living emergent phenomena because of the way in which the components are organized to maintain homeostasis of the organism at the various levels in the hierarchy. I call this view the (...)
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  26.  4
    Robert Arp (2009). " I Give Them What They Want-Either an Orphan or an Abortion". In Sandra Shapshay (ed.), Bioethics at the Movies. Johns Hopkins University Press 15.
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  27.  4
    Robert Arp & Tracie Mahaffey (2008). “And They Have a Plan”: Cylons as Persons. In Jason T. Eberl (ed.), Battlestar Galactica and Philosophy: Knowledge Here Begins Out There. Wiley-Blackwell 55--63.
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  28.  7
    Robert Arp (2004). Plotinus, Mysticism, and Mediation. Religious Studies 40 (2):145 - 163.
    The Plotinian scholar, John Bussanich, has noted that the issue of classifying mystical union with the One consists in deciding between either theistic union or monistic identity. For advocates of theistic union, during mystical union the soul retains its identity and can be distinguished from the One; for advocates of monistic identity, during the union the soul loses its identity and becomes absorbed into the One. Both camps, however, believe that noetic activity is transcended in the union. In contradistinction to (...)
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  29.  1
    Robert Arp (2007). Evolution and Two Popular Proposals for the Definition of Function. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (1):19-30.
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  30.  1
    Robert Arp & Kevin S. Decker (2013). Introduction “Well, I'm Afraid It's About to Happen Again”. In Robert Arp & Kevin S. Decker (eds.), The Ultimate South Park and Philosophy: Respect My Philosophah! Wiley-Blackwell
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  31.  1
    Robert Arp (2013). Dude, Listen to Reason! In Robert Arp & Kevin S. Decker (eds.), The Ultimate South Park and Philosophy: Respect My Philosophah! Wiley-Blackwell 41--52.
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  32. R. Arp (2007). Awareness and Consciousness: Switched-on Rheostats. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14:101-106.
     
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  33.  61
    Robert Arp, Barry Smith & Andrew D. Spear (2015). Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology. MIT Press.
    In the era of “big data,” science is increasingly information driven, and the potential for computers to store, manage, and integrate massive amounts of data has given rise to such new disciplinary fields as biomedical informatics. Applied ontology offers a strategy for the organization of scientific information in computer-tractable form, drawing on concepts not only from computer and information science but also from linguistics, logic, and philosophy. This book provides an introduction to the field of applied ontology that is of (...)
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  34. Robert Arp & Dennis Milarker (2009). Critical Thinking in the Gaming and Real Worlds. In Luke Cuddy (ed.), The Legend of Zelda and Philosophy: I Link Thereforei Am. Open Court
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  35. Robert Arp, William Irwin & Brigitte D.?Bert (2013). Die Philosophie Bei Batman. Wiley.
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  36. Robert Arp & Jamie Watson (2008). For l'Amour : Love and Friendship in The Office (US). In Jeremy Wisnewski (ed.), The Office and Philosophy: Scenes From the Unexamined Life. Blackwell Pub.
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  37. Robert Arp (1999). Hegel and the Prospect of Perpetual Peace. Dialogos 34 (74):71-100.
     
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  38. Benjamin W. McCraw & Robert Arp (eds.) (2015). Philosophical Approaches to the Devil. Routledge.
    This collection brings together new papers addressing the philosophical challenges that the concept of a Devil presents, bringing philosophical rigor to treatments of the Devil. Contributors approach the idea of the Devil from a variety of philosophical traditions, methodologies, and styles, providing a comprehensive philosophical overview that contemplates the existence, nature, and purpose of the Devil. While some papers take a classical approach to the Devil, drawing on biblical exegesis, other contributors approach the topic of the Devil from epistemological, metaphysical, (...)
     
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  39. Benjamin W. McCraw & Robert Arp (eds.) (2015). Philosophical Approaches to the Devil. Routledge.
    This collection brings together new papers addressing the philosophical challenges that the concept of a Devil presents, bringing philosophical rigor to treatments of the Devil. Contributors approach the idea of the Devil from a variety of philosophical traditions, methodologies, and styles, providing a comprehensive philosophical overview that contemplates the existence, nature, and purpose of the Devil. While some papers take a classical approach to the Devil, drawing on biblical exegesis, other contributors approach the topic of the Devil from epistemological, metaphysical, (...)
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  40. Robert Arp (2004). Plotinus, Mysticism, and Mediation. Religious Studies 40 (2):145-163.
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  41. Robert Arp (ed.) (2016). Revisiting Aquinas’ Proofs for the Existence of God. Brill | Rodopi.
    Edited and introduced by Robert Arp, _Revisiting Aquinas’ Proofs for the Existence of God_ is a collection of new papers written by scholars focusing on the famous Five Proofs or Ways for the existence of God put forward by St. Thomas Aquinas near the beginning of his unfinished tome, _Summa Theologica_.
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  42. Robert Arp (ed.) (2006). South Park and Philosophy: You Know, I Learned Something Today. Wiley-Blackwell.
    If you think Saddam and Satan make a kinky couple, wait till you get a load of _South Park and Philosophy_. Get your Big Wheels ready, because we’re going for a ride, as 22 philosophers take us down the road to understanding the big-picture issues in this small mountain town. A smart and candid look at one of television’s most subversive and controversial shows, celebrating its 10th anniversary this year Draws close parallels between the irreverent nature of _South Park_ and (...)
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  43. Robert Arp (ed.) (2009). South Park and Philosophy: You Know, I Learned Something Today. Wiley-Blackwell.
    If you think Saddam and Satan make a kinky couple, wait till you get a load of _South Park and Philosophy_. Get your Big Wheels ready, because we’re going for a ride, as 22 philosophers take us down the road to understanding the big-picture issues in this small mountain town. A smart and candid look at one of television’s most subversive and controversial shows, celebrating its 10th anniversary this year Draws close parallels between the irreverent nature of _South Park_ and (...)
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  44. Robert Arp (ed.) (2009). South Park and Philosophy: You Know, I Learned Something Today. Wiley-Blackwell.
    If you think Saddam and Satan make a kinky couple, wait till you get a load of _South Park and Philosophy_. Get your Big Wheels ready, because we’re going for a ride, as 22 philosophers take us down the road to understanding the big-picture issues in this small mountain town. A smart and candid look at one of television’s most subversive and controversial shows, celebrating its 10th anniversary this year Draws close parallels between the irreverent nature of _South Park_ and (...)
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  45. Robert Arp (2013). Stop Stereotyping Sabbath. In William Irwin (ed.), Black Sabbath and Philosophy: Mastering Reality. Wiley 182--189.
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  46. R. Arp (1999). The Double Life of Justice and Injustice in Thrasymachus' Account. Polis 16 (1-2):17-29.
     
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  47. Robert Arp (ed.) (2012). Tattoos - Philosophy for Everyone: I Ink, Therefore I Am. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Covering philosophical issues ranging from tattooed religious symbols to a feminist aesthetics of tattoo, _Tattoos and Philosophy_ offers an enthusiastic analysis of inking that will lead readers to consider the nature of the tattooing arts in a new and profound way. Contains chapters written by philosophers, tattoo artists, and tattoo enthusiasts that touch upon many areas in Western and Eastern philosophy Enlightens people to the nature of tattoos and the tattooing arts, leading readers to think deeply about tattoos in new (...)
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  48. Robert Arp (ed.) (2012). Tattoos - Philosophy for Everyone: I Ink, Therefore I Am. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Covering philosophical issues ranging from tattooed religious symbols to a feminist aesthetics of tattoo, _Tattoos and Philosophy_ offers an enthusiastic analysis of inking that will lead readers to consider the nature of the tattooing arts in a new and profound way. Contains chapters written by philosophers, tattoo artists, and tattoo enthusiasts that touch upon many areas in Western and Eastern philosophy Enlightens people to the nature of tattoos and the tattooing arts, leading readers to think deeply about tattoos in new (...)
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  49. Robert Arp (ed.) (2012). Tattoos - Philosophy for Everyone: I Ink, Therefore I Am. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Covering philosophical issues ranging from tattooed religious symbols to a feminist aesthetics of tattoo, _Tattoos and Philosophy_ offers an enthusiastic analysis of inking that will lead readers to consider the nature of the tattooing arts in a new and profound way. Contains chapters written by philosophers, tattoo artists, and tattoo enthusiasts that touch upon many areas in Western and Eastern philosophy Enlightens people to the nature of tattoos and the tattooing arts, leading readers to think deeply about tattoos in new (...)
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  50. Robert Arp (ed.) (2012). Tattoos: Philosophy for Everyone: I Ink, Therefore I Am. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Covering philosophical issues ranging from tattooed religious symbols to a feminist aesthetics of tattoo, _Tattoos and Philosophy_ offers an enthusiastic analysis of inking that will lead readers to consider the nature of the tattooing arts in a new and profound way. Contains chapters written by philosophers, tattoo artists, and tattoo enthusiasts that touch upon many areas in Western and Eastern philosophy Enlightens people to the nature of tattoos and the tattooing arts, leading readers to think deeply about tattoos in new (...)
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