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Raymond Turner [16]R. L. Turner [10]Robin Turner [7]Roy Turner [7]
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Profile: Raymond Turner (University of Essex)
Profile: Richard Turner
  1. Robin Turner, "Empty is the Argument of the Philosopher Which Relieves No Human Suffering" - Epicurus.
    It is often disillusioning to find that many great thinkers arenot nice people. Frequently, they are not even happy people.Schopenhauer was as miserable as they come, Heidegger was a memberof the Nazi Party, and Nietzsche went mad (though probably due to syphilis rather than philosophy). We expect philosophy to help us to live happily and wisely, yet many philosophers not only fail to do this, but are dull or unpleasant into the bargain.
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  2. Robin Turner, "Male Logic" and "Women's Intuition" The Split in Our Thinking Between "Masculine" and "Feminine" is Probably as Old as Language Itself. Human Beings Seem..
    The split in our thinking between "masculine" and "feminine" is probably as old as language itself. Human beings seem to have a natural tendency to divide things into pairs: good/bad, light/dark, subject/object and so on. It is not surprising, then, that the male/female or masculine/feminine dichotomy is used to classify things other than men and women. Many languages actually classify all nouns as "masculine" or "feminine" (although not very consistently: for example, the Spanish masculine noun pollo means "hen", while the (...)
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  3. Robin Turner, Adam and Eve: A Thought Experiment.
    To simplify the relation between desire and morality, and between personal and moral good, we can imagine a world of only two people; let us call them Adam and Eve, for the sake of tradition. This gives us two types of personal good: good for Adam and good for Eve. What is good for Adam (or Eve) is what tends to realise his or her desires in general, and, where desires conflict, realises the desires that are stronger in the long-term. (...)
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  4. Robin Turner, Linguistics Essays.
    Future Forms in English. A look at "will" and the futurates. Pretty basic stuff, but some people might find it useful. Register in Academic Writing . This is where I get Hallidayan for a change: an analysis of two different academic genres, with some comments about the teaching of academic writing (this is the paper I would have given at the Reading University conference on writing if I'd been able to afford the air fare!).
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  5. Robin Turner, Learn Logic with Beavis and Butthead!
    A work in progress, where our two friends exemplify logical fallacies, types of causation and other cool stuff. Quotations are from memory, and so may not be entirely accurate, e.g. I may have substituted "buttmunch" for "buttknocker"...
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  6. Robin Turner, Male Logic" and "Women's Intuition.
    The split in our thinking between "masculine" and "feminine" is probably as old as language itself. Human beings seem to have a natural tendency to divide things into pairs: good/bad, light/dark, subject/object and so on. It is not surprising, then, that the male/female or masculine/feminine dichotomy is used to classify things other than men and women. Many languages actually classify all nouns as "masculine" or "feminine" (although not very consistently: for example, the Spanish masculine noun pollo means "hen", while the (...)
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  7. Robin Turner, The Diffidence Principle.
    When Thomas Hobbes published Leviathan in 1651, one of his main concerns was to attack the idea that subjects had rights over their sovereigns. This notion, he thought, would lead eventually to civil war of the kind he had just lived through. In his famously grim view of the State of Nature, everyone has the right to everything, and because this leads inevitably to competition, everyone is afraid of everyone else, a state he calls “diffidence”. This in turn leads to (...)
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  8. Johannes Stelzer, Gabriele Lohmann, Karsten Mueller, Tilo Buschmann & Robert Turner (2014). Deficient Approaches to Human Neuroimaging. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
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  9. Raymond Turner (2014). Programming Languages as Technical Artifacts. Philosophy and Technology 27 (3):377-397.
    Taken at face value, a programming language is defined by a formal grammar. But, clearly, there is more to it. By themselves, the naked strings of the language do not determine when a program is correct relative to some specification. For this, the constructs of the language must be given some semantic content. Moreover, to be employed to generate physical computations, a programming language must have a physical implementation. How are we to conceptualize this complex package? Ontologically, what kind of (...)
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  10. Andreas Deistung, Andreas Schäfer, Ferdinand Schweser, Uta Biedermann, Daniel Güllmar, Robert Trampel, Robert Turner & Jürgen R. Reichenbach (2013). High-Resolution MR Imaging of the Human Brainstem In Vivo at 7 Tesla. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
    The human brainstem, which comprises a multitude of axonal nerve fibers and nuclei, plays an important functional role in the human brain. Depicting its anatomy non-invasively with high spatial resolution may thus in turn help to better relate normal and pathological anatomical variations to medical conditions as well as neurological and peripheral functions. We explored the potential of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 7T for depicting the intricate anatomy of the human brainstem in vivo by acquiring and generating images (...)
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  11. Benjamin Stahl, Ilona Henseler, Robert Turner, Stefan Geyer & Sonja A. E. Kotz (2013). How to Engage the Right Brain Hemisphere in Aphasics Without Even Singing: Evidence for Two Paths of Speech Recovery. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
    There is an ongoing debate as to whether singing helps left-hemispheric stroke patients recover from non-fluent aphasia through stimulation of the right hemisphere. According to recent work, it may not be singing itself that aids speech production in non-fluent aphasic patients, but rhythm and lyric type. However, the long-term effects of melody and rhythm on speech recovery are largely unknown. In the current experiment, we tested 15 patients with chronic non-fluent aphasia who underwent either singing therapy, rhythmic therapy, or standard (...)
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  12. Barbara Strotmann, Carsten Kögler, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Marcel Weiss, Arno Villringer & Robert Turner (2013). Mapping of Internal Structure of Human Habenula with Ex Vivo MRI at 7T. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:878.
    The habenula is a small but important nucleus located next to the third ventricle in front of the pineal body. It helps to control the human reward system and is considered to play a key role in emotion, showing increased activation in major depressive disorders. Its dysfunction may underlie several neurological and psychiatric disorders. It is now possible to visualize the habenula and its anatomical subdivisions -- medial habenula (MHB) and lateral habenula (LHB) -- using MR techniques. The aim of (...)
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  13. Raymond Turner, The Philosophy of Computer Science. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  14. Rita Turner & Ryan Donnelly (2013). Case Studies in Critical Ecoliteracy: A Curriculum for Analyzing the Social Foundations of Environmental Problems. Educational Studies 49 (5):387-408.
    This article outlines the features and application of a set of model curriculum materials that utilize eco-democratic principles and humanities-based content to cultivate critical analysis of the cultural foundations of socio-environmental problems. We first describe the goals and components of the materials, then discuss results of their use in two different types of classrooms: an undergraduate humanities seminar at a mid-sized four-year college, and a developmental writing course at a community college.
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  15. Chris Fox & Raymond Turner (2012). In Defence of Axiomatic Semantics. In Piotr Stalmaszcyzk (ed.), Philosophical and Formal Approaches to Linguistic Analysis. Ontos Verlag. 145.
    We may wonder about the status of logical accounts of the meaning of language. When does a particular proposal count as a theory? How do we judge a theory to be correct? What criteria can we use to decide whether one theory is “better” than another? Implicitly, many accounts attribute a foundational status to set theory, and set-theoretic characterisations of possible worlds in particular. The goal of a semantic theory is then to find a translation of the phenomena of interest (...)
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  16. Stefan Geyer, Marcel Weiss, Katja Reimann, Gabriele Lohmann & Robert Turner (2011). Microstructural Parcellation of the Human Cerebral Cortex – From Brodmann's Post-Mortem Map to in Vivo Mapping with High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.
    The year 2009 marked the 100th anniversary of the publication of the famous brain map of Korbinian Brodmann. Although a "classic" guide to microanatomical parcellation of the cerebral cortex, it is – from today's state-of-the-art neuroimaging perspective – problematic to use Brodmann's map as a structural guide to functional units in the cortex. In this article we discuss some of the reasons, especially the problematic compatibility of the "post-mortem world" of microstructural brain maps with the "in vivo world" of neuroimaging. (...)
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  17. J. Merrill, D. Sammler, M. Bangert, D. Goldhahn, G. Lohmann, R. Turner & A. D. Friederici (2011). Perception of Words and Pitch Patterns in Song and Speech. Frontiers in Psychology 3:76-76.
    This fMRI study examines shared and distinct cortical areas involved in the auditory perception of song and speech at the level of their underlying constituents: words, pitch and rhythm. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on the brain activity patterns of six conditions, arranged in a subtractive hierarchy: sung sentences including words, pitch and rhythm; hummed speech prosody and song melody containing only pitch patterns and rhythm; as well as the pure musical or speech rhythm. Systematic contrasts between these balanced (...)
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  18. Raymond Turner (2011). Specification. Minds and Machines 21 (2):135-152.
    The specification and implementation of computational artefacts occurs throughout the discipline of computer science. Consequently, unpacking its nature should constitute one of the core areas of the philosophy of computer science. This paper presents a conceptual analysis of the central role of specification in the discipline.
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  19. Robert Turner (2011). Conditioned Subjects: Connolly, the Amygdala, Fear, and Freedom. Theory and Event 14 (3).
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  20. Sue Eckstein, Rachel Turner & Nabil Al-Khalisi (2010). Reflection and Refraction. Clinical Ethics 5 (2):103-107.
    Personal narratives in which medical students and clinicians reflect on their education and practice, or recipients of health care reflect on their journey though the system can provide valuable insights which can usefully be shared. In this paper, a medical student describes the effect of a humanities-based student-selected component on her understanding of anatomy and dissection, and a junior doctor in Iraq learns some painful lessons about medicine and society during a night shift in the casualty department.
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  21. Rita Turner (2010). Everyday Ethics and Social Change. Environmental Ethics 32 (4):421-424.
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  22. Roy Turner (2010). Ethics Made Easy. Philosophy Now 81:29-31.
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  23. Raymond Turner (2009). Computable Models. Springer.
    Raymond Turner first provides a logical framework for specification and the design of specification languages, then uses this framework to introduce and study ...
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  24. Rita Turner (2009). The Discursive Construction of Anthropocentrism. Environmental Ethics 31 (2):183-201.
    Our businesses, policies, and lifestyles cause unexamined consequences for other people and other living beings, and exact sweeping destruction on the very ecosystems which support all life, including our own. A major factor contributing to this destructive behavior is the anthropocentric character of the dominant Western world view, which conceives of the nonhuman living world as apart from and less important than the human world, and which conceptualizes nonhuman nature—including animals, plants, ecological systems, the land, and the atmosphere—as inert, silent, (...)
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  25. Richard Turner & C. Whitehead (2008). How Collective Representations Can Change the Structure of the Brain. Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (s 10-11):43-57.
    Culture not only influences human psychology and perceptions of self, others and reality, it also, in certain contexts, influences the quality and degree of consciousness itself. If the brain gives shape to consciousness, then we would expect culture to have a corresponding impact on the functional anatomy and microstructure of the brain. The concept of 'collective representations', as developed by Durkheim, refers to the often crucial components of human life that have meaningful existence only because we agree that they do-- (...)
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  26. Roy Turner (2008). Did Duchamp's Urinal Flush Away Art? Philosophy Now 67:20-22.
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  27. Amnon H. Eden & Raymond Turner (2007). Problems in the Ontology of Computer Programs. Applied Ontology 2 (1):13-36.
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  28. Raymond Turner (2007). The Philosophy of Computer Science: Introduction to the Special Issue. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 17 (2):129-133.
  29. Raymond Turner (2007). Understanding Programming Languages. Minds and Machines 17 (2):203-216.
    We document the influence on programming language semantics of the Platonism/formalism divide in the philosophy of mathematics.
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  30. Robert Turner (2006). Ritual: Meaningful or Meaningless? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (6):633-633.
    In conflating opposing meanings of the term “ritual,” arising from historical Western cultural conflicts regarding church and state, this target article begs fundamental questions. Its appeals to cognitive science concepts such as “working memory” are poorly informed and obfuscate what could have been a far more penetrating and less biased discussion of stereotyped human action. (Published Online February 8 2007).
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  31. Anind Dey, Boicho Kokinov, David Leake & Roy Turner (eds.) (2005). Proceedings of the 5th International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Modeling and Using Context. Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 3554.
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  32. P. Blackburn, C. Ghidini, R. Turner & F. Giunchiglia (eds.) (2003). Proceedings of the Fourth International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Modeling and Using Context (CONTEXT'03), Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 2680. Springer.
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  33. R. Eugene Turner & Nancy N. Rabalais (2003). Linking Landscape and Water Quality in the Mississippi River Basin for 200 Years. BioScience 53 (6):563.
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  34. John O'Neill, R. Kerry Turner & Ian Bateman (eds.) (2002). Environmental Ethics and Philosophy. [Edward Elgar Pub.].
  35. Nancy N. Rabalais, R. Eugene Turner & Donald Scavia (2002). Beyond Science Into Policy: Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia and the Mississippi River. BioScience 52 (2):129.
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  36. Nancy N. Rabalais, R. Eugene Turner & Donald Scavia (2002). Beyond Science Into Policy: Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia and the Mississippi River Nutrient Policy Development for the Mississippi River Watershed Reflects the Accumulated Scientific Evidence That the Increase in Nitrogen Loading is the Primary Factor in the Worsening of Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. BioScience 52 (2):129-142.
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  37. Elise H. Turner & Roy M. Turner (2001). Representing the Graphics Context to Support Understanding Plural Anaphora in Multi-Modal Interfaces. In. In P. Bouquet V. Akman (ed.), Modeling and Using Context. Springer. 330--342.
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  38. R. Jay Turner (2001). Stress: Measurement by Self-Report and Interview. In N. J. Smelser & B. Baltes (eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences.
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  39. R. Steven Turner (2001). Book Review of'Physiognomy and the Meaning of Expression in Nineteenth-Century Culture' by Lucy Hartley. [REVIEW] Annals of Science 1 (1):1-1.
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  40. Roy Brouwer, Neil Powe, R. Kerry Turner, Ian J. Bateman & Ian H. Langford (1999). Public Attitudes to Contingent Valuation and Public Consultation. Environmental Values 8 (3):325 - 347.
    The use of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) in environmental decision-making and the contingent valuation (CV) technique as input into traditional CBA to elicit environmental values in monetary terms has stimulated an extensive debate. Critics have questioned the appropriateness of both the method and the technique. Some alternative suggestions for the elicitation of environmental values are based on a social process of deliberation. However, just like traditional economic theory, these alternative approaches may be questioned on their implicit value judgements regarding the legitimacy (...)
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  41. Ralph V. Turner (1999). Guala Bicchieri, The Letters and Charters of Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, Papal Legate in England, 1216–1218, Ed. Nicholas Vincent. (Canterbury and York Society, 83.) Woodbridge, Suff., and Rochester, N.Y.: Boydell and Brewer, 1996. Pp. Xcvi, 193; 4 Black-and-White Plates. $45. [REVIEW] Speculum 74 (1):124-126.
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  42. C. Portas, Geraint Rees, A. Howseman, O. Josephs, R. Turner & Christopher D. Frith (1998). A Specific Role for the Thalamus in Mediating the Interaction of Attention and Arousal in Humans. Journal of Neuroscience 18 (21):8979-8989.
  43. David Lukoff, Francis G. Lu & Robert P. Turner (1997). Commentary on "Spiritual Experience and Psychopathology&Quot. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 4 (1):75-77.
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  44. Ralph Turner (1996). King John's Concept of Royal Authority. History of Political Thought 17 (2):157-178.
  45. Rosemary Turner (1996). Catholic Health Care and Aged Care in Australia. Australasian Catholic Record 73 (2):136.
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  46. R. Steven Turner (1993). Consensus and Controversy: Helmholtz on the Visual Perception of Space. In David Cahan (ed.), Hermann von Helmholtz and the Foundations of Nineteenth-Century Science. University of California Press. 154--203.
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  47. R. E. Turner & N. N. Rabalais (1991). Changes in the Mississippi River This Century: Implications for Coastal Food Webs. BioScience 41:140-147.
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  48. R. Eugene Turner & Nancy N. Rabalais (1991). Changes in Mississippi River Water Quality This Century. BioScience 41 (3):140-147.
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  49. Ralph V. Turner (1990). Charlotte A. Newman, The Anglo-Norman Nobility in the Reign of Henry I: The Second Generation.(Middle Ages Series.) Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988. Pp. Xii, 243. [REVIEW] Speculum 65 (3):733-735.
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