72 found
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  1. Gustav Kuhn, Hugo A. Caffaratti, Robert Teszka & Ronald A. Rensink (2014). A Psychologically-Based Taxonomy of Misdirection. Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  2.  35
    Daniel J. Simons & Ronald A. Rensink (2005). Change Blindness: Past, Present, and Future. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (1):16-20.
    Change blindness is the striking failure to see large changes that normally would be noticed easily. Over the past decade this phenomenon has greatly contributed to our understanding of attention, perception, and even consciousness. The surprising extent of change blindness explains its broad appeal, but its counterintuitive nature has also engendered confusions about the kinds of inferences that legitimately follow from it. Here we discuss the legitimate and the erroneous inferences that have been drawn, and offer a set of requirements (...)
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  3. Ronald A. Rensink, J. Kevin O'Regan & James J. Clark (1997). To See or Not to See: The Need for Attention to Perceive Changes in Scenes. Psychological Science 8:368-373.
    Methods. We employed a "flicker" technique, in which an original and a modified image (each of duration 240 ms) continually alternated, with a blank field (duration 80 ms) between each display. Images were all of real-world scenes. One of three kinds of change (appearance/disappearance, color, or translation) was made to an object or region in each scene. Changes were large and easily seen under normal conditions. Subjects viewed the flicker display, and pressed a key when they noticed the change.
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  4. Ronald A. Rensink (2014). Limits to the Usability of Iconic Memory. Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  5. Ronald A. Rensink & Gustav Kuhn (2015). The Possibility of a Science of Magic. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  6. Ronald A. Rensink (2002). Change Detection. Philosophical Explorations 53:245-277.
    Five aspects of visual change detection are reviewed. The first concerns the concept of _change_ itself, in particular the ways it differs from the related notions of _motion_ and _difference_. The second involves the various methodological approaches that have been developed to study change detection; it is shown that under a variety of conditions observers are often unable to see large changes directly in front of them. Next, it is argued that this "change blindness" indicates that focused attention is needed (...)
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  7. Ronald A. Rensink (2000). The Dynamic Representation of Scenes. Visual Cognition.
    One of the more powerful impressions created by vision is that of a coherent, richly-detailed world where everything is present simultaneously. Indeed, this impression is so compelling that we tend to ascribe these properties not only to the external world, but to our internal representations as well. But results from several recent experiments argue against this latter ascription. For example, changes in images of real-world scenes often go unnoticed when made during a saccade, flicker, blink, or movie cut. This "change (...)
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  8.  3
    Jay A. Olson, Alym A. Amlani, Amir Raz & Ronald A. Rensink (2015). Influencing Choice Without Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 37:225-236.
  9.  12
    V. di Lollo, James T. Enns & R. Rensink (2000). Competition for Consciousness Among Visual Events: The Psychophysics of Reentrant Visual Processes. Journal Of Experimental Psychology-General 129 (4):481-507.
  10.  73
    Ronald A. Rensink (2000). Seeing, Sensing, and Scrutinizing. Vision Research:469-1487.
    Large changes in a scene often become difficult to notice if made during an eye movement, image flicker, movie cut, or other such disturbance. It is argued here that this _change blindness_ can serve as a useful tool to explore various aspects of vision. This argument centers around the proposal that focused attention is needed for the explicit perception of change. Given this, the study of change perception can provide a useful way to determine the nature of visual attention, and (...)
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  11.  6
    Gustav Kuhn & Ronald A. Rensink (2016). The Vanishing Ball Illusion: A New Perspective on the Perception of Dynamic Events. Cognition 148:64-70.
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  12.  48
    Ronald A. Rensink (2008). Towards a Science of Magic. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (9):349-354.
  13.  31
    Vincent Di Lollo, James T. Enns & Ronald A. Rensink (2000). Competition for Consciousness Among Visual Events: The Psychophysics of Reentrant Visual Processes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 129 (4):481.
  14. Ronald A. Rensink, Kevin J. O'Regan & James J. Clark (2000). On Failures to Detect Changes in Scenes Across Brief Interruptions. Visual Cognition 7 (1-3):127-145.
    When brief blank fields are placed between alternating displays of an original and a modified scene, a striking failure of perception is induced: the changes become extremely difficult to notice, even when they are large, presented repeatedly, and the observer expects them to occur (Rensink, O'Regan, & Clark, 1997). To determine the mechanisms behind this induced "change blindness", four experiments examine its dependence on initial preview and on the nature of the interruptions used. Results support the proposal that representations at (...)
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  15.  58
    J. Kevin O'Regan, H. Deubel, James J. Clark & R. Rensink (2000). Picture Changes During Blinks: Looking Without Seeing and Seeing Without Looking. Visual Cognition 7:191-211.
    Observers inspected normal, high quality color displays of everyday visual scenes while their eye movements were recorded. A large display change occurred each time an eye blink occurred. Display changes could either involve "Central Interest" or "Marginal Interest" locations, as determined from descriptions obtained from independent judges in a prior pilot experiment. Visual salience, as determined by luminance, color, and position of the Central and Marginal interest changes were equalized.
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  16.  96
    R. Rensink (2000). Visual Search for Change: A Probe Into the Nature of Attentional Processing. Visual Cognition 7:345-376.
    A set of visual search experiments tested the proposal that focused attention is needed to detect change. Displays were arrays of rectangles, with the target being the item that continually changed its orientation or contrast polarity. Five aspects of performance were examined: linearity of response, processing time, capacity, selectivity, and memory trace. Detection of change was found to be a self-terminating process requiring a time that increased linearly with the number of items in the display. Capacity for orientation was found (...)
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  17.  25
    Kevin J. O'Regan, Ronald A. Rensink & James J. Clark (1999). Change Blindness as a Result of Mudsplashes. Nature 398 (6722):34-34.
  18. Daniel J. Simons & Ronald A. Rensink (2005). Change Blindness, Representations, and Consciousness: Reply to Noe. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (5):219.
  19.  82
    Ronald A. Rensink (2005). Change Blindness. In Laurent Itti, Geraint Rees & John K. Tsotsos (eds.), Neurobiology of Attention. Academic Press 76--81.
  20.  9
    Hélène L. Gauchou, Ronald A. Rensink & Sidney Fels (2012). Expression of Nonconscious Knowledge Via Ideomotor Actions. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):976-982.
    Ideomotor actions are behaviours that are unconsciously initiated and express a thought rather than a response to a sensory stimulus. The question examined here is whether ideomotor actions can also express nonconscious knowledge. We investigated this via the use of implicit long-term semantic memory, which is not available to conscious recall. We compared accuracy of answers to yes/no questions using both volitional report and ideomotor response . Results show that when participants believed they knew the answer, responses in the two (...)
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  21.  89
    Ronald A. Rensink (2005). Change Blindness: Implications for the Nature of Visual Attention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (1):16-20.
  22.  20
    Ronald Rensink (2010). Seeing Seeing. Psyche 16 (1):68-78.
    This paper discusses several key issues concerning consciousness and human vision. A brief overview is presented of recent developments in this area, including issues that have been resolved and issues that remain unsettled. Based on this, three Hilbert questions are proposed. These involve three related sets of issues: the kinds of visual experience that exist, the kinds of visual attention that exist, and the ways that these relate to each other.
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  23.  87
    Ronald Rensink, How Much of a Scene is Seen? The Role of Attention in Scene Perception.
    A striking blindness to changes in real-world scenes can be induced using a variety of techniques (e.g., saccade-, blink-, or flicker-contingent change). The strength and robustness of this phenomenon points towards the involvement of mechanisms central to visual perception. It is proposed here that this induced change blindness can be explained by an..
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  24.  53
    Ronald A. Rensink, On the Applications of Change Blindness.
    An overview is presented of the ways that change blindness has been applied to the study of various issues in perception and cognition. Topics include mechanisms of change perception, allocation of attention, nonconscious perception, and cognitive beliefs. Recent work using change blindness to investigate these topics is surveyed, along with a brief discussion of some of the ways that these approaches may further develop over the next few years.
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  25.  43
    Ronald A. Rensink, Scene Perception.
    Scene Perception is the visual perception of an environment as viewed by an observer at any given time. It includes not only the perception of individual objects, but also such things as their relative locations, and expectations about what other kinds of objects might be encountered. Given that scene perception is so effortless for most observers, it might be thought of as something easy to understand. However, the amount of effort required by a process often bears little relation to its (...)
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  26.  49
    Ronald Rensink, Image Flicker is as Good as Saccades in Making Large Scene Changes Invisible.
    Several recent investigations (Grimes, in press; McConkie and Currie, in preparation) report that large changes in images of natural scenes can remain unnoticed if these are made during saccades. We show here that similar massive effects can be obtained without synchronization to saccades. This is done via a "flicker" technique in which an original and an altered image (each of duration 240 ms) are repetitively alternated, with a blank field (duration 27 or 290 ms) between each display. One of four (...)
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  27.  22
    Ronald Rensink, Mindsight: Visual Sensing Without Seeing.
    Purpose. To determine whether an observer can have an accurate feeling about the state of a visual stimulus (sensing) without an accompanying visual experience (seeing).
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  28.  18
    Ronald Rensink, The Influence of Cast Shadows on Visual Search.
    We show that cast shadows can have a significant influence on the speed of visual search. In particular, we find that search based on the shape of a region is affected when the region is darker than the background and corresponds to a shadow formed by lighting from above. Results support the proposal that an early-level system rapidly identifies regions as shadows and then discounts them, making their shapes more difficult to access. Several constraints used by this system are mapped (...)
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  29.  38
    Ronald A. Rensink, The Management of Visual Attention in Graphic Displays.
    This chapter presents an overview of several recent developments in vision science, and outlines some of their implications for the management of visual attention in graphic displays. These include ways of sending attention to the right item at the right time, techniques to improve attentional efficiency, and possibilities for offloading some of the processing typically done by attention onto nonattentional mechanisms. In addition it is argued that such techniques not only allow more effective use to be made of visual attention, (...)
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  30. Vincent Di Lollo, James T. Enns & Ronald A. Rensink (2002). Object Substitution Without Reentry? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 131 (4):594-596.
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  31.  36
    Ronald Rensink, On the Failure to Detect Changes in Scenes Under Flicker Conditions.
    When brief blank fields are placed between alternating displays of an original and a modified scene, a striking form of "change blindness" is induced, where the changes are difficult to see (Rensink, O'Regan, and Clark, 1997). Experiments are presented here examining the dependence of this phenomenon on initial preview and type of transient caused by the blanks. Results support the idea that our representation of the world is a sparse one, coordinated by attentional mechanisms.
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  32.  28
    Jason Harrison & Ronald A. Rensink, Obscuring Length Changes During Animated Motion.
    In this paper we examine to what extent the lengths of the links in an animated articulated figure can be changed without the viewer being aware of the change. This is investigated in terms of a framework that emphasizes the role of attention in visual perception. We conducted a set of five experiments to establish bounds for the sensitivity to changes in length as a function of several parameters and the amount of attention available. We found that while length changes (...)
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  33.  7
    Daniel J. Simons & Ronald A. Rensink (2005). Perception Versus Inference. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (1):16-20.
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  34.  7
    Ronald Rensink, The Modeling and Control of Visual Perception.
    Recent developments in vision science have resulted in several major changes in our understanding of human visual perception. For example, attention no longer appears necessary for "visual intelligence"--a large amount of sophisticated processing can be done without it. Scene perception no longer appears to involve static, general-purpose descriptions, but instead may involve dynamic representations whose content depends on the individual and the task. And vision itself no longer appears to be limited to the production of a conscious "picture"--it may also (...)
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  35.  26
    Ronald Rensink, On the Visual Discrimination of Self-Similar Random Textures.
    This work investigates the ability of the human visual system to discriminate self-similar Gaussian random textures. The power spectra of such textures are similar to themselves when rescaled by some factor h > 1. As such, these textures provide a natural domain for testing the hypothesis that texture perception is based on a set of spatial-frequency channels characterized by filters of similar shape.
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  36.  29
    Daniel J. Simons & Ron Rensink (2003). Induced Failures of Visual Awareness. Journal of Vision 2 (3).
  37.  23
    Ronald A. Rensink, Changes.
    This past decade has seen a great resurgence of interest in the perception of change. Change has, of course, long been recognized as a phenomenon worthy of study, and vision scientists have given their attention to it at various times in the past (for a review, see Rensink, 2002a). But things seem different this time around. This time, there is an emerging belief that instead of being just another visual ability, the perception of change may be something central to our (...)
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  38.  17
    Ronald Rensink, The Influence of Line Relations on Visual Search.
    It has generally been assumed that parallel visual search can only be based on the presence of simple features -- the spatial relations between features do not influence this process. We describe a series of visual search experiments that contradict this assumption. Search for line drawings of opaque polyhedra is greatly influenced by some line relations. In particular, search is rapid for line drawings (i) that have arrow- and Y-junctions corresponding to corners formed from orthogonal surfaces, and (ii) that do..
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  39.  26
    Ronald A. Rensink (forthcoming). Attention, Consciousness, and Data Display. 2006 Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Statistical Graphics Section.
    Recent advances in our understanding of visual perception have shown it to be a far more complex and counterintuitive process than previously believed. Several important consequences follow from this. First, the design of an effective statistical graphics system is unlikely to succeed based on intuition alone; instead, it must rely on a more sophisticated, systematic approach. The basic elements of such an approach are outlined here, along with several design principles. An overview is then given of recent advances in our (...)
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  40.  20
    Michael Huggett, Holger Hoos & Ron Rensink (2007). Cognitive Principles for Information Management: The Principles of Mnemonic Associative Knowledge (P-MAK). [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 17 (4):445-485.
    Information management systems improve the retention of information in large collections. As such they act as memory prostheses, implying an ideal basis in human memory models. Since humans process information by association, and situate it in the context of space and time, systems should maximize their effectiveness by mimicking these functions. Since human attentional capacity is limited, systems should scaffold cognitive efforts in a comprehensible manner. We propose the Principles of Mnemonic Associative Knowledge (P-MAK), which describes a framework for semantically (...)
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  41.  14
    Ronald A. Rensink, Ideal Observers, Real Observers, and the Return of Elvis.
    Knill, Kersten, & Mamassian (Chapter 6) provide an interesting discussion of how the Bayesian formulation can be used to help investigate human vision. In their view, computational theories can be based on an ideal observer that uses Bayesian inference to make optimal use of available information. Four factors are important here: the image information used, the output structures estimated, the priors assumed (i.e., knowledge about the structure of the world), and the likelihood function used (i.e., knowledge about the projection of (...)
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  42.  16
    Ronald A. Rensink, The Perception of Correlation in Scatterplots.
    We present a rigorous way to evaluate the visual perception of correlation in scatterplots, based on classical psychophysical methods originally developed for simple properties such as brightness. Although scatterplots are graphically complex, the quantity they convey is relatively simple. As such, it may be possible to assess the perception of correlation in a similar way.
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  43.  15
    Ronald A. Rensink, Object Substitution Without Reentry?
    G. Francis and F. Hermens (2002) used computer simulations to claim that many current models of metacontrast masking can account for the findings of V. Di Lollo, J. T. Enns, and R. A. Rensink (2000). They also claimed that notions of reentrant processing are not necessary because all of V. Di Lollo et al. 's data can be explained by feed-forward models. The authors show that G. Francis and F. Hermens's claims are vitiated by inappropriate modeling of attention and by (...)
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  44.  18
    Ronald Rensink, The Stability of Color, Location, and Object Presence in Mental Representations of Natural Scenes.
    Purpose. Although observers easily extract the global meaning of natural scenes, it is often the case that they do not notice or remember all of their individual properties. It appears that some scene properties are more readily coded in mental representations than others. We tested the role of three different object properties - color, location, and presence/absence - in scene representations.
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  45. Ronald A. Rensink & James T. Enns (1995). Preemption Effects in Visual Search: Evidence for Low-Level Grouping. Psychological Review 102 (1):101-130.
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  46.  13
    Ronald A. Rensink (2002). Visual Attention. In L. Nagel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Macmillan
  47.  16
    Ronald Rensink, Internal Vs. External Information in Visual Perception.
    One of the more compelling beliefs about vision is that it is based on representations that are coherent and complete, with everything in the visual field described in great detail. However, changes made during a visual disturbance are found to be difficult to see, arguing against the idea that our brains contain a detailed, picture-like representation of the scene. Instead, it is argued here that a more dynamic, "just-in-time" representation is involved, one with deep similarities to the way that users (...)
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  48.  12
    Ronald Rensink, Processing of Shadows at Preattentive Levels.
    Recent studies have shown that several scene-based properties can be determined rapidly and in parallel at preattentive levels, including surface convexity and concavity (Ramachandran, 1988), direction of illumination (Enns & Rensink, 1990), and three-dimensional orientation (Enns & Rensink, 1991). We show that in addition to these properties, preattentive vision is also sensitive to scene structure defined by shadows.
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  49.  15
    Ronald Rensink, The World, the Brain, and the Speed of Sight.
    Adelson & Pentland (Chapter 11) use an engaging metaphor to illustrate their position on scene analysis: interpretations are produced by a workshop that employs a set of specialists, each concerned with a single aspect of the scene. The authors argue that it is too expensive to have a supervisor co-ordinate the specialists and that it is too expensive to let them operate independently. They then show that a careful sequencing of the specialists leads to solutions of minimum cost, at least (...)
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  50.  9
    Ronald A. Rensink, Four Futures and a History.
    Stephen Few provides a nice overview of the reasons why we should design data visualizations to be effective, and why it’s important to understand human perception when doing so. In fact, he’s done this so well that I can’t add much to his arguments. But I can, however, push the basic message a bit further, out into the times before and after those he discusses. Out into areas that are not as well known, or not really developed, where new opportunities (...)
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