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  1. R. Keith Sawyer & James G. Greeno (2009). Situativity and Learning. In Murat Aydede & P. Robbins (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Situated Cognition. Cambridge. 347--367.
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  2. R. Keith Sawyer (2004). Social Explanation and Computational Simulation. Philosophical Explorations 7 (3):219-231.
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  3. R. Keith Sawyer (2004). The Mechanisms of Emergence. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 34 (2):260-282.
    This article focuses on emergence in social systems. The author begins by proposing a new tool to explore the mechanisms of social emergence: multi agent–based computer simulation. He then draws on philosophy of mind to develop an account of social emergence that raises potential problems for the methodological individualism of both social mechanism and of multi agent simulation. He then draws on various complexity concepts to propose a set of criteria whereby one can determine whether a given social mechanism generates (...)
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  4. R. Keith Sawyer (2003). Nonreductive Individualism Part II—Social Causation. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 33 (2):203-224.
    In Part I, the author argued for nonreductive individualism (NRI), an account of the individual-collective relation that is ontologically individualist yet rejects methodological individualism. However, because NRI is ontologically individualist, social entities and properties would seem to be only analytic constructs, and if so, they would seem to be epiphenomenal, since only real things can have causal power. In general, a nonreductionist account is a relatively weak defense of sociological explanation if it cannot provide an account of how social properties (...)
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  5. R. Keith Sawyer (2002). Durkheim's Dilemma: Toward a Sociology of Emergence. Sociological Theory 20 (2):227-247.
    The concept of emergence is a central thread uniting Durkheim's theoretical and empirical work, yet this aspect of Durkheim's work has been neglected. I reinterpret Durkheim in light of theories of emergence developed by contemporary philosophers of mind, and I show that Durkheim's writings prefigure many elements of these contemporary theories. Reading Durkheim as an emergentist helps to clarify several difficult and confusing aspects of his work, and reveals a range of unresolved issues. I identify five such issues, and I (...)
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  6. R. Keith Sawyer (2002). Nonreductive Individualism: Part I—Supervenience and Wild Disjunction. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 32 (4):537-559.
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  7. R. Keith Sawyer (2000). Improvisation and the Creative Process: Dewey, Collingwood, and the Aesthetics of Spontaneity. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 58 (2):149-161.
  8. R. Keith Sawyer (1999). The Emergence of Creativity. Philosophical Psychology 12 (4):447 – 469.
    This paper is an extended exploration of Mead's phrase the emergence of the novel. I describe and characterize emergent systems-complex dynamical systems that display behavior that cannot be predicted from a full and complete description of the component units of the system. Emergence has become an influential concept in contemporary cognitive science [A. Clark (1997) Being there, Cambridge: MIT Press], complexity theory [W. Bechtel & R.C. Richardson (1993) Discovering complexity, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press], artificial life [R.A. Brooks & (...)
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  9. R. Keith Sawyer (1996). The Semiotics of Improvisation: The Pragmatics of Musical and Verbal Performance. Semiotica 108 (3-4):269-306.
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