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  1.  49
    Rebecca Johnson, Govind Persad & Dominic Sisti (2014). The Tarasoff Rule: The Implications of Interstate Variation and Gaps in Professional Training. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online 42 (4):469-477.
    Recent events have revived questions about the circumstances that ought to trigger therapists' duty to warn or protect. There is extensive interstate variation in duty to warn or protect statutes enacted and rulings made in the wake of the California Tarasoff ruling. These duties may be codified in legislative statutes, established in common law through court rulings, or remain unspecified. Furthermore, the duty to warn or protect is not only variable between states but also has been dynamic across time. (...)
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  2.  31
    Pierre Bourdieu & Randal Johnson (1996). The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 54 (1):88-90.
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  3. Robert N. Johnson (2003). Virtue and Right. Ethics 113 (4):810-834.
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  4.  5
    P. S. Duggan, A. W. Siegel, D. M. Blass, H. Bok, J. T. Coyle, R. Faden, J. Finkel, J. D. Gearhart, H. T. Greely, A. Hillis, A. Hoke, R. Johnson, M. Johnston, J. Kahn, D. Kerr & P. King (2009). Unintended Changes in Cognition, Mood, and Behavior Arising From Cell-Based Interventions for Neurological Conditions: Ethical Challenges. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (5):31-36.
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  5.  54
    Robert N. Johnson (1999). Internal Reasons and the Conditional Fallacy. Philosophical Quarterly 50 (194):53-71.
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  6.  11
    Ralph H. Johnson, The Rise of Informal Logic: Essays on Argumentation, Critical Thinking, Reasoning and Politics.
    We are pleased to release this edition of Ralph Johnson’s The Rise of Informal Logic as Volume 2 in the series Windsor Studies in Argumentation. This edition is a reprint of the previous Vale Press edition with some typographical errors and other minor mistakes corrected. The prime motive for gathering Ralph H. Johnson’s essays under one cover is their clear articulation of the goals, concerns and problems of the discipline of informal logic. To my knowledge all of the published articles, (...)
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  7. Robert N. Johnson, Kant's Moral Philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) argued that moral requirements are based on a standard of rationality he dubbed the “Categorical Imperative” (CI). Immorality thus involves a violation of the CI and is thereby irrational. Other philosophers, such as Locke and Hobbes, had also argued that moral requirements are based on standards of rationality. However, these standards were either desirebased instrumental principles of rationality or based on sui generis rational intuitions. Kant agreed with many of his predecessors that an analysis of practical reason (...)
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  8. Bhikhu Parekh, Anthony Parel, Vinit Haksar, Richard L. Johnson, Nicholas F. Gier, Fred Dallmayr, Joseph Prabhu, Naresh Dadhich, Makarand Paranjape, Margaret Chatterjee & M. V. Naidu (2008). The Philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi for the Twenty-First Century. Lexington Books.
    This volume shows how Gandhi's thought and action-oriented approach are significant, relevant, and urgently needed for addressing major contemporary problems and concerns, including issues of violence and nonviolence, war and peace, religious conflict and dialogue, terrorism, ethics, civil disobedience, injustice, modernism and postmodernism, oppression and exploitation, and environmental destruction. Appropriate for general readers and Gandhi specialists, this volume will be of interest for those in philosophy, religion, political science, history, cultural studies, peace studies, and many other fields.
     
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  9.  91
    John Lincourt & Robert Johnson (2004). Ethics Training: A Genuine Dilemma for Engineering Educators. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (2):353-358.
    This is an examination of three main strategies used by engineering educators to integrate ethics into the engineering curriculum. They are: (1) the standalone course, (2) the ethics imperative mandating ethics content for all engineering courses, and (3) outsourcing ethics instruction to an external expert. The expectations from each approach are discussed and their main limitations described. These limitations include the insular status of the stand-alone course, the diffuse and uneven integration with the ethics imperative, and the orphaned status of (...)
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  10. Robert N. Johnson (1997). Reasons and Advice for the Practically Rational. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57 (3):619-625.
    This paper defends a model of the internalism requirement against Michael Smith's recent criticisms of it. On this "example model", what we have reason to do is what we would be motivated to do were we rational. After criticizing the example model, Smith argues that his "advice model", that what we have reason to do is what we would advise ourselves to do were we rational, is obviously preferable. The author argues that Smith's criticisms can quite easily be accommodated by (...)
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  11.  24
    Ryan Johnson (2011). An Accord in/on Kantian Aesthetics. Kritike: An Online Journal of Philosophy 5 (1):117-135.
    Kant’s Critique of Judgment is a storehouse full of provocative concepts and structures, which is why, since at least the 1970’s, many contemporary Kant scholars and philosophers of other sorts have attempted to mine and explicate this text to varying degrees of success. Among these concepts and structures, there are a few that continue to evade complete elucidation. One of the most well tread, albeit still contested, grounds that appears in the third Critique is “purposiveness without purpose.” Picking up from (...)
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  12.  2
    Ralph H. Johnson (forthcoming). The Place of Argumentation in the Theory of Reasoning. Communication and Cognition: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly Journal.
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  13.  20
    Robert N. Johnson (2007). Value and Autonomy in Kantian Ethics. In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics. Clarendon Press
  14. J. E. Shore & R. W. Johnson (1980). Axiomatic Derivation of the Principle of Maximum Entropy and the Principle of Minimum Cross-Entropy. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory:26-37.
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  15.  1
    Ralph H. Johnson, Why “Visual Arguments” Aren’T Arguments.
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  16. Roger Crisp, Larry S. Temkin, Robert Sugden, Robert N. Johnson, George Klosko & Paul Hurley (2003). 10. Jacob Levy, The Multiculturalism of Fear Jacob Levy, The Multiculturalism of Fear (Pp. 891-895). Ethics 113 (4).
     
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  17.  18
    J. Anthony Blair & Ralph H. Johnson (2000). Informal Logic: An Overview. Informal Logic 20 (2).
    In this overview article, we first explain what we take informal logic to be, discussing misconceptions and distinguishing our conception of it from competing ones; second, we briefly catalogue recent informal logic research, under 14 headings; third, we suggest four broad areas of problems and questions for future research; fourth, we describe current scholarly resources for informal logic; fifth, we discuss three implications of informal logic for philosophy in particular, and take note ofpractical consequences of a (...)
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  18. Ralph H. Johnson (2002). Manifest Rationality Reconsidered: Reply to My Fellow Symposiasts. [REVIEW] Argumentation 16 (3):311-331.
    In this paper, I respond to papers on my Manifest Rationality (2000) by Leo Groarke, Hans Hansen, David Hitchcock, and Christopher Tindale presented at the meetings of the Ontario Philosophical Society, October 2000. From the many useful challenges they have directed at my position, I have chosen to focus on two. The dominant issue raised by their papers concerns my definition of argument, and particularly problems with the idea of a dialectical tier. I have selected that as the first strand. (...)
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  19.  49
    Robert W. Johnson (1996). Direct Product and Decomposition of Certain Physically Important Algebras. Foundations of Physics 26 (2):197-222.
    I consider the direct product algebra formed from two isomorphic Clifford algebras. More specifically, for an element x in each of the two component algebras I consider elements in the direct product space with the form x ⊗ x. I show how this construction can be used to model the algebraic structure of particular vector spaces with metric, to describe the relationship between wavefunction and observable in examples from quantum mechanics, and to express the relationship between the electromagnetic field tensor (...)
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  20.  6
    J. Anthony Blair & Ralph H. Johnson (1987). Argumentation as Dialectical. Argumentation 1 (1):41-56.
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  21.  2
    J. Anthony Blair & Ralph H. Johnson (2016). In Memoriam: Richard Paul. Informal Logic 36 (1):97-98.
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  22.  14
    Robert N. Johnson (2011). Self-Improvement: An Essay in Kantian Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    Is there any moral obligation to improve oneself, to foster and develop various capacities in oneself? From a broadly Kantian point of view, Self-Improvement defends the view that there is such an obligation and that it is an obligation that each person owes to him or herself. The defence addresses a range of arguments philosophers have mobilized against this idea, including the argument that it is impossible to owe anything to yourself, and the view that an obligation to improve onself (...)
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  23.  23
    Rebecca Johnson (2008). Jus Post Bellum and Counterinsurgency. Journal of Military Ethics 7 (3):215-230.
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  24. Richard L. Johnson (ed.) (2005). Gandhi's Experiments with Truth: Essential Writings by and About Mahatma Gandhi. Lexington Books.
    This comprehensive Gandhi reader provides an essential new reference for scholars and students of his life and thought. It is the only text available that presents Gandhi's own writings, including excerpts from three of his books—An Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with Truth, Satyagraha in South Africa, Hind Swaraj —a major pamphlet, Constructive Programme: Its Meaning and Place, and many journal articles and letters, along with a biographical sketch of his life in historical context and recent essays by highly (...)
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  25.  51
    Ralph H. Johnson (1999). The Relation Between Formal and Informal Logic. Argumentation 13 (3):265-274.
    The issue of the relationship between formal and informal logic depends strongly on how one understands these two designations. While there is very little disagreement about the nature of formal logic, the same is not true regarding informal logic, which is understood in various (often incompatible) ways by various thinkers. After reviewing some of the more prominent conceptions of informal logic, I will present my own, defend it and then show how informal logic, so understood, is complementary to formal logic.
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  26.  12
    Ralph H. Johnson & Benjamin Hamby (2015). A Meta-Level Approach to the Problem of Defining ‘Critical Thinking’. Argumentation 29 (4):417-430.
    The problem of defining ‘critical thinking’ needs a fresh approach. When one takes into consideration the sheer quantity of definitions and their obvious differences, an onlooker might be tempted to conclude that there is no inherent meaning to the term: that each author seems to consider that he or she is free to offer a definition that suits them. And, with a few exceptions, there has not been much discussion among proposers about the strength and weaknesses of the attempted definitions. (...)
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  27.  14
    Roswell H. Johnson (1923). Mate Selection. The Eugenics Review 14 (4):258.
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  28.  9
    Ralph H. Johnson (1987). The Blaze of Her Splendors: Suggestions About Revitalizing Fallacy Theory. [REVIEW] Argumentation 1 (3):239-253.
    Criticisms of fallacy theory have been lodged from many different directions. In this paper, I consider the classic criticism of incompleteness by DeMorgan, Finocchiaro's claim that fallacies probably exist only in the mind of the interpreter, McPeck's claim that fallacies are at best context-dependent and Paul's complaints about the teaching of fallacies. I seek not merely to defend fallacy theory against unfair criticisms but also to learn from the criticisms what can be done in order to make fallacy theory a (...)
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  29. Robert N. Johnson (2008). Was Kant a Virtue Ethicist? In Monika Betzler (ed.), Kant's Ethics of Virtues. Walter De Gruyter
    You might think a simple “No” would suffice as an answer. But there are features of Kant’s ethics that appear to be strikingly similar to virtue oriented views, so striking that some Kantians themselves have argued that Kant’s ethics in fact shares these features with virtue ethics. In what follows, I will argue against this view, though along the way I will acknowledge the features of Kant’s view that make it appear more like a kind of virtue ethics than it (...)
     
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  30.  36
    Robert N. Johnson (1998). Weakness Incorporated. History of Philosophy Quarterly 15 (3):349 - 367.
    Kant held that “an incentive can determine the will [Willkür] to action only so far as the individual has incorporated it into his maxim”, a view dubbed the “Incorporation Thesis” by Henry Allison (hereafter, “IT”). Although many see IT as basic to Kant’s views on agency, it also seems irreconcilable with the possibility of a kind of weakness, the kind exhibited by a person who acts on incentives that run contrary to principles she holds dear. The problem is this: According (...)
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  31. D. Epstein & R. Johnson (2000). Schooling Sexualities. British Journal of Educational Studies 48 (2):204-205.
     
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  32.  24
    Robert N. Johnson (1997). Kantian Ethics Almost Without Apology. Philosophical Review 106 (4):594-595.
  33.  9
    Rebecca Page Johnson & Kenneth Strike (2010). Designing School Choice: The Devil's in the Details. Journal of Philosophy of Education 44 (4):569-577.
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  34. Robert N. Johnson (2009). Good Will and the Moral Worth of Acting From Duty. In Thomas E. Hill (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Kant's Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell
    The first section of the Groundwork begins “It is impossible to imagine anything at all in the world, or even beyond it, that can be called good without qualification— except a good will.”1 Kant’s explanation and defense of this claim is followed by an explanation and defense of another related claim, that only actions performed out of duty have moral worth. He explains that actions performed out of duty are those done from respect for the moral law, and then culminates (...)
     
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  35.  14
    Ernlè W. D. Young, James C. Corby & Rodney Johnson (1993). Does Depression Invalidate Competence? Consultants' Ethical, Psychiatric, and Legal Considerations. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2 (4):505.
    The ethical principle of respect for autonomy has come into its own In American medicine since World War II as equal in importance to the traditional medicomoral principles of nonmaleficence and beneficence. Respect for autonomy provides the ethical underpinning for the patient's right to exercise an informed choice – whether to consent to or to refuse recommended medical treatment. However, an informed choice demands a certain level of competence. Typical criteria for patient competence to accept or to refuse medical treatments (...)
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  36.  10
    Ralph Johnson (1998). A Complex Portrait of a Complex Radical. Radical Philosophy Review 1 (1):84-86.
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  37.  7
    Ralph H. Johnson, Revisiting the Logical/Dialectical/Rhetorical Triumvirate.
    Many argumentation theorists have adopted the view that argumentation may be approached from three different perspectives: the logical, the dialectical and the rhetorical—which I refer to as the Triumvirate.). According to Wenzel , the conceptual foundation for this Triumvirate is the distinction between argumentation as product, as process and as procedure . In this paper, I want to raise questions about the Triumvirate View and the Tripartite Distinction on which it is based.
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  38.  18
    Russell I. Johnson (1970). A View of Twentieth-Century Expression. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 28 (3):361-368.
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  39. Robert Johnson, Obligation.
    Since Plato wrote of political obligation in his dialogue Crito, obligation in general has been of ongoing interest to philosophers. In that dialogue, Socrates argues that he was under an obligation to obey the laws of Athens and comply with a sentence of death. During the course of the argument, he raises and offers solutions to many of the central issues about obligation that philosophers still puzzle over. For instance, how can obligations have the grip on us that they do—in (...)
     
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  40.  28
    Ralph H. Johnson (2013). Govier's "Invention" of the Theory of Argument. Informal Logic 33 (2):98-115.
    In this paper, I propose that the inquiry known as a/the theory of argument is the “invention” of Trudy Govier, using that term in its rhetorical sense, viz., the process of choosing ideas appropriate to the subject. In her paper, “Is a Theory of Argument Possible?” Govier used the idea of theory of argument to focus her discussion on problems in argument analysis and evaluation that came to light in the 1970s and 1980s. The idea of a theory of argument (...)
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  41.  56
    Robert N. Johnson (2002). Review: The Authority of Reason. [REVIEW] Mind 111 (443):676-679.
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  42.  46
    Robert N. Johnson (1996). Expressing a Good Will: Kant on the Motive of Duty. Southern Journal of Philosophy 34 (2):147-168.
    If any action is to be morally good it is not enough that it should conform to the moral law-it must also be done for the sake of the moral law: where this is not so, the conformity is only too contingent and precarious, since the nonmoral ground at work will now and then produce actions which accord with the law, but very often actions which transgress it.
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  43. Robert Johnson, Relativism.
    Although relativism is most often associated with ethics, one can find defenses of relativism in virtually any area of philosophy. In what follows, I will narrow my focus considerably. I first discuss the general structure of relativist positions and arguments. I will then examine several influential ideas concerning relativism in the late 20th century. Finally, I end by considering the rise of relativism in one area outside of ethics, epistemology.
     
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  44.  55
    Robert N. Johnson (1998). Love in Vain. Southern Journal of Philosophy 36 (S1):45-50.
    Kant famously argued in the Groundwork that our fundamental moral obligation is simply to respect the humanity in persons. However, his fuller view, found in the Metaphysic of Morals, is that the humanity in persons not only demands our respect, but also our love. Neither of these demands, of course, requires that we feel anything for others, and Kant is much more specific here about what constitutes respect between persons. But in elaborating this position he also claims that these demands (...)
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  45.  1
    Randall Johnson (2015). Aesthesiological Instauration. Chiasmi International 17:147-158.
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  46. Ralph H. Johnson, More on Arguers and Their Dialectical Obligations.
    In her 1997 OSSA paper, Trudy Govier discusses in detail my thesis that arguers have dialectical obligations. In a 1998 paper she further examines this thesis to see whether it is viable and concludes that it faces serious problems. In this paper, I assess the state of the thesis in light of Govier's discussion of it. I urge that we have something to gain from the empirical turn--from investigating best practices. At the end, I take a step back to ask (...)
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  47.  6
    Ryan Johnson (2015). Kantian Excentricities. Evental Aesthetics 3 (3):54-77.
    Perhaps one of the most troubling passages in all three of Kant’s Critiques is a short, confusing passage in which Kant claims that a judgment of taste must precede the feeling of pleasure. Many interpreters have argued that such a claim necessitates a viciously circular argument. But this circularity might not be vicious at all. In fact, this revolving shape actually leads to the most important site of the entire Analytic: the logic of the “without” as in the famous “purposiveness (...)
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  48. Robert N. Johnson (2002). Happiness as a Natural End. In Mark Timmons (ed.), Kant's Metaphysics of Morals: Interpretative Essays. Clarendon Press
  49. Ralph H. Johnson (1972). The Concept of Existence in the Concluding Unscientific Postscript. The Hague,Nijhoff.
  50.  22
    Rebekah Johnson (2013). Marriage and the Metaphysics of Bodily Union. Social Theory and Practice 39 (2):288-312.
    One current line of argument against the legalization of same-sex marriage, advocated primarily by the New Natural Lawyers, is that marriage is a pre-political institution that has, as an essential element, a bodily union requirement. They argue that same-sex couples cannot realize bodily union in their sexual activities and thus cannot meet the structural requirements of marriage. Accordingly, they argue that the same-sex marriage debate must be framed as a debate about what marriage is, and not, as it was in (...)
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