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  1. Ross E. G. Upshur (2014). Ebola Virus in West Africa: Waiting for the Owl of Minerva. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (4):421-423.
    The evolving Ebola epidemic in West Africa is unprecedented in its size and scope, requiring the rapid mobilization of resources. It is too early to determine all of the ethical challenges associated with the outbreak, but these should be monitored closely. Two issues that can be discussed are the decision to implement and evaluate unregistered agents to determine therapeutic or prophylactic safety and efficacy and the justification behind this decision. In this paper, I argue that it is not compassionate use (...)
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  2. Donald J. Willison, Nancy Ondrusek, Angus Dawson, Claudia Emerson, Lorraine E. Ferris, Raphael Saginur, Heather Sampson & Ross Upshur (2014). What Makes Public Health Studies Ethical? Dissolving the Boundary Between Research and Practice. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):61.
    The generation of evidence is integral to the work of public health and health service providers. Traditionally, ethics has been addressed differently in research projects, compared with other forms of evidence generation, such as quality improvement, program evaluation, and surveillance, with review of non-research activities falling outside the purview of the research ethics board. However, the boundaries between research and these other evaluative activities are not distinct. Efforts to delineate a boundary – whether on grounds of primary purpose, temporality, underlying (...)
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  3. Solomon Benatar & Ross Upshur (2013). Virtue in Medicine Reconsidered: Individual Health and Global Health. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 56 (1):126-147.
    At this crucial time, on the centenary of major reforms, we invite all concerned stakeholders to join us in much needed rethinking for reforms of professional education in the 21st century. . . . All health professionals in all countries should be educated to mobilise knowledge and to engage in critical reasoning and ethical conduct so that they are competent to participate in patient and population-centred health systems as members of locally responsive and globally connected teams. What this Commission argues (...)
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  4. Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Drozdstoj S. Stoyanov, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Kirstin Borgerson, Maya J. Goldenberg & Elselijn Kingma (2013). Explanation, Understanding, Objectivity and Experience. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):415-421.
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  5. Ross Upshur (2013). What Does Public Health Ethics Tell (Or Not Tell) Us About Intervening in Non-Communicable Diseases? Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (1):19-28.
    Obesity has been described as pandemic and a public health crisis. It has been argued that concerted research efforts are needed to enhance our understanding and develop effective interventions for the complex and multiple dimensions of the health challenges posed by obesity. This would provide a secure evidence base in order to justify clinical interventions and public policy. This paper critically examines these claims through the examination of models of public health and public health ethics. I argue that the concept (...)
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  6. Ross E. G. Upshur (2013). A Short Note on Probability in Clinical Medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):463-466.
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  7. John Coggon, Bill Madden, Tina Cockburn, Cameron Stewart, Jerome Amir Singh, Anant Bhan, Ross E. Upshur & Bernadette Richards (2012). Organ Donation, Discrimination After Death, Anti-Vaccination Sentiments, and Tuberculosis Management. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (2):125-133.
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  8. Jennifer L. Gibson & Ross E. G. Upshur (2012). Ethics and Chronic Disease: Where Are the Bioethicists? Bioethics 26 (5):ii-iv.
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  9. Mona Gupta & Ross Upshur (2012). Critical Thinking in Clinical Medicine: What is It? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):938-944.
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  10. Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Maya J. Goldenberg, Kirstin Borgerson, Vikki Entwistle & Elselijn Kingma (2012). Reason and Value: Making Reasoning Fit for Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):929-937.
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  11. Claudia I. Emerson, Peter A. Singer & Ross Eg Upshur (2011). Access and Use of Human Tissues From the Developing World: Ethical Challenges and a Way Forward Using a Tissue Trust. BMC Medical Ethics 12 (1):2.
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  12. P. Langat, D. Pisartchik, D. Silva, C. Bernard, K. Olsen, M. Smith, S. Sahni & R. Upshur (2011). Is There a Duty to Share? Ethics of Sharing Research Data in the Context of Public Health Emergencies. Public Health Ethics 4 (1):4-11.
    Making research data readily accessible during a public health emergency can have profound effects on our response capabilities. The moral milieu of this data sharing has not yet been adequately explored. This article explores the foundation and nature of a duty, if any, that researchers have to share data, specifically in the context of public health emergencies. There are three notable reasons that stand in opposition to a duty to share one’s data, relating to: (i) data property and ownership, (ii) (...)
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  13. Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Maya J. Goldenberg, Kirstin Borgerson & Vikki Entwistle (2011). Virtue, Progress and Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):839-846.
  14. Udo Schüklenk, Johannes J. M. van Delden, Jocelyn Downie, Sheila A. M. Mclean, Ross Upshur & Daniel Weinstock (2011). End-of-Life Decision-Making in Canada: The Report by the Royal Society of Canada Expert Panel on End-of-Life Decision-Making. Bioethics 25 (s1):1-73.
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  15. Ross Upshur (2011). Four Alternatives to a Reductive View of Knowledge: A Commentary. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):905-906.
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  16. Ross Upshur (2011). What is Global Health? In S. R. Benatar & Gillian Brock (eds.), Global Health and Global Health Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
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  17. N. Ford, R. Zachariah, E. Mills & R. Upshur (2010). Defining the Limits of Emergency Humanitarian Action: Where, and How, to Draw the Line? Public Health Ethics 3 (1):68-71.
    Decisions about targeting medical assistance in humanitarian contexts are fraught with dilemmas ranging from non-availability of basic services, to massive demographic and epidemiological shifts, and to the threat of insecurity and evacuations. Aid agencies are obliged, due to capacity constraints and competing priorities, to clearly define the objectives and the beneficiaries of their actions. That aid agencies have to set limits to their actions is not controversial, but the process of defining the limits raises ethical questions. In MSF, frameworks for (...)
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  18. Michael Loughlin, Ross E. G. Upshur, Maya J. Goldenberg, Robyn Bluhm & Kirstin Borgerson (2010). Philosophy, Ethics, Medicine and Health Care: The Urgent Need for Critical Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):249-259.
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  19. Jason X. Nie, Li Wang, C. Shawn Tracy, Rahim Moineddin & Ross E. G. Upshur (2010). A Population‐Based Cohort Study of Ambulatory Care Service Utilization Among Older Adults. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (4):825-831.
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  20. Erica J. Sutton & Ross E. G. Upshur (2010). Are There Different Spheres of Conscience? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):338-343.
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  21. Emma R. M. Cohen, Jennifer M. O'neill, Michel Joffres, Ross E. G. Upshur & Edward Mills (2009). Reporting of Informed Consent, Standard of Care and Post-Trial Obligations in Global Randomized Intervention Trials: A Systematic Survey of Registered Trials. Developing World Bioethics 9 (2):74-80.
    Objective: Ethical guidelines are designed to ensure benefits, protection and respect of participants in clinical research. Clinical trials must now be registered on open-access databases and provide details on ethical considerations. This systematic survey aimed to determine the extent to which recently registered clinical trials report the use of standard of care and post-trial obligations in trial registries, and whether trial characteristics vary according to setting. Methods: We selected global randomized trials registered on http://www.clinicaltrials.gov and http://www.controlled-trials.com. We searched for intervention (...)
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  22. Claudia Emerson, Ross Upshur & Abdallah Daar (2009). Empirical Bioethics Research in the Developing World: When the 'Is' is Close to an 'Ought'. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (6):101-103.
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  23. H. S. Faust, C. M. Bensimon & R. E. G. Upshur (2009). The Role of Faith-Based Organizations in the Ethical Aspects of Pandemic Flu Planning--Lessons Learned From the Toronto SARS Experience. Public Health Ethics 2 (1):105-112.
    Are restrictive measures and duties to care ethically reasonably acceptable to faith-based organizations? This study describes the perceptions of individually interviewed spiritual leaders of the disease control measures used during the recent SARS outbreak in Toronto. Four central themes were identified: the relationship between religious obligation and civic responsibilities; the role of faith-based organizations in supporting public health restrictive measures; the reciprocal obligations of public health and religious communities during restrictions; and justifiable limits to duties to care. We conclude that, (...)
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  24. Halley S. Faust, Cécile M. Bensimon & Ross E. G. Upshur (2009). The Role of Faith-Based Organizations in the Ethical Aspects of Pandemic Flu Planning—Lessons Learned From the Toronto SARS Experience. Public Health Ethics 2 (1):105-112.
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  25. Andrew D. Pinto & Ross E. G. Upshur (2009). Global Health Ethics for Students. Developing World Bioethics 9 (1):1-10.
    As a result of increased interest in global health, more and more medical students and trainees from the.
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  26. Ross Upshur (2009). Making the Grade: Assuring Trustworthiness in Evidence. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (2):264-275.
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  27. A. M. Viens, Cécile M. Bensimon & Ross E. G. Upshur (2009). Your Liberty or Your Life: Reciprocity in the Use of Restrictive Measures in Contexts of Contagion. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (2):207-217.
    In this paper, we explore the role of reciprocity in the employment of restrictive measures in contexts of contagion. Reciprocity should be understood as a substantive value that governs the use, level and extent of restrictive measures. We also argue that independent of the role reciprocity plays in the legitimisation the use of restrictive measures, reciprocity can also motivate support and compliance with legitimate restrictive measures. The importance of reciprocity has implications for how restrictive measures should be undertaken when preparing (...)
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  28. Halley S. Faust & Ross Upshur (2008). Public Health Ethics. In Peter A. Singer & A. M. Viens (eds.), The Cambridge Textbook of Bioethics. Cambridge University Press. 274.
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  29. Jason X. Nie, Li Wang, C. Shawn Tracy, Rahim Moineddin & Ross Eg Upshur (2008). Health Care Service Utilization Among the Elderly: Findings From the Study to Understand the Chronic Condition Experience of the Elderly and the Disabled (SUCCEED Project). Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (6):1044-1049.
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  30. Ross Upshur (2008). Inside Intuition Eugene Sadler‐Smith. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (5):693-693.
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  31. Ross E. G. Upshur (2008). Introduction. Journal of Academic Ethics 6 (4):271-275.
    Clinical research is now a global enterprise. However, research ethics capacity has lagged behind the growth and expansion of clinical research in low and middle income countries. To address this mismatch, the Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health has created a program to fund education in research ethics. This series of articles describes the experiences of graduates from 5 nations of the University of Toronto’s Joint Centre for Bioethics International Masters of Health Science Program. The program has (...)
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  32. Ross Upshur & Sioban Nelson (2008). Duty to Care: Acknowledging Complexity and Uncertainty. Nursing Inquiry 15 (4):261-262.
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  33. B. E. Gibson, R. E. G. Upshur, N. L. Young & P. McKeever (2007). Disability, Technology, and Place: Social and Ethical Implications of Long-Term Dependency on Medical Devices. Ethics, Place and Environment 10 (1):7 – 28.
    Medical technologies and assistive devices such as ventilators and power wheelchairs are designed to sustain life and/or improve functionality but they can also contribute to stigmatization and social exclusion. In this paper, drawing from a study of ten men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we explore the complex social processes that mediate the lives of persons who are dependent on multiple medical and assistive technologies. In doing so we consider the embodied and emplaced nature of disability and (...)
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  34. Michel Shamy & Ross Upshur (2007). How Doctors Think (Review). Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51 (1):158-161.
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  35. Ross Upshur (2007). Analysis: A Physician's Self‐Paced Guide to Critical Thinking. Jenicek, M. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (4):538-539.
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  36. Ross EG Upshur, James V. Lavery & Paulina O. Tindana (2007). Taking Tissue Seriously Means Taking Communities Seriously. BMC Medical Ethics 8 (1):11.
    Health research is increasingly being conducted on a global scale, particularly in the developing world to address leading causes of morbidity and mortality. While research interest has increased, building scientific capacity in the developing world has not kept pace. This often leads to the export of human tissue (defined broadly) from the developing to the developed world for analysis. These practices raise a number of important ethical issues that require attention.
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  37. Stephen Buetow, Ross Upshur, Andrew Miles & Michael Loughlin (2006). Taking Stock of Evidence‐Based Medicine: Opportunities for its Continuing Evolution. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (4):399-404.
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  38. Carly Ruderman, C. Shawn Tracy, Cécile M. Bensimon, Mark Bernstein, Laura Hawryluck, Randi Z. Shaul & Ross E. G. Upshur (2006). On Pandemics and the Duty to Care: Whose Duty? Who Cares? BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):5.
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  39. Carly Ruderman, C. Tracy, Cécile Bensimon, Mark Bernstein, Laura Hawryluck, Randi Zlotnik Shaul & Ross Upshur (2006). On Pandemics and the Duty to Care: Whose Duty? Who Cares? [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-6.
    Background As a number of commentators have noted, SARS exposed the vulnerabilities of our health care systems and governance structures. Health care professionals (HCPs) and hospital systems that bore the brunt of the SARS outbreak continue to struggle with the aftermath of the crisis. Indeed, HCPs – both in clinical care and in public health – were severely tested by SARS. Unprecedented demands were placed on their skills and expertise, and their personal commitment to their profession was severely tried. Many (...)
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  40. Alison Thompson, Karen Faith, Jennifer Gibson & Ross Upshur (2006). Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: An Ethical Framework to Guide Decision-Making. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-11.
    Background Planning for the next pandemic influenza outbreak is underway in hospitals across the world. The global SARS experience has taught us that ethical frameworks to guide decision-making may help to reduce collateral damage and increase trust and solidarity within and between health care organisations. Good pandemic planning requires reflection on values because science alone cannot tell us how to prepare for a public health crisis. Discussion In this paper, we present an ethical framework for pandemic influenza planning. The ethical (...)
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  41. R. Upshur (2006). Critical Commentary on 'Integrating Evidence Into Clinical Practice: An Alternative to Evidence-Based Approaches.'. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12:281-288.
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  42. Ross E. G. Upshur (2006). Evidence‐Based Medicine, Reasoned Medicine or Both? Commentary on Jenicek, M. (2006) 'The Hard Art of Soft science'Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12, 410–419. [REVIEW] Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (4):420-422.
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  43. Ross E. G. Upshur (2006). The Complex, the Exhausted and the Personal: Reflections on the Relationship Between Evidence‐Based Medicine and Casuistry. Commentary on Tonelli (2006), Integrating Evidence Into Clinical Practice: An Alternative to Evidence‐Based Approaches. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (3):281-288.
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  44. Ross Upshur, Stephen Buetow, Michael Loughlin & Andrew Miles (2006). Can Academic and Clinical Journals Be in Financial Conflict of Interest Situations? The Case of Evidence‐Based Incorporated. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (4):405-409.
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  45. Ross E. G. Upshur (2005). Looking for Rules in a World of Exceptions: Reflections on Evidence-Based Practice. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (4):477-489.
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  46. Timothy Caulfield, Ross Upshur & Abdallah Daar (2003). DNA Databanks and Consent: A Suggested Policy Option Involving an Authorization Model. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 4 (1):1-4.
    Background Genetic databases are becoming increasingly common as a means of determining the relationship between lifestyle, environmental exposures and genetic diseases. These databases rely on large numbers of research subjects contributing their genetic material to successfully explore the genetic basis of disease. However, as all possible research questions that can be posed of the data are unknown, an unresolved ethical issue is the status of informed consent for future research uses of genetic material. Discussion In this paper, we discuss the (...)
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  47. R. E. G. Upshur & Errol Colak (2003). Argumentation and Evidence. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (4):283-299.
    This essay explores the role of informal logicand its application in the context of currentdebates regarding evidence-based medicine. This aim is achieved through a discussion ofthe goals and objectives of evidence-basedmedicine and a review of the criticisms raisedagainst evidence-based medicine. Thecontributions to informal logic by StephenToulmin and Douglas Walton are explicated andtheir relevance for evidence-based medicine isdiscussed in relation to a common clinicalscenario: hypertension management. This essayconcludes with a discussion on the relationshipbetween clinical reasoning, rationality, andevidence. It is argued that (...)
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  48. Ross E. G. Upshur (2002). If Not Evidence, Then What? Or Does Medicine Really Need a Base? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (2):113-119.
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