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  1. Robert Johnson, Moral Indifference.
    opposed ways. 6:408-9 Understood as "moral apathy", to be indifferent is to be uninfluenced..
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  2. Robert Johnson, Kantian Irrealism.
    Kantian ethics can at times appear to defend the position that there is a unique sort of value that plays a foundational role in morality. For instance, Kant's most well known work in ethics, the Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, begins by trying to establish that a good will is good without qualification' and then ends with a first statement of the fundamental principle that divides right from wrong, the Categorical Imperative.1 This presentation can make it seems as if (...)
     
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  3. Robert Johnson, Merit.
    A few pages into the Groundwork Kant claims that only actions from duty have moral worth.ii Even though as an aside he also says that a dutiful action from sympathy or honor, though lacking in moral worth, "deserves praise and encouragement", it is tempting not to take him very seriously. One suspects that he regards this praise as only a poor and morally insignificant cousin of the esteem reserved for actions from duty. In the end, it seems hard to avoid (...)
     
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  4. Robert Johnson, Obligation.
    Since Plato wrote of political obligation in his dialogue Crito, obligation in general has been of ongoing interest to philosophers. In that dialogue, Socrates argues that he was under an obligation to obey the laws of Athens and comply with a sentence of death. During the course of the argument, he raises and offers solutions to many of the central issues about obligation that philosophers still puzzle over. For instance, how can obligations have the grip on us that they do—in (...)
     
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  5. Robert Johnson, Relativism.
    Although relativism is most often associated with ethics, one can find defenses of relativism in virtually any area of philosophy. In what follows, I will narrow my focus considerably. I first discuss the general structure of relativist positions and arguments. I will then examine several influential ideas concerning relativism in the late 20th century. Finally, I end by considering the rise of relativism in one area outside of ethics, epistemology.
     
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  6. Robert Johnson, Self-Development as an Imperfect Duty.
    'You ought to make something of yourself.' That certainly has the ring of truth about it. But is there really any obligation to develop yourself? Those who let abilities lie idle are shortsighted, of course. But are they guilty of anything more than imprudence? It is easy to think that there could be a moral fault in failing to help others such as your children to develop their talents and abilities. But what about not developing your own? And if this (...)
     
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  7. Robert Johnson, The Good of Self-Development.
    So Michael Slote argues. There is and can be no obligation to foster one's own wellbeing for Kantians, only an obligation to foster the wellbeing of others. And any distinctively Kantian position both denies that our own wellbeing is the source of our moral duties and denies that a concern for wellbeing can be a morally worthy motive. So not only is the agent's own good not foundational to morality; it is of no moral importance. Hence, Slote concludes, the devaluation (...)
     
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  8. R. L. Johnson (forthcoming). Contemporary Perspectives in Machine Translation. Contrastes.
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  9. Ralph H. Johnson (forthcoming). The Place of Argumentation in the Theory of Reasoning. Communication and Cognition.
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  10. Ralph H. Johnson & J. Anthony Blair (forthcoming). The Recent Development of Informal Logic. Informal Logic: The First International Symposium.
     
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  11. Ralph H. Johnson & Benjamin Hamby (forthcoming). A Meta-Level Approach to the Problem of Defining ‘Critical Thinking. Argumentation:1-14.
    The problem of defining ‘critical thinking’ needs a fresh approach. When one takes into consideration the sheer quantity of definitions and their obvious differences, an onlooker might be tempted to conclude that there is no inherent meaning to the term: that each author seems to consider that he or she is free to offer a definition that suits them. And, with a few exceptions, there has not been much discussion among proposers about the strength and weaknesses of the attempted definitions. (...)
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  12. Richard Johnson (forthcoming). Solar Eclipses at Tikal, AD 0010 to AD 1600: With Lunar Intervals. Manuscrito. Forth Worth.
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  13. Rob Johnson, Edward G. McFarland, W. Ben Kibler, D. Greg Anderson, Gregory A. Helm, Mark K. Bowen & Gordon W. Nuber (forthcoming). The Clinics Are Now Available Online! Ethics.
     
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  14. Mark Timmons & Robert Johnson (eds.) (forthcoming). Value, Reason, and Respect: Kantian Themes From the Philosophy of Thomas E. Hill, Jr. Oxford.
    The book features chapters by Bernard and Jan Boxill, Robin S. Dillon, Stephen Darwall, Mark Schroeder, Jonathan Dancy, Onora O’Neill, Gerald Gaus, Jeffrie G. Murphy, Matt Zwolinski and David Schmidtz, Cheshire Calhoun, Marcia Baron, Andrews Reath, and Julia Driver that take up themes and arguments in Tom Hill’s work in ethics, social, political and legal philosophy, as well as his work on Kant’s ethics. The volume concludes with an essay by Tom Hill in which he reflects on how he came (...)
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  15. Robert N. Johnson & Michael Smith (eds.) (2015). Passions and Projections: Themes From the Philosophy of Simon Blackburn. Oup Oxford.
    This volume presents fourteen original essays which explore the philosophy of Simon Blackburn, and his lifetime pursuit of a distinctive projectivist and anti-realist research program. The essays document the range and influence of Blackburn's work and reveal, among other things, the resourcefulness of his brand of philosophical pragmatism.
     
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  16. Ryan Johnson (2015). Kantian Excentricities. Evental Aesthetics 3 (3):54-77.
    Perhaps one of the most troubling passages in all three of Kant’s Critiques is a short, confusing passage in which Kant claims that a judgment of taste must precede the feeling of pleasure. Many interpreters have argued that such a claim necessitates a viciously circular argument. But this circularity might not be vicious at all. In fact, this revolving shape actually leads to the most important site of the entire Analytic: the logic of the “without” as in the famous “purposiveness (...)
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  17. Ralph H. Johnson, The Rise of Informal Logic: Essays on Argumentation, Critical Thinking, Reasoning and Politics.
    We are pleased to release this edition of Ralph Johnson’s The Rise of Informal Logic as Volume 2 in the series Windsor Studies in Argumentation. This edition is a reprint of the previous Vale Press edition with some typographical errors and other minor mistakes corrected. The prime motive for gathering Ralph H. Johnson’s essays under one cover is their clear articulation of the goals, concerns and problems of the discipline of informal logic. To my knowledge all of the published articles, (...)
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  18. Ryan Johnson (2014). Machinery, Monstrosity, and Bestiality: An Analysis of Repulsion in Kierkegaard's Practice in Christianity. Heythrop Journal 55 (5):903-915.
    In reaction to a particularly scathing review of his Practice in Christianity, Kierkegaard postulated what he called a ‘preacher-machine.’ As we will see, the preacher-machine is only one type of character-machine, for, in Practice in Christianity, there are five other such machines. Starting up these character-machines will allow for an analysis of the repulsion of the God-man, Christ himself. This repulsion is important because Kierkegaard claims that it is the condition for the emergence of faith. After discussing repulsion, Kierkegaard will (...)
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  19. Ryan J. Johnson (2014). Another Use of the Concept of the Simulacrum: Deleuze, Lucretius and the Practical Critique of Demystification. Deleuze Studies 8 (1):70-93.
    While many of the most important figures in the history of philosophy have employed the concept of the simulacrum in one way or another, a detailed study of this usage has yet to be written. In this essay, I will attempt to tell the story of a sequence in that history of that usage, by focusing on one of Deleuze's case studies of the concept of the simulacrum. To do so, I will focus primarily on one the appendices to The (...)
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  20. J. Anthony Blair & Ralph H. Johnson (2013). A List of Trudy Govier's Publications. Informal Logic 33 (2):332-341.
    The Editors thank Ken Peacock for his assistance.
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  21. J. Anthony Blair & Ralph H. Johnson (2013). Preface. Informal Logic 33 (2):81-82.
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  22. Ralph H. Johnson, Commentary On: Adam Auch's "Virtuous Argumentation and the Challenges of Hype.
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  23. Ralph H. Johnson, Defeasibility From the Perspective of Informal Logic.
    The notions of defeasibility and defeasible reasoning have generated a great deal of interest in various research communities. Here I want to focus on their use in logic and argumentation studies. I will approach these topics from the perspective of an informal logician who finds himself struggling with some issues that surround the idea of and the deployment of the concept of defeasibility. My intention is to make those struggles as clear as I can.
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  24. Ralph H. Johnson (2013). Govier's "Invention" of the Theory of Argument. Informal Logic 33 (2):98-115.
    In this paper, I propose that the inquiry known as a/the theory of argument is the “invention” of Trudy Govier, using that term in its rhetorical sense, viz., the process of choosing ideas appropriate to the subject. In her paper, “Is a Theory of Argument Possible?” Govier used the idea of theory of argument to focus her discussion on problems in argument analysis and evaluation that came to light in the 1970s and 1980s. The idea of a theory of argument (...)
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  25. Ralph H. Johnson (2013). The Role of Audience in Argumentation From the Perspective of Informal Logic. Philosophy and Rhetoric 46 (4):533-549.
    One of the distinctive features of rhetorical approaches to the study of argumentation is the emphasis placed on the role of the audience. Here one thinks immediately of the influence of Chaïm Perelman and of his and Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca’s The New Rhetoric. There is something importantly right about an audience-centered approach to argumentation. Clearly if you wish to persuade an audience of your position (or gain the acceptance of your thesis), you must engage that audience and in some sense carry (...)
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  26. Ralph H. Johnson & Christopher W. Tindale (2013). Introduction. Philosophy and Rhetoric 46 (4):379-391.
    When considering the interactions between rhetoric and argumentation, readers of this journal will no doubt be reminded of the seminal work of Henry W. Johnstone Jr. (1959; 1978) who gathered both concerns together in ways that were designed to engage philosophers and persuade them of the intellectual seriousness of both enterprises. He was, of course, a principal force among those who brought Chaïm Perelman’s work to the attention of audiences in North America, and he himself entered into deep and fruitful (...)
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  27. Rebecca J. Johnson (2013). Maintaining Discipline in Detainee Operations: Avoiding the Slippery Slope to Abuse. Journal of Military Ethics 11 (4):360 - 362.
    (2012). MAINTAINING DISCIPLINE IN DETAINEE OPERATIONS: AVOIDING THE SLIPPERY SLOPE TO ABUSE. Journal of Military Ethics: Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 360-362. doi: 10.1080/15027570.2012.758407.
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  28. Rebekah Johnson (2013). Marriage and the Metaphysics of Bodily Union. Social Theory and Practice 39 (2):288-312.
    One current line of argument against the legalization of same-sex marriage, advocated primarily by the New Natural Lawyers, is that marriage is a pre-political institution that has, as an essential element, a bodily union requirement. They argue that same-sex couples cannot realize bodily union in their sexual activities and thus cannot meet the structural requirements of marriage. Accordingly, they argue that the same-sex marriage debate must be framed as a debate about what marriage is, and not, as it was in (...)
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  29. J. Anthony Blair, Ralph H. Johnson, Hans V. Hansen & Christopher W. Tindale (2012). In Memoriam: Jonathan Adler 1949 – 2012. Informal Logic 32 (2):160.
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  30. Two-Level Eudaimonism, Second-Personal Reasons Two-Level Eudaimonism, Second-Personal Reasons, Anita L. Allen, Jack Balkin, Seyla Benhabib, Talbot Brewer, Peter Cane, Thomas Hurka & Robert N. Johnson (2012). Autonomous Action: Self-Determination in the Passive Mode Autonomous Action: Self-Determination in the Passive Mode (Pp. 647-691). [REVIEW] Ethics 122 (4).
     
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  31. Ralph H. Johnson (2012). When Informal Logic Met Critical Thinking. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 27 (3):5-14.
    In this reflection piece, Ralph Johnson provides an account of the development of informal logic and how it intersected with the Critical Thinking Movement. Section I is an account of the origins of what Johnson calls the “Informal Logic Initiative.” Section II discusses how the Informal Logic Initiative connected with the Critical Thinking Movement at the Sonoma State University Conferences starting in 1981. Section III discusses the relationship between logic and critical thinking. Section IV describes “The Network Problem,” which emerged (...)
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  32. RoseMary C. Johnson (2012). Human Tragedy, Divine Comedy. Renascence 64 (2):161-175.
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  33. David W. Johnson & Roger T. Johnson (2011). Intellectual Legacy: Cooperation and Competition. In Peter T. Coleman (ed.), Conflict, Interdependence, and Justice. Springer. 41--63.
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  34. Ralph Johnson (2011). The Coherence of Hamblin's Fallacies. Informal Logic 31 (4):305-317.
    Hamblin’s Fallacies remains one of the crucial documents in the development of informal logic and argumentation theory. His critique of traditional approaches to the fallacies (what he dubbed ‘The Standard Treatment’) helped to revitalize the study of fallacies. Recently I had occasion to reread Fallacies and came to the conclusion that some of my earlier criticisms (1989, 1990) had missed the real force of what was going on there, that I and others have perhaps not fully appreciated what Hamblin is (...)
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  35. Robert N. Johnson (2011). Self-Improvement: An Essay in Kantian Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    Is there any moral obligation to improve oneself, to foster and develop various capacities in oneself? From a broadly Kantian point of view, Self-Improvement defends the view that there is such an obligation and that it is an obligation that each person owes to him or herself. The defence addresses a range of arguments philosophers have mobilized against this idea, including the argument that it is impossible to owe anything to yourself, and the view that an obligation to improve onself (...)
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  36. Rutherford Johnson (2011). Can Educators Be Motivated by Management by Objective Systems in Academia? Journal of Academic Ethics 9 (1):1-18.
    The Management by Objective (MBO) system was widely discredited by the 1980s as not delivering on its promises of efficiency, worker motivation, etc. Now some universities around the world seek to employ such a system for faculty evaluation. This paper comments on the reasons the MBO was largely abandoned in the business world, provides the use of the MBO in Korean education as a case study of current use, and gives suggestions of the conditions under which the MBO or similar (...)
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  37. Ryan Johnson (2011). An Accord in/on Kantian Aesthetics. Kritike: An Online Journal of Philosophy 5 (1):117-135.
    Kant’s Critique of Judgment is a storehouse full of provocative concepts and structures, which is why, since at least the 1970’s, many contemporary Kant scholars and philosophers of other sorts have attempted to mine and explicate this text to varying degrees of success. Among these concepts and structures, there are a few that continue to evade complete elucidation. One of the most well tread, albeit still contested, grounds that appears in the third Critique is “purposiveness without purpose.” Picking up from (...)
     
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  38. Douglas Walton & Ralph Johnson (2011). Introduction: Special Issue on Charles Hamblin. Informal Logic 31 (4).
    It is unfortunate that Hamblin’s contributions do not get him the credit he deserves for his remarkable achievements. Although his contributions to philosophy are well enough recognized, and his early contributions to computing have been acknowledged, it seems strange that his work has not been widely enough recognized for the interdisciplinary effect it has had. There has been a feedback loop whereby his theories on formal dialogue systems and imperatives were taken up in argumentation, applied in computing, and then used (...)
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  39. Rebecca J. Johnson (2010). Just Wars and Moral Victories: Surprise, Deception and the Normative Framework of European War in the Later Middle Ages. Journal of Military Ethics 9 (3):286-288.
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  40. Rebecca Page Johnson & Kenneth Strike (2010). Designing School Choice: The Devil's in the Details. Journal of Philosophy of Education 44 (4):569-577.
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  41. Richard Johnson (2010). Key Concepts in Medieval Literature. [REVIEW] The Medieval Review 3.
     
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  42. Robert N. Johnson (2010). Duties to and Regarding Others. In Lara Denis (ed.), Kant's Metaphysics of Morals: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  43. Ryan Johnson (2010). The Making of a Tropical Disease: A Short History of Malaria. Annals of Science 67 (1):139-142.
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  44. Mark Levene, Rob Johnson & Richard Maguire (eds.) (2010). History at the End of the World? History, Climate Change and the Possibility of Closure. Humanities-EBooks.
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  45. P. S. Duggan, A. W. Siegel, D. M. Blass, H. Bok, J. T. Coyle, R. Faden, J. Finkel, J. D. Gearhart, H. T. Greely, A. Hillis, A. Hoke, R. Johnson, M. Johnston, J. Kahn, D. Kerr & P. King (2009). Unintended Changes in Cognition, Mood, and Behavior Arising From Cell-Based Interventions for Neurological Conditions: Ethical Challenges. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (5):31-36.
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  46. Ralph H. Johnson, Revisiting the Logical/Dialectical/Rhetorical Triumvirate.
    Many argumentation theorists have adopted the view that argumentation may be approached from three different perspectives: the logical, the dialectical and the rhetorical—which I refer to as the Triumvirate.). According to Wenzel , the conceptual foundation for this Triumvirate is the distinction between argumentation as product, as process and as procedure . In this paper, I want to raise questions about the Triumvirate View and the Tripartite Distinction on which it is based.
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  47. Richard Johnson (2009). Gods and Monsters: Religion as a Survival Strategy. Heythrop Journal 50 (5):864-876.
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  48. Richard Johnson (2009). Global Perspectives on Medieval English Literature, Language, and Culture. [REVIEW] The Medieval Review 4.
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  49. Robbin Johnson (2009). Commentary: Emerging Technologies Oversight: Research, Regulation, and Commercialization. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 37 (4):587-593.
    This paper reviews the paper by Kuzma, Najmaie, and Larson that looks at what can be learned from the experience with genetically engineered organisms for oversight of emerging technologies more generally. That paper identifies key attributes of a good oversight system: promoting innovation, ensuring safety, identifying benefits, assessing costs, and doing so all while building public confidence. In commenting on that analysis, this paper suggests that looking at “oversight” in three phases — research and development, regulatory review, and market acceptance (...)
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