69 found
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  1.  11
    Stephen Buetow, Ross Upshur, Andrew Miles & Michael Loughlin (2006). Taking Stock of Evidence‐Based Medicine: Opportunities for its Continuing Evolution. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (4):399-404.
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  2.  81
    Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Maya J. Goldenberg, Kirstin Borgerson, Vikki Entwistle & Elselijn Kingma (2012). Reason and Value: Making Reasoning Fit for Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):929-937.
    Editors' introduction to 3rd thematic issue on philosophy of medicine.
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  3.  28
    Michael Loughlin, Ross E. G. Upshur, Maya J. Goldenberg, Robyn Bluhm & Kirstin Borgerson (2010). Philosophy, Ethics, Medicine and Health Care: The Urgent Need for Critical Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):249-259.
  4.  9
    Ross Upshur, Stephen Buetow, Michael Loughlin & Andrew Miles (2006). Can Academic and Clinical Journals Be in Financial Conflict of Interest Situations? The Case of Evidence‐Based Incorporated. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (4):405-409.
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  5.  9
    Ross E. G. Upshur (2014). Ebola Virus in West Africa: Waiting for the Owl of Minerva. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (4):421-423.
    The evolving Ebola epidemic in West Africa is unprecedented in its size and scope, requiring the rapid mobilization of resources. It is too early to determine all of the ethical challenges associated with the outbreak, but these should be monitored closely. Two issues that can be discussed are the decision to implement and evaluate unregistered agents to determine therapeutic or prophylactic safety and efficacy and the justification behind this decision. In this paper, I argue that it is not compassionate use (...)
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  6.  48
    Andrew D. Pinto & Ross E. G. Upshur (2009). Global Health Ethics for Students. Developing World Bioethics 9 (1):1-10.
    As a result of increased interest in global health, more and more medical students and trainees from the.
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  7.  19
    Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Drozdstoj S. Stoyanov, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Kirstin Borgerson, Maya J. Goldenberg & Elselijn Kingma (2013). Explanation, Understanding, Objectivity and Experience. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):415-421.
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  8.  32
    Ross E. G. Upshur (2005). Looking for Rules in a World of Exceptions: Reflections on Evidence-Based Practice. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (4):477-489.
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  9.  5
    Spencer G. Livingstone, Maxwell J. Smith, Diego S. Silva & Ross E. G. Upshur (forthcoming). Much Ado About Omics: Welcome to ‘the Permutome’. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice:n/a-n/a.
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  10.  50
    Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Jonathan Fuller, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Kirstin Borgerson, Maya J. Goldenberg & Elselijn Kingma (2014). Philosophy, Medicine and Health Care – Where We Have Come From and Where We Are Going. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):902-907.
  11.  11
    Ross E. G. Upshur, Elizabeth G. VanDenKerkhof & Vivek Goel (2001). Meaning and Measurement: An Inclusive Model of Evidence in Health Care. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 7 (2):91-96.
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  12.  7
    Ross EG Upshur, James V. Lavery & Paulina O. Tindana (2007). Taking Tissue Seriously Means Taking Communities Seriously. BMC Medical Ethics 8 (1):11.
    Health research is increasingly being conducted on a global scale, particularly in the developing world to address leading causes of morbidity and mortality. While research interest has increased, building scientific capacity in the developing world has not kept pace. This often leads to the export of human tissue (defined broadly) from the developing to the developed world for analysis. These practices raise a number of important ethical issues that require attention.
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  13.  7
    Ross E. G. Upshur (2002). If Not Evidence, Then What? Or Does Medicine Really Need a Base? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (2):113-119.
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  14.  22
    Udo Schüklenk, Johannes J. M. van Delden, Jocelyn Downie, Sheila A. M. Mclean, Ross Upshur & Daniel Weinstock (2011). End-of-Life Decision-Making in Canada: The Report by the Royal Society of Canada Expert Panel on End-of-Life Decision-Making. Bioethics 25 (s1):1-73.
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  15.  8
    Mona Gupta & Ross Upshur (2012). Critical Thinking in Clinical Medicine: What is It? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):938-944.
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  16.  12
    Ross Upshur (2013). What Does Public Health Ethics Tell (Or Not Tell) Us About Intervening in Non-Communicable Diseases? Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (1):19-28.
    Obesity has been described as pandemic and a public health crisis. It has been argued that concerted research efforts are needed to enhance our understanding and develop effective interventions for the complex and multiple dimensions of the health challenges posed by obesity. This would provide a secure evidence base in order to justify clinical interventions and public policy. This paper critically examines these claims through the examination of models of public health and public health ethics. I argue that the concept (...)
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  17.  17
    Ross E. G. Upshur (2000). Seven Characteristics of Medical Evidence. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 6 (2):93-97.
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  18.  4
    Diego S. Silva, Angus Dawson & Ross E. G. Upshur (forthcoming). Reciprocity and Ethical Tuberculosis Treatment and Control. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-12.
    This paper explores the notion of reciprocity in the context of active pulmonary and laryngeal tuberculosis treatment and related control policies and practices. We seek to do three things: First, we sketch the background to contemporary global TB care and suggest that poverty is a key feature when considering the treatment of TB patients. We use two examples from TB care to explore the role of reciprocity: isolation and the use of novel TB drugs. Second, we explore alternative means of (...)
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  19.  11
    Carly Ruderman, C. Tracy, Cécile Bensimon, Mark Bernstein, Laura Hawryluck, Randi Zlotnik Shaul & Ross Upshur (2006). On Pandemics and the Duty to Care: Whose Duty? Who Cares? [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-6.
    Background As a number of commentators have noted, SARS exposed the vulnerabilities of our health care systems and governance structures. Health care professionals (HCPs) and hospital systems that bore the brunt of the SARS outbreak continue to struggle with the aftermath of the crisis. Indeed, HCPs – both in clinical care and in public health – were severely tested by SARS. Unprecedented demands were placed on their skills and expertise, and their personal commitment to their profession was severely tried. Many (...)
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  20.  37
    Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Maya J. Goldenberg, Kirstin Borgerson & Vikki Entwistle (2011). Virtue, Progress and Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):839-846.
  21.  10
    Alison Thompson, Karen Faith, Jennifer Gibson & Ross Upshur (2006). Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: An Ethical Framework to Guide Decision-Making. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-11.
    Background Planning for the next pandemic influenza outbreak is underway in hospitals across the world. The global SARS experience has taught us that ethical frameworks to guide decision-making may help to reduce collateral damage and increase trust and solidarity within and between health care organisations. Good pandemic planning requires reflection on values because science alone cannot tell us how to prepare for a public health crisis. Discussion In this paper, we present an ethical framework for pandemic influenza planning. The ethical (...)
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  22.  53
    R. E. G. Upshur & Errol Colak (2003). Argumentation and Evidence. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (4):283-299.
    This essay explores the role of informal logicand its application in the context of currentdebates regarding evidence-based medicine. This aim is achieved through a discussion ofthe goals and objectives of evidence-basedmedicine and a review of the criticisms raisedagainst evidence-based medicine. Thecontributions to informal logic by StephenToulmin and Douglas Walton are explicated andtheir relevance for evidence-based medicine isdiscussed in relation to a common clinicalscenario: hypertension management. This essayconcludes with a discussion on the relationshipbetween clinical reasoning, rationality, andevidence. It is argued that (...)
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  23. R. Upshur (2006). Critical Commentary on 'Integrating Evidence Into Clinical Practice: An Alternative to Evidence-Based Approaches.'. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12:281-288.
     
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  24.  7
    Ross E. G. Upshur (2013). A Short Note on Probability in Clinical Medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):463-466.
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  25.  1
    Victor Cellarius & Ross Upshur (2014). Teleological Care and the Last Years of Life. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):953-956.
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  26.  1
    Benjamin H. Chin-Yee & Ross E. G. Upshur (2015). Historical Thinking in Clinical Medicine: Lessons From R.G. Collingwood's Philosophy of History. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (3):448-454.
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  27.  1
    Ross E. G. Upshur (2014). Conventions or Foundations? A Response to Miles Little's Ex Nihilo Nihil Fit? Medicine Rests on Solid Foundations. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):988-990.
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  28.  23
    P. Langat, D. Pisartchik, D. Silva, C. Bernard, K. Olsen, M. Smith, S. Sahni & R. Upshur (2011). Is There a Duty to Share? Ethics of Sharing Research Data in the Context of Public Health Emergencies. Public Health Ethics 4 (1):4-11.
    Making research data readily accessible during a public health emergency can have profound effects on our response capabilities. The moral milieu of this data sharing has not yet been adequately explored. This article explores the foundation and nature of a duty, if any, that researchers have to share data, specifically in the context of public health emergencies. There are three notable reasons that stand in opposition to a duty to share one’s data, relating to: (i) data property and ownership, (ii) (...)
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  29.  32
    A. M. Viens, Cécile M. Bensimon & Ross E. G. Upshur (2009). Your Liberty or Your Life: Reciprocity in the Use of Restrictive Measures in Contexts of Contagion. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (2):207-217.
    In this paper, we explore the role of reciprocity in the employment of restrictive measures in contexts of contagion. Reciprocity should be understood as a substantive value that governs the use, level and extent of restrictive measures. We also argue that independent of the role reciprocity plays in the legitimisation the use of restrictive measures, reciprocity can also motivate support and compliance with legitimate restrictive measures. The importance of reciprocity has implications for how restrictive measures should be undertaken when preparing (...)
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  30.  2
    Carly Ruderman, C. Shawn Tracy, Cécile M. Bensimon, Mark Bernstein, Laura Hawryluck, Randi Z. Shaul & Ross E. G. Upshur (2006). On Pandemics and the Duty to Care: Whose Duty? Who Cares? BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):5.
    BackgroundAs a number of commentators have noted, SARS exposed the vulnerabilities of our health care systems and governance structures. Health care professionals and hospital systems that bore the brunt of the SARS outbreak continue to struggle with the aftermath of the crisis. Indeed, HCPs – both in clinical care and in public health – were severely tested by SARS. Unprecedented demands were placed on their skills and expertise, and their personal commitment to their profession was severely tried. Many were exposed (...)
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  31.  1
    Ross Upshur, Ian Kerridge, Wendy Lipworth, Christopher Mayes & Chris Degeling (2015). The Political and Ethical Challenge of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (1):107-113.
    This article critically examines current responses to multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and argues that bioethics needs to be willing to engage in a more radical critique of the problem than is currently offered. In particular, we need to focus not simply on market-driven models of innovation and anti-microbial solutions to emergent and re-emergent infections such as TB. The global community also needs to address poverty and the structural factors that entrench inequalities—thus moving beyond the orthodox medical/public health frame of reference.
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  32.  11
    Jennifer L. Gibson & Ross E. G. Upshur (2012). Ethics and Chronic Disease: Where Are the Bioethicists? Bioethics 26 (5):ii-iv.
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  33.  24
    Solomon Benatar & Ross Upshur (2013). Virtue in Medicine Reconsidered: Individual Health and Global Health. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 56 (1):126-147.
    At this crucial time, on the centenary of major reforms, we invite all concerned stakeholders to join us in much needed rethinking for reforms of professional education in the 21st century. . . . All health professionals in all countries should be educated to mobilise knowledge and to engage in critical reasoning and ethical conduct so that they are competent to participate in patient and population-centred health systems as members of locally responsive and globally connected teams. What this Commission argues (...)
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  34.  3
    Ross Upshur (2011). Four Alternatives to a Reductive View of Knowledge: A Commentary. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):905-906.
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  35.  45
    Erica Zarkovich & R. E. G. Upshur (2002). The Virtues of Evidence. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 23 (4-5):403-412.
    Evidence-based medicine has beendefined as the conscientious and judicious useof current best evidence in making clinicaldecisions. This paper will attempt to explicatethe terms ``conscientious'''' and ``judicious''''within the evidence-based medicine definition.It will be argued that ``conscientious'''' and``judicious'''' represent virtue terms derived fromvirtue ethics and virtue epistemology. Theidentification of explicit virtue components inthe definition and therefore conception ofevidence-based medicine presents an importantstarting point in the connection between virtuetheories and medicine itself. In addition, aunification of virtue theories andevidence-based medicine will illustrate theneed for (...)
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  36.  22
    Ross Upshur (2009). Making the Grade: Assuring Trustworthiness in Evidence. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (2):264-275.
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  37.  8
    Timothy Caulfield, Ross Upshur & Abdallah Daar (2003). DNA Databanks and Consent: A Suggested Policy Option Involving an Authorization Model. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 4 (1):1-4.
    Background Genetic databases are becoming increasingly common as a means of determining the relationship between lifestyle, environmental exposures and genetic diseases. These databases rely on large numbers of research subjects contributing their genetic material to successfully explore the genetic basis of disease. However, as all possible research questions that can be posed of the data are unknown, an unresolved ethical issue is the status of informed consent for future research uses of genetic material. Discussion In this paper, we discuss the (...)
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  38.  11
    Erica J. Sutton & Ross E. G. Upshur (2010). Are There Different Spheres of Conscience? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):338-343.
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  39.  29
    R. E. G. Upshur (1999). Priors and Prejudice. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 20 (4):319-327.
    This paper explores the relationship between concepts of probability and hermeneutics. It seeks to examine the relationship between subjective (Bayesian) views of probability and hermeneutic descriptions of understanding. It is argued that Gadamer'saccount of the prejudicial nature of understanding, derived from Heidegger'sanalysis of foreunderstanding, offers a provocative model of clinical reasoning. The implications of this model for evidence-based medicine are discussed in conclusion.
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  40.  21
    Ross Upshur (1997). Certainty, Probability and Abduction: Why We Should Look to C.S. Peirce Rather Than Gödel for a Theory of Clinical Reasoning. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 3 (3):201-206.
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  41.  3
    Ross E. G. Upshur (2006). Evidence‐Based Medicine, Reasoned Medicine or Both? Commentary on Jenicek, M. (2006) 'The Hard Art of Soft science'Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12, 410–419. [REVIEW] Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (4):420-422.
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  42.  3
    Claudia I. Emerson, Peter A. Singer & Ross Eg Upshur (2011). Access and Use of Human Tissues From the Developing World: Ethical Challenges and a Way Forward Using a Tissue Trust. BMC Medical Ethics 12 (1):2.
    BackgroundScientists engaged in global health research are increasingly faced with barriers to access and use of human tissues from the developing world communities where much of their research is targeted. In part, the problem can be traced to distrust of researchers from affluent countries, given the history of 'scientific-imperialism' and 'biocolonialism' reflected in past well publicized cases of exploitation of research participants from low to middle income countries.DiscussionTo a considerable extent, the failure to adequately engage host communities, the opacity of (...)
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  43.  15
    Jason X. Nie, Li Wang, C. Shawn Tracy, Rahim Moineddin & Ross Eg Upshur (2008). Health Care Service Utilization Among the Elderly: Findings From the Study to Understand the Chronic Condition Experience of the Elderly and the Disabled (SUCCEED Project). Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (6):1044-1049.
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  44.  6
    Halley S. Faust, Cécile M. Bensimon & Ross E. G. Upshur (2009). The Role of Faith-Based Organizations in the Ethical Aspects of Pandemic Flu Planning—Lessons Learned From the Toronto SARS Experience. Public Health Ethics 2 (1):105-112.
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  45.  25
    Emma R. M. Cohen, Jennifer M. O'neill, Michel Joffres, Ross E. G. Upshur & Edward Mills (2009). Reporting of Informed Consent, Standard of Care and Post-Trial Obligations in Global Randomized Intervention Trials: A Systematic Survey of Registered Trials. Developing World Bioethics 9 (2):74-80.
    Objective: Ethical guidelines are designed to ensure benefits, protection and respect of participants in clinical research. Clinical trials must now be registered on open-access databases and provide details on ethical considerations. This systematic survey aimed to determine the extent to which recently registered clinical trials report the use of standard of care and post-trial obligations in trial registries, and whether trial characteristics vary according to setting. Methods: We selected global randomized trials registered on http://www.clinicaltrials.gov and http://www.controlled-trials.com. We searched for intervention (...)
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  46.  6
    Maxwell J. Smith & Ross E. G. Upshur (2015). Ebola and Learning Lessons From Moral Failures: Who Cares About Ethics? Public Health Ethics 8 (3):305-318.
    The exercise of identifying lessons in the aftermath of a major public health emergency is of immense importance for the improvement of global public health emergency preparedness and response. Despite the persistence of the Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in West Africa, it seems that the Ebola ‘lessons learned’ exercise is now in full swing. On our assessment, a significant shortcoming plagues recent articulations of lessons learned, particularly among those emerging from organizational reflections. In this article we argue that, despite not (...)
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  47.  2
    Adrian Guta, Stuart J. Murray, Carol Strike, Sarah Flicker, Ross Upshur & Ted Myers (forthcoming). Governing Well in Community-Based Research: Lessons From Canada’s HIV Research Sector on Ethics, Publics and the Care of the Self. Public Health Ethics:phw024.
    In this paper, we extend Michel Foucault’s final works on the ‘care of the self’ to an empirical examination of research practice in community-based research. We use Foucault’s ‘morality of behaviors’ to analyze interview data from a national sample of Canadian CBR practitioners working with communities affected by HIV. Despite claims in the literature that ethics review is overly burdensome for non-traditional forms of research, our findings suggest that many researchers using CBR have an ambivalent but ultimately productive relationship with (...)
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  48.  4
    Ross Upshur (2008). Inside Intuition Eugene Sadler‐Smith. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (5):693-693.
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  49.  2
    H. S. Faust, C. M. Bensimon & R. E. G. Upshur (2009). The Role of Faith-Based Organizations in the Ethical Aspects of Pandemic Flu Planning--Lessons Learned From the Toronto SARS Experience. Public Health Ethics 2 (1):105-112.
    Are restrictive measures and duties to care ethically reasonably acceptable to faith-based organizations? This study describes the perceptions of individually interviewed spiritual leaders of the disease control measures used during the recent SARS outbreak in Toronto. Four central themes were identified: the relationship between religious obligation and civic responsibilities; the role of faith-based organizations in supporting public health restrictive measures; the reciprocal obligations of public health and religious communities during restrictions; and justifiable limits to duties to care. We conclude that, (...)
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  50.  5
    Claudia Emerson, Ross Upshur & Abdallah Daar (2009). Empirical Bioethics Research in the Developing World: When the 'Is' is Close to an 'Ought'. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (6):101-103.
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