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Profile: Robert Edward Freeman (University of Virginia)
  1. Laura Dunham, R. Edward Freeman & Jeanne Liedtka (forthcoming). Enhancing Stakeholder Practice: A Particularized Exploration of Community. Business Ethics Quarterly.
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  2. R. Edward Freeman (forthcoming). Ethical Leadership and Creating Value for Stakeholders. Business Ethics.
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  3. Robert Strand, R. Edward Freeman & Kai Hockerts (forthcoming). Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability in Scandinavia: An Overview. Journal of Business Ethics.
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  4. Ellen R. Auster & R. Edward Freeman (2013). Values and Poetic Organizations: Beyond Value Fit Toward Values Through Conversation. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 113 (1):39-49.
    In the midst of greed, corruption, the economic crash and the general disillusionment of business, current conceptions of leadership, organizational values, and authenticity are being questioned. In this article, we fill a prior research gap by directly exploring the intersection of these three concepts. We begin by delving into the relationship between individual values and organizational values. This analysis reveals that the “value fit” approach to creating authenticity is limited, and also indicates that a deeper exploration of the nature of (...)
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  5. Robert Strand & R. Edward Freeman (2013). Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage: The Theory and Practice of Stakeholder Engagement in Scandinavia. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics:1-21.
    In this article, we first provide evidence that Scandinavian contributions to stakeholder theory over the past 50 years play a much larger role in its development than is presently acknowledged. These contributions include the first publication and description of the term “stakeholder”, the first stakeholder map, and the development of three fundamental tenets of stakeholder theory: jointness of interests, cooperative strategic posture, and rejection of a narrowly economic view of the firm. We then explore the current practices of Scandinavian companies (...)
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  6. R. Edward Freeman, Gianfranco Rusconi, Silvana Signori & Alan Strudler (2012). Stakeholder Theory(Ies): Ethical Ideas and Managerial Action. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 109 (1):1 - 2.
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  7. Lauren S. Purnell & R. Edward Freeman (2012). Stakeholder Theory, Fact/Value Dichotomy, and the Normative Core: How Wall Street Stops the Ethics Conversation. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 109 (1):109-116.
    A review of the stakeholder literature reveals that the concept of "normative core" can be applied in three main ways: philosophical justification of stakeholder theory, theoretical governing principles of a firm, and managerial beliefs/values influencing the underlying narrative of business. When considering the case of Wall Street, we argue that the managerial application of normative core reveals the imbedded nature of the fact/value dichotomy. Problems arise when the work of the fact/value dichotomy contributes to a closed-core institution. We make the (...)
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  8. R. Edward Freeman & Ellen R. Auster (2011). Values, Authenticity, and Responsible Leadership. Journal of Business Ethics 98 (S1):15-23.
    The recent financial crisis has prompted questioning of our basic ideas about capitalism and the role of business in society. As scholars are calling for “responsible leadership” to become more of the norm, organizations are being pushed to enact new values, such as “responsibility” and “sustainability,” and pay more attention to the effects of their actions on their stakeholders. The purpose of this study is to open up a line of research in business ethics on the concept of “authenticity” as (...)
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  9. R. Edward Freeman, Adrian Keevil & Lauren Purnell (2011). Poor People and the Politics of Capitalism. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 30 (3-4):179-194.
    The purpose of this paper is to suggest that the current conversation about the relationship between capitalism and the poor assumes a story about business that is shopworn and outmoded. There are assumptions about business, human behavior, and language that are no longer useful in the twenty first century. Business needs to be understood as how we cooperate together to create value and trade. It is fundamentally about creating value for stakeholders. Human beings are not solely self-interested, but driven by (...)
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  10. Michelle Greenwood & R. Edward Freeman (2011). Ethics and HRM. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 30 (3-4):269-292.
    The development of an ethical perspective of HRM that is both employee centered and explicitly normative and, as such, distinct from dominant and criticalperspectives of HRM has progressed in recent years. Reliance on the traditional “threesome” of rights/justice theories, deontology and consequentialism, however, has limited debate to micro-level issues and the search for a “solution.” By understanding the employment relationship as a stakeholder relationship, we open the ethical analysis of HRM to the pluralism and pragmatism that stakeholder theory has to (...)
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  11. R. Edward Freeman (2010). Managing for Stakeholders: Trade-Offs or Value Creation. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 96 (1):7 - 9.
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  12. R. Edward Freeman, Salme Nasi & Grant Savage (2010). Special Issue on Stakeholder Thinking: A Tribute to Juha Nasi. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 96 (S1):1-1.
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  13. R. Edward Freeman (2009). Stakeholder Theory. Philosophy of Management 8 (3):97-107.
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  14. R. Edward Freeman & Jared D. Harris (2009). Creating Ties That Bind. Journal of Business Ethics 88 (4):685 - 692.
    The work of Donaldson and Dunfee ("Ties That Bind: A Social Contracts Approach to Business Ethics", 1999) offers an example of how normative and descriptive approaches to business ethics can be integrated. We suggest that to be truly integrative, however, the theory should explore the processes by which such integration happens. We, therefore, sketch some preliminary thoughts that extend Integrative Social Contracts Theory (ISCT) by beginning to consider the process by which microsocial contracts are connected to hypernorms.
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  15. Susan S. Harmeling, Saras D. Sarasvathy & R. Edward Freeman (2009). Related Debates in Ethics and Entrepreneurship: Values, Opportunities, and Contingency. Journal of Business Ethics 84 (3):341 - 365.
    In this paper, we review two seemingly unrelated debates. In business ethics, the argument is about values: are they universal or emergent? In entrepreneurship, it is about opportunities – are they discovered or constructed? In reality, these debates are similar as they both overlook contingency. We draw insight from pragmatism to define contingency as possibility without necessity. We analyze real-life narratives and show how entrepreneurship and ethics emerge from our discussion as parallel streams of thought.
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  16. Bradley R. Agle, Thomas Donaldson & R. Edward Freeman (2008). Dialogue: Toward Superior Stakeholder Theory. Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (2):153-190.
    A quick look at what is happening in the corporate world makes it clear that the stakeholder idea is alive, well, and flourishing; and the question now is not “if ” but “how” stakeholder theory will meet the challenges of its success. Does stakeholder theory’s “arrival” mean continued dynamism, refinement, and relevance, or stasis? How will superior stakeholder theory continue to develop? In light of these and related questions, the authors of these essays conducted an ongoing dialogue on the current (...)
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  17. R. Edward Freeman (2008). Ending the so-Called 'Friedman-Freeman'debate. Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (2):153-190.
     
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  18. R. Edward Freeman (2008). The Impossibility of the Separation Thesis. Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (4):541-548.
    Distinguishing “business” concerns from “ethical” values is not only an unfruitful and meaningless task, it is also an impossible endeavor. Nevertheless, fruitless attempts to separate facts from values produce detrimental second-order effects, both for theory and practice, and should therefore be abandoned. We highlight examples of exemplary research that integrate economic and moral considerations, and point the way to a business ethics discipline that breaks new groundby putting ideas and narratives about business together with ideas and narratives about ethics.
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  19. George W. Watson, R. Edward Freeman & Bobby Parmar (2008). Connected Moral Agency in Organizational Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 81 (2):323 - 341.
    We review both the aspects of values-related research that complicate ideations of what we ought to do, as well as the psychological impediments to forming beliefs about the way things are. We find that more traditional moral theories are without solid empirical footing in the psychology of human values. Consequently, we revise the notion of values to align with their socially symbolic utility in self-affirmation and reformulate our understandings of moral agency to allow for the practicalities of context, circumstance, and (...)
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  20. R. Edward Freeman, Kirsten Martin & Bidhan Parmar (2007). Stakeholder Capitalism. Journal of Business Ethics 74 (4):303 - 314.
    In this article, we will outline the principles of stakeholder capitalism and describe how this view rejects problematic assumptions in the current narratives of capitalism. Traditional narratives of capitalism rely upon the assumptions of competition, limited resources, and a winner-take-all mentality as fundamental to business and economic activity. These approaches leave little room for ethical analysis, have a simplistic view of human beings, and focus on value-capture rather than value-creation. We argue these assumptions about capitalism are inadequate and leave four (...)
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  21. Laura Dunham, R. Edward Freeman & Jeanne Liedtka (2006). Enhancing Stakeholder Practice. Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (1):23-42.
    Lack of specificity around stakeholder identity remains a serious obstacle to the further development of stakeholder theory andits adoption in actual practice by business managers. Nowhere is this shortcoming more evident than in stakeholder theory’s treatment of the constituency known as “community.”In this paper we attempt to set forth what we call “the Problem of Community” as indicative of the definitional problems of stakeholdertheory. We then begin the process of gaining greater specificity around our notions of community and the role (...)
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  22. Patricia H. Werhane & R. Edward Freeman (2005). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management, Volume II. In Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Business Ethics. Sage Publications.
     
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  23. R. Edward Freeman (2004). Introduction. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 4:1-5.
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  24. Kirsten E. Martin & R. Edward Freeman (2004). The Separation of Technology and Ethics in Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 53 (4):353-364.
    The purpose of this paper is to draw out and make explicit the assumptions made in the treatment of technology within business ethics. Drawing on the work of Freeman (1994, 2000) on the assumed separation between business and ethics, we propose a similar separation exists in the current analysis of technology and ethics. After first identifying and describing the separation thesis assumed in the analysis of technology, we will explore how this assumption manifests itself in the current literature. A different (...)
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  25. Kirsten E. Martin & R. Edward Freeman (2003). Some Problems with Employee Monitoring. Journal of Business Ethics 43 (4):353 - 361.
    Employee monitoring has raised concerns from all areas of society - business organizations, employee interest groups, privacy advocates, civil libertarians, lawyers, professional ethicists, and every combination possible. Each advocate has its own rationale for or against employee monitoring whether it be economic, legal, or ethical. However, no matter what the form of reasoning, seven key arguments emerge from the pool of analysis. These arguments have been used equally from all sides of the debate. The purpose of this paper is to (...)
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  26. Kirsten Martin & R. Edward Freeman (2003). Some Problems with Employee Monitoring. Journal of Business Ethics 43 (4):353-361.
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  27. Robert Phillips, R. Edward Freeman & Andrew C. Wicks (2003). What Stakeholder Theory Is Not. Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (4):479-502.
    The term stakeholder is a powerful one. This is due, to a significant degree, to its conceptual breadth. The term means differentthings to different people and hence evokes praise or scorn from a wide variety of scholars and practitioners. Such breadth of interpretation, though one of stakeholder theory’s greatest strengths, is also one of its most prominent theoretical liabilities. The goal of the current paper is like that of a controlled burn that clears away some of the underbrush of misinterpretation (...)
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  28. Patricia Werhane & R. Edward Freeman (2003). Corporate Responsibility. In LaFollette H. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Practical Ethics. Oxford University Press. 514--536.
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  29. R. Edward Freeman (2002). Introduction. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 3:1-3.
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  30. R. Edward Freeman & Robert A. Phillips (2002). Stakeholder Theory: A Libertarian Defense. Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (3):331-350.
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to suggest that at least one strain of what has come to be called “stakeholder theory” has roots that are deeply libertarian. We begin by explicating both “stakeholder theory” and “libertarian arguments.” We show how there are libertarian arguments for both instrumental and normative stakeholder theory, and we construct a version of capitalism, called “stakeholder capitalism,” that builds on these libertarian ideas. We argue throughout that strong notions of “freedom” and “voluntary action” are (...)
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  31. R. Edward Freeman & Sankaran Venkataraman (eds.) (2002). Ethics and Entrepreneurship. Society for Business Ethics.
     
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  32. T. Jones, A. Wicks & R. Edward Freeman (2002). Stakeholder Theory: The State of the Art. In Norman E. Bowie (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Business Ethics. Blackwell. 19--37.
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  33. R. Edward Freeman (2001). A Stakeholder Theory of the Modern Corporation. Perspectives in Business Ethics Sie 3:144.
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  34. R. Edward Freeman (2000). Business Ethics at the Millennium. Business Ethics Quarterly 10 (1):169-180.
    Business ethics, as a discipline, appears to be at a crossroads. Down one avenue lies more of the same: mostly philosophers takingwhat they know of ethics and ethical theory and applying it to business. There is a long tradition of scholars working in the area known as “business and society” or “social issues in management.” Most of these scholars are trained as social scientists and teach in business schools. Their raison d’etre has been admirable: trying to get executives and students (...)
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  35. George G. Brenkert, Donald A. Brown, Rogene A. Buchholz, Herman E. Daly, Richard Dodd, R. Edward Freeman, Eric T. Freyfogle, R. Goodland, Michael E. Gorman, Andrea Larson, John Lemons, Don Mayer, William McDonough, Matthew M. Mehalik, Ernest Partridge, Jessica Pierce, William E. Rees, Joel E. Reichart, Sandra B. Rosenthal, Mark Sagoff, Julian L. Simon, Scott Sonenshein & Wendy Warren (1998). The Business of Consumption: Environmental Ethics and the Global Economy. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  36. R. Edward Freeman (1998). Introduction. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 1998:5-6.
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  37. R. Edward Freeman (1998). Poverty and the Politics of Capitalism. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 1998:31-35.
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  38. R. Edward Freeman & Andrea Larson (1997). Introduction. The Ruffin Series in Business Ethics:3-8.
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  39. Andrea Larson & R. Edward Freeman (eds.) (1997). Women's Studies and Business Ethics: Toward a New Conversation. Oxford University Press.
    This latest book in the Ruffin Series in Business Ethics is the first work to analyze the significance of gender in the ethical management of business organizations. Scholars from the fields of business ethics and women's studies come together in this book to offer fresh new perspectives on business ethics. The contributors examine the value of feminist theory and scholarship for business ethics, and from this examination four overarching themes emerge. The first theme is that corporations are socially constructed organizations (...)
     
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  40. R. Edward Freeman (1996). Foreword. The Ruffin Series in Business Ethics.
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  41. R. Edward Freeman & Martin Calkins (1996). Who's Who in Business Ethics: A Profile of Richard T. De George. Business Ethics 5 (1):47–51.
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  42. Thomas Donaldson & R. Edward Freeman (eds.) (1994). Business as a Humanity. Oxford University Press.
    This latest volume in the acclaimed Ruffin Series in Business Ethics brings together the contributions to the annual Ruffin Lecture series, in which some of the leading scholars in business ethics addressed the question: Can business, and business education, be considered one of the humanities, or is it in a class by itself? At a time when business is coming under attack for its apparent transgressions, this book iluminates the special values that inhere in the business world. Arguing all sides (...)
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  43. R. Edward Freeman (1994). A Feminist Reinterpretation of The Stakeholder Concept. Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (4):475-497.
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  44. R. Edward Freeman (1994). Epilogue. The Ruffin Series in Business Ethics:215-225.
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  45. R. Edward Freeman (1994). The Politics of Stakeholder Theory. Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (4):409-421.
    The purpose of this paper is to enter the conversation about stakeholder theory with the goal of clarifying certain foundational issues. I want to show, along with Boatright, that there is no stakeholder paradox, and that the principle on which such a paradox is built, the Separation Thesis, is nicely self-serving to business and ethics academics. If we give up such a thesis we find there is no stakeholder theory but that stakeholder theory becomes a genre that is quite rich. (...)
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