Search results for 'RNA world' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  21
    Susie Fisher (2010). Are Rna Viruses Vestiges of an Rna World? Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 41 (1):121-141.
    This paper follows the circuitous path of theories concerning the origins of viruses from the early years of the twentieth century until the present, considering RNA viruses in particular. I focus on three periods during which new understandings of the nature of viruses guided the construction and reconstruction of origin hypotheses. During the first part of the twentieth century, viruses were mostly viewed from within the framework of bacteriology and the discussion of origin centered on the “degenerative” or the “retrograde (...)
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  2.  1
    Anthony M. Poole (2006). Getting From an RNA World to Modern Cells Just Got a Little Easier. Bioessays 28 (2):105-108.
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  3.  4
    Julian Chela-Flores (1996). Ideas in Theoretical Biology Preservation of Relics From the RNA World Through Natural Selection, Symbiosis and Horizontal Gene Transfer. Acta Biotheoretica 44 (2):169-177.
  4. Susie Fisher (2010). Are RNA Viruses Vestiges of an RNA World? Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 41 (1):121-141.
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  5. Yu Liu, Rui Sousa & Yun-Xing Wang (2016). Specific Labeling: An Effective Tool to Explore the RNA World. Bioessays 38 (2):192-200.
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  6.  44
    David Penny (2005). An Interpretive Review of the Origin of Life Research. Biology and Philosophy 20 (4):633-671.
    Life appears to be a natural property of matter, but the problem of its origin only arose after early scientists refuted continuous spontaneous generation. There is no chance of life arising ‘all at once’, we need the standard scientific incremental explanation with large numbers of small steps, an approach used in both physical and evolutionary sciences. The necessity for considering both theoretical and experimental approaches is emphasized. After describing basic principles that are available (including the Darwin-Eigen cycle), the search for (...)
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  7.  2
    Donald R. Forsdyke (2013). Introns First. Biological Theory 7 (3):196-203.
    Knowing how introns originated should greatly enhance our understanding of the information we carry in our DNA. Gilbert’s suggestion that introns initially arose to facilitate recombination still stands, though not for the reason he gave. Reanney’s alternative, that evolution, from the early “RNA world” to today’s DNA-based world, would require the ability to detect and correct errors by recombination, now seems more likely. Consistent with this, introns are richer than exons in the potential to extrude the stem-loop structures (...)
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  8.  5
    Yair Neuman & Ophir Nave (2008). On the Semio-Mathematical Nature of Codes. Biosemiotics 1 (1):99-111.
    The relational structure of RNA, DNA, and protein bears an interesting similarity to the determination problem in category theory. In this paper, we present this deep-structure similarity and use it as a springboard for discussing some abstract properties of coding in various systems. These abstract properties, in turn, may shed light on the evolution of the DNA world from a semiotic perspective. According to the perspective adopted in this paper, living systems are not information processing systems but “meaning-making” systems. (...)
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  9.  58
    Iris Fry (1995). Are the Different Hypotheses on the Emergence of Life as Different as They Seem? Biology and Philosophy 10 (4):389-417.
    This paper calls attention to a philosophical presupposition, coined here the continuity thesis which underlies and unites the different, often conflicting, hypotheses in the origin of life field. This presupposition, a necessary condition for any scientific investigation of the origin of life problem, has two components. First, it contends that there is no unbridgeable gap between inorganic matter and life. Second, it regards the emergence of life as a highly probable process. Examining several current origin-of-life theories. I indicate the implicit (...)
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  10.  5
    Eun-Sung Kim (2008). Directed Evolution: A Historical Exploration Into an Evolutionary Experimental System of Nanobiotechnology, 1965–2006. [REVIEW] Minerva 46 (4):463-484.
    This study explores the history of nanotechnology from the perspective of protein engineering, which differs from the history of nanotechnology that has arisen from mechanical and materials engineering; it also demonstrates points of convergence between the two. Focusing on directed evolution—an experimental system of molecular biomimetics that mimics nature as an inspiration for material design—this study follows the emergence of an evolutionary experimental system from the 1960s to the present, by detailing the material culture, practices, and techniques involved. Directed evolution, (...)
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  11.  5
    Neeraja Sankaran (2012). How the Discovery of Ribozymes Cast RNA in the Roles of Both Chicken and Egg in Origin-of-Life Theories. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (4):741-750.
    Scientific theories about the origin-of-life theories have historically been characterized by the chicken-and-egg problem of which essential aspect of life was the first to appear, replication or self-sustenance. By the 1950s the question was cast in molecular terms and DNA and proteins had come to represent the carriers of the two functions. Meanwhile, RNA, the other nucleic acid, had played a capricious role in origin theories. Because it contained building blocks very similar to DNA, biologists recognized early that RNA could (...)
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  12.  9
    Bhakti Niskama Shanta (2011). Sorry, Darwin: Chemistry Never Made the Transition to Biology. Science and Scientist (Scienceandscientist.Org/Biology) and Darwin Under Siege (Scienceandscientist.Org/Darwin).
    The term biology is of Greek origin meaning the study of life. On the other hand, chemistry is the science of matter, which deals with matter and its properties, structure, composition, behavior, reactions, interactions and the changes it undergoes. The theory of abiogenesis maintains that chemistry made a transition to biology in a primordial soup. To keep the naturalistic ‘inanimate molecules to human life’ evolution ideology intact, scientists must assemble billions of links to bridge the gap between the inanimate chemicals (...)
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  13. Jean-Paul Gaudillière (1996). Molecular Biologists, Biochemists, and Messenger RNA: The Birth of a Scientific Network. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 29 (3):417 - 445.
    This paper investigated the part played by collaborative practices in chaneling the work of prominent biochemists into the development of molecular biology. The RNA collaborative network that emerged in the 1960s in France encompassed a continuum of activities that linked laboratories to policy-making centers. New institutional frameworks such as the DGRST committees were instrumental in establishing new patterns of funding, and in offering arenas for multidisciplinary debates and boundary assessment. It should be stressed however, that although this collaborative network was (...)
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  14.  7
    Antoine Danchin (2007). Archives or Palimpsests? Bacterial Genomes Unveil a Scenario for the Origin of Life. Biological Theory 2 (1):52-61.
    The three processes needed to create life, compartmentalization, metabolism, and information transfer (memory stored in nucleic acids and manipulation operated by proteins) are embedded in organized genome features. The core of life puts together growth and maintenance (which drives survival), while life in context explores and exploits specific niches. Analysis of gene persistence in a large number of genomes shows that the former constitutes the paleome, which recapitulates the three phases of the origin of life: metabolism of small molecules on (...)
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  15.  8
    Isaac Salazar-Ciudad (2013). Evolution in Biological and Non-Biological Systems: The Origins of Life. Biological Theory 7 (1):26-37.
    A replicator is simply something that makes copies of itself. There are hypothetical replicators (e.g., self-catalyzing chemical cycles) that are suspected to be unable to exhibit heritable variation. Variation in any of their constituent molecules would not lead them to produce offspring with those new variant molecules. Copying, such as in DNA replication or in xerox machines, allows any sequence to be remade and then sequence variations to be inherited. This distinction has been used against non-RNA-world hypotheses: without RNA (...)
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  16.  5
    Walter Riofrio (2008). Self-Organizing Dynamics of a Minimal Protocell. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 43:185-191.
    In this paper, we present an argument showing why the general properties of a self-organizing system (e.g. being far from equilibrium) may be too weak to characterize biological and proto-biological systems. The special character of biological systems, tell us that its distinctive capacities could have been developed in pre-biotic times. In other words, the basic properties of life would be better comprehended if we think that they were much more likely early in time. We developed a conceptual proposal on the (...)
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  17. Paul Davies, The Origin of Life II: How Did It Begin?
    The problem of how a mixture of chemicals can spontaneously transform themselves into even a simple living organism remains one of the great outstanding challenges to science. Various primordial soup theories have been proposed in which chemical self- organization brings about the required level of complexity. Major conceptual obstacles remain, however, such as the emergence of the genetic code, and the “chicken-and-egg” problem concerning which came first: nucleic acids or proteins. Currently fashionable is the so-called RNA world theory, which (...)
     
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  18. John McDowell (1994). Mind and World. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    Much as we would like to conceive empirical thought as rationally grounded in experience, pitfalls await anyone who tries to articulate this position, and ...
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  19.  44
    Kevin Morris & Consuelo Preti (2015). How to Read Moore's "Proof of an External World". Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 4 (1).
    We develop a reading of Moore’s “Proof of an External World” that emphasizes the connections between this paper and Moore’s earlier concerns and strategies. Our reading has the benefit of explaining why the claims that Moore advances in “Proof of an External World” would have been of interest to him, and avoids attributing to him arguments that are either trivial or wildly unsuccessful. Part of the evidence for our view comes from unpublished drafts which, we believe, contain important (...)
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  20.  5
    Robert L. Klitzman (2012). Us Irbs Confronting Research in the Developing World. Developing World Bioethics 12 (2):63-73.
    Increasingly, US-sponsored research is carried out in developing countries, but how US Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) approach the challenges they then face is unclear.METHODS: I conducted in-depth interviews of about 2 hours each, with 46 IRB chairs, directors, administrators and members. I contacted the leadership of 60 IRBs in the United States (US) (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding), and interviewed IRB leaders from 34 (55%).RESULTS: US IRBs face (...)
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  21.  23
    Danielle M. Wenner (2015). Against Permitted Exploitation in Developing World Research Agreements. Developing World Bioethics 15 (3).
    This paper examines the moral force of exploitation in developing world research agreements. Taking for granted that some clinical research which is conducted in the developing world but funded by developed world sponsors is exploitative, it asks whether a third party would be morally justified in enforcing limits on research agreements in order to ensure more fair and less exploitative outcomes. This question is particularly relevant when such exploitative transactions are entered into voluntarily by all relevant parties, (...)
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  22.  10
    Jonathan Kimmelman (2007). Clinical Trials and Scid Row: The Ethics of Phase 1 Trials in the Developing World. Developing World Bioethics 7 (3):128–135.
    ABSTRACTRelatively little has been written about the ethics of conducting early phase clinical trials involving subjects from the developing world. Below, I analyze ethical issues surrounding one of gene transfer’s most widely praised studies conducted to date: in this study, Italian investigators recruited two subjects from the developing world who were ineligible for standard of care because of economic considerations. Though the study seems to have rendered a cure in these two subjects, it does not appear to have (...)
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  23.  6
    Robert L. Klitzman, Kelly Kleinert, Hoda Rifai-Bashjawish & L. E. U. Shiung (2011). The Reporting of Irb Review in Journal Articles Presenting Hiv Research Conducted in the Developing World. Developing World Bioethics 11 (3):161-169.
    Objectives: We investigated how often journal articles reporting on human HIV research in four developing world countries mention any institutional review boards (IRBs) or research ethics committees (RECs), and what factors are involved.Methods: We examined all such articles published in 2007 from India, Nigeria, Thailand and Uganda, and coded these for several ethical and other characteristics.Results: Of 221 articles meeting inclusion criteria, 32.1% did not mention IRB approval. Mention of IRB approval was associated with: biomedical (versus psychosocial) research (P (...)
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  24.  1
    Chhanda Chakraborti (2015). Systemic Negligence: Why It Is Morally Important for Developing World Bioethics. Developing World Bioethics 15 (3):208-213.
    In the context of clinical and non-clinical biomedical practices, negligence is usually understood as a lapse of a specific professional duty by a healthcare worker or by a medical facility. This paper tries to delineate systemic negligence as another kind of negligence in the context of health systems, particularly in developing countries, that needs to be recognized and addressed. Systemic negligence is not just a mere collection of stray incidences of medical errors and system failures in a health system, but (...)
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  25. Pauline Kleingeld (2012). Kant and Cosmopolitanism: The Philosophical Ideal of World Citizenship. Cambridge University Press.
    This is the first comprehensive account of Kant’s cosmopolitanism, highlighting its moral, political, legal, economic, cultural, and psychological aspects. Contrasting Kant’s views with those of his German contemporaries, and relating them to current debates, Pauline Kleingeld sheds new light on texts that have been hitherto neglected or underestimated. In clear and carefully argued discussions, she shows that Kant’s philosophical cosmopolitanism underwent a radical transformation in the mid 1790s and that the resulting theory is philosophically stronger than is usually (...)
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  26. Nancy Cartwright (1999). The Dappled World: A Study of the Boundaries of Science. Cambridge University Press.
    It is often supposed that the spectacular successes of our modern mathematical sciences support a lofty vision of a world completely ordered by one single elegant theory. In this book Nancy Cartwright argues to the contrary. When we draw our image of the world from the way modern science works - as empiricism teaches us we should - we end up with a world where some features are precisely ordered, others are given to rough regularity and still (...)
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  27.  79
    Andy Clark (1997). Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again. MIT Press.
    In treating cognition as problem solving, Andy Clark suggests, we may often abstract too far from the very body and world in which our brains evolved to guide...
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  28. Thomas Pogge (2005). Real World Justice. Journal of Ethics 9 (1-2):29 - 53.
    Despite a high and growing global average income, billions of human beings are still condemned to lifelong severe poverty with all its attendant evils of low life expectancy, social exclusion, ill health, illiteracy, dependency, and effective enslavement. We citizens of the rich countries are conditioned to think of this problem as an occasion for assistance. Thanks in part to the rationalizations dispensed by our economists, most of us do not realize how deeply we are implicated, through the new global economic (...)
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  29.  71
    Quassim Cassam (1997). Self and World. Oxford University Press.
    Self and World is an exploration of the nature of self-awareness. Cassam rejects the widespread view that the self eludes introspection, and argues that consciousness of our thoughts and experiences involves a sense of our thinking, experiencing selves as shaped, solid, and located physical objects in a world of such objects. This clear, original, and challenging treatment of one of the deepest of intellectual problems will demand the attention of all philosophers and cognitive scientists who are concerned with (...)
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  30.  44
    Gerhard Schurz & Paul Weingartner (2010). Zwart and Franssen's Impossibility Theorem Holds for Possible-World-Accounts but Not for Consequence-Accounts to Verisimilitude. Synthese 172 (3):415 - 436.
    Zwart and Franssen’s impossibility theorem reveals a conflict between the possible-world-based content-definition and the possible-world-based likeness-definition of verisimilitude. In Sect. 2 we show that the possible-world-based content-definition violates four basic intuitions of Popper’s consequence-based content-account to verisimilitude, and therefore cannot be said to be in the spirit of Popper’s account, although this is the opinion of some prominent authors. In Sect. 3 we argue that in consequence-accounts , content-aspects and likeness-aspects of verisimilitude are not in conflict with (...)
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  31.  66
    Moti Mizrahi (forthcoming). An Argument for External World Skepticism From the Appearance/Reality Distinction. International Journal for the Study of Skepticism.
    In this paper, I argue that arguments from skeptical hypotheses for external world skepticism derive their support from a skeptical argument from the distinction between appearance and reality. This skeptical argument from the appearance/reality distinction gives the external world skeptic her conclusion without appealing to skeptical hypotheses and without assuming that knowledge is closed under known entailments. If this is correct, then this skeptical argument from the appearance/reality distinction poses a new skeptical challenge that cannot be (...)
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  32. Nicholas Maxwell (2011). Creating a Better World: Towards the University of Wisdom. In Ronald Barnett (ed.), The Future University: Ideas and Possibilities. Routledge
    Universities need to change dramatically in order to help humanity make progress towards as good a world as possible.
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  33. Zainal Abidin Bagir (2015). The “Relation” Between Science and Religion in the Pluralistic Landscape of Today's World. Zygon 50 (2):403-417.
    The attempt to expand the discourse of science and religion by considering the pluralistic landscape of today's world requires not only adding new voices from more religious traditions but a rethinking of the basic categories of the discourse, that is, “science,” “religion,” and the notion that the main issue to be investigated is the relationship between the two. Making use of historical studies of science and religion discourse and a case study from Indonesia, this article suggests a rethinking of (...)
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  34.  8
    Alexander W. Kocurek (forthcoming). The Problem of Cross-World Predication. Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-46.
    While standard first-order modal logic is quite powerful, it cannot express even very simple sentences like “I could have been taller than I actually am” or “Everyone could have been smarter than they actually are”. These are examples of cross-world predication, whereby objects in one world are related to objects in another world. Extending first-order modal logic to allow for cross-world predication in a motivated way has proven to be notoriously difficult. In this paper, I argue (...)
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  35. Robert Stalnaker (2001). On Considering a Possible World as Actual. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 75 (75):141-156.
    [Robert Stalnaker] Saul Kripke made a convincing case that there are necessary truths that are knowable only a posteriori as well as contingent truths that are knowable a priori. A number of philosophers have used a two-dimensional model semantic apparatus to represent and clarify the phenomena that Kripke pointed to. According to this analysis, statements have truth-conditions in two different ways depending on whether one considers a possible world 'as actual' or 'as counterfactual' in determining the truth-value of the (...)
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  36.  38
    Ray Scott Percival (2004). Persons and Popper's World 3: Do Humans Dream of Electric Sheep? In Jeffrey A. Schaler (ed.), Szasz Under Fire: The Psychiatric Abolitionist Faces His Critics. Open Court Publishers 119-130.
    In the film classic Blade Runner, the story explores the notion of personal identity through that of carefully crafted androids. Can an android have a personality; can androids be persons? The title of the original story by Philip K. Dick is Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? The story suggests that our sense of being a person depends on our having memories that connect us with our childhood. In the movie, the androids are only a couple of years old, but (...)
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  37. Rick Grush (2000). Self, World and Space: The Meaning and Mechanisms of Ego- and Allocentric Spatial Representation. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 1 (1):59-92.
    b>: The problem of how physical systems, such as brains, come to represent themselves as subjects in an objective world is addressed. I develop an account of the requirements for this ability that draws on and refines work in a philosophical tradition that runs from Kant through Peter Strawson to Gareth Evans. The basic idea is that the ability to represent oneself as a subject in a world whose existence is independent of oneself involves the ability to represent (...)
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  38.  21
    Stuart Kauffman, Robert K. Logan, Robert Este, Randy Goebel, David Hobill & Ilya Shmulevich (2008). Propagating Organization: An Enquiry. Biology and Philosophy 23 (1):27-45.
    Our aim in this article is to attempt to discuss propagating organization of process, a poorly articulated union of matter, energy, work, constraints and that vexed concept, “information”, which unite in far from equilibrium living physical systems. Our hope is to stimulate discussions by philosophers of biology and biologists to further clarify the concepts we discuss here. We place our discussion in the broad context of a “general biology”, properties that might well be found in life anywhere in the cosmos, (...)
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  39. Gila Sher (2011). Is Logic in the Mind or in the World? Synthese 181 (2):353 - 365.
    The paper presents an outline of a unified answer to five questions concerning logic: (1) Is logic in the mind or in the world? (2) Does logic need a foundation? What is the main obstacle to a foundation for logic? Can it be overcome? (3) How does logic work? What does logical form represent? Are logical constants referential? (4) Is there a criterion of logicality? (5) What is the relation between logic and mathematics?
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  40.  1
    Subrata Chattopadhyay, Catherine Myser & Raymond De Vries (2015). Retracted Article: Imperialism in Bioethics: How Policies of Profit Negate Engagement of Developing World Bioethicists and Undermine Global Bioethics. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):727-728.
    How do bioethics gatekeepers located in wealthy nations treat bioethics workers from developing countries? Can the policies of leading international bioethics journals—based on a concern for profit that effectively restricts access for most researchers from developing countries—be ethically justified? We examined these policies focusing on the way they influence the ability of researchers in resource-poor countries to participate in the development of the field of bioethics. Eight of the fourteen leading bioethics journals are published by three transnational publishing houses, all (...)
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  41.  5
    James Hill (forthcoming). Markus Gabriel Against the World. Sophia:1-11.
    According to Markus Gabriel, the world does not exist. This view—baptised metametaphysical nihilism—is exposited at length in his recent book Fields of Sense, which updates his earlier project of transcendental ontology. In this paper, I question whether meta-metaphysical nihilism is internally coherent, specifically whether the proposition ‘the world does not exist’ is expressible without performative contradiction on that view. Call this the inexpressibility objection. This is not an original objection—indeed it is anticipated in Gabriel’s book. However, (...)
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  42. Mathew Abbott (2010). The Poetic Experience of the World. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 18 (4):493-516.
    In this article I develop Heidegger's phenomenology of poetry, showing that it may provide grounds for rejecting claims that he lapses into linguistic idealism. Proceeding via an analysis of the three concepts of language operative in the philosopher's work, I demonstrate how poetic language challenges language's designative and world-disclosive functions. The experience with poetic language, which disrupts Dasein's absorption by emerging out of equipmentality in the mode of the broken tool, brings Dasein to wonder at the world's existence (...)
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  43. T. H. Ho (2014). Naturalism and the Space of Reasons in Mind and World. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 22 (1):49-62.
    This paper aims to show that many criticisms of McDowell’s naturalism of second nature are based on what I call ‘the orthodox interpretation’ of McDowell’s naturalism. The orthodox interpretation is, however, a misinterpretation, which results from the fact that the phrase ‘the space of reasons’ is used equivocally by McDowell in Mind and World. Failing to distinguish two senses of ‘the space of reasons’, I argue that the orthodox interpretation renders McDowell’s naturalism inconsistent with McDowell’s Hegelian thesis that the (...)
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  44. Martin Pickup (2014). Leibniz and the Necessity of the Best Possible World. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (3):507-523.
    (2014). Leibniz and the Necessity of the Best Possible World. Australasian Journal of Philosophy: Vol. 92, No. 3, pp. 507-523. doi: 10.1080/00048402.2014.889724.
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  45.  18
    Jan Masschelein (2011). Experimentum Scholae: The World Once More … But Not (Yet) Finished. Studies in Philosophy and Education 30 (5):529-535.
    Inspired by Hannah Arendt, this contribution offers an exercise of thought as an attempt to distil anew the original spirit of what education means. It tries to articulate the event or happening that the word names, the experiences in which this happening manifests itself and the (material) forms that constitute it or make it find/take (its) place. Starting from the meaning of scholè as ‘free time’ or ‘undestined and unfinished time’ it further explores scholè as the time of attention which (...)
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  46.  13
    Kai Wehmeier (2012). Subjunctivity and Cross-World Predication. Philosophical Studies 159 (1):107-122.
    The main goal of this paper is to present and compare two approaches to formalizing cross-world comparisons like John might have been taller than he is in quantified modal logics. One is the standard method employing degrees and graded positives, according to which the example just given is to be paraphrased as something like The height that John has is such that he might have had a height greater than it, which is amenable to familiar formalization strategies with respect (...)
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  47.  69
    Thomas Eberle (2010). The Phenomenological Life-World Analysis and the Methodology of the Social Sciences. Human Studies 33 (2):123-139.
    This Alfred Schutz Memorial Lecture discusses the relationship between the phenomenological life-world analysis and the methodology of the social sciences, which was the central motive of Schutz’s work. I have set two major goals in this lecture. The first is to scrutinize the postulate of adequacy, as this postulate is the most crucial of Schutz’s methodological postulates. Max Weber devised the postulate ‘adequacy of meaning’ in analogy to the postulate of ‘causal adequacy’ (a concept used in jurisprudence) and regarded (...)
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  48. Christopher Menzel (1990). Actualism, Ontological Commitment, and Possible World Semantics. Synthese 85 (3):355 - 389.
    Actualism is the doctrine that the only things there are, that have being in any sense, are the things that actually exist. In particular, actualism eschews possibilism, the doctrine that there are merely possible objects. It is widely held that one cannot both be an actualist and at the same time take possible world semantics seriously — that is, take it as the basis for a genuine theory of truth for modal languages, or look to it for insight into (...)
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  49.  52
    James Stiller, Daniel Nettle & Robin I. M. Dunbar (2003). The Small World of Shakespeare's Plays. Human Nature 14 (4):397-408.
    Drama, at least according to the Aristotelian view, is effective inasmuch as it successfully mirrors real aspects of human behavior. This leads to the hypothesis that successful dramas will portray fictional social networks that have the same properties as those typical of human beings across ages and cultures. We outline a methodology for investigating this hypothesis and use it to examine ten of Shakespeare’s plays. The cliques and groups portrayed in the plays correspond closely to those which have been observed (...)
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  50. Alex Byrne (1996). Spin Control: Comment on McDowell's Mind and World. Philosophical Issues 7:261-73.
    We have justified beliefs about the external world, and some of these are formed directly on the basis of perception. I may justifiably believe that a certain dog is in certain manger, and I may have this belief because I can see that the dog is in the manger. So far, so good.
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