Search results for 'Race discrimination' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Rankin W. McGugin, James W. Tanaka, Sophie Lebrecht, Michael J. Tarr & Isabel Gauthier (2011). Race-Specific Perceptual Discrimination Improvement Following Short Individuation Training With Faces. Cognitive Science 35 (2):330-347.score: 156.0
    This study explores the effect of individuation training on the acquisition of race-specific expertise. First, we investigated whether practice individuating other-race faces yields improvement in perceptual discrimination for novel faces of that race. Second, we asked whether there was similar improvement for novel faces of a different race for which participants received equal practice, but in an orthogonal task that did not require individuation. Caucasian participants were trained to individuate faces of one race (African (...)
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  2. Anthony Greenwald, Targets of Discrimination: Effects of Race on Responses to Weapons Holders.score: 126.0
    Rapid actions to persons holding weapons were simulated using desktop virtual reality. Subjects responded to simulated (a) criminals, by pointing the computerÕs mouse at them and left-clicking (simulated shooting), (b) fellow police officers, by pressing the spacebar (safety signal), and (c) citizens, by inaction. In one of two tasks Black males holding guns were police officers while White males holding guns were criminals. In the other, Whites with guns were police and Blacks with guns were criminals. In both tasks Blacks (...)
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  3. Mark Gould (1999). Race and Theory: Culture, Poverty, and Adaptation to Discrimination in Wilson and Ogbu. Sociological Theory 17 (2):171-200.score: 120.0
    This article provides the theoretical resources to resolve a number of conundrums in the work of William Julius Wilson and John Ogbu. Contrary to what Wilson's and Ogbu's work sometimes imply, inner-city blacks are not enmeshed in a "culture of poverty," but rather are generally committed to mainstream values and their normative expectations. Activities that deviate from these values derive from the cognitive expectations inner-city blacks have formed in the face of their restricted legitimate opportunity structures. These expectations, which suggest (...)
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  4. Naomi Zack (2003). Race and Racial Discrimination. In LaFollette H. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Practical Ethics. Oxford University Press. 245--271.score: 120.0
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  5. Mary C. Waters & Philip Kasinitz (2010). Discrimination, Race Relations, and the Second Generation. Social Research: An International Quarterly 77 (1):101-132.score: 120.0
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  6. Melinda Gormley (2009). Scientific Discrimination and the Activist Scientist: L. C. Dunn and the Professionalization of Genetics and Human Genetics in the United States. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 42 (1):33 - 72.score: 102.0
    During the 1920s and 1930s geneticist L. C. Dunn of Columbia University cautioned Americans against endorsing eugenic policies and called attention to eugenicists' less than rigorous practices. Then, from the mid-1940s to early 1950s he attacked scientific racism and Nazi Rassenhygiene by co-authoring Heredity, Race and Society with Theodosius Dobzhansky and collaborating with members of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) on their international campaign against racism. Even though shaking the foundations of scientific discrimination was Dunn's (...)
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  7. Bruce R. Dain (2002). A Hideous Monster of the Mind: American Race Theory in the Early Republic. Harvard University Press.score: 96.0
    A Hideous Monster of the Mind reveals that ideas on race crossed racial boundaries in a process that produced not only well-known theories of biological racism ...
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  8. Derrick Darby (2009). Rights, Race, and Recognition. Cambridge University Press.score: 96.0
    Introduction -- Having rights -- Rights without recognition -- Rights and recognition -- Race and rights -- What's wrong with slavery?
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  9. Paul Gomberg (2007). How to Make Opportunity Equal: Race and Contributive Justice. Blackwell Pub..score: 96.0
    This critical examination of racial equality takes a new approach to breaking down racial barriers by proposing a system of equal opportunity through shared labor and contributive justice. Focuses on how race and class inevitably structure vastly unequal life prospects Shows how human society can be organized in a way that does not socialize children for lives of routine labour Looks towards contribution, not distribution, as a way to promote racial equality Argues that by sharing routine and complex labor, (...)
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  10. Jami L. Anderson (ed.) (2003). Race, Gender, and Sexuality: Philosophical Issues of Identity and Justice. Prentice Hall.score: 84.0
    This anthology of contemporary articles (and court cases provides a philosophical analysis of race, sex and gender concepts and issues. Divided into three relatively independent yet thematically linked sections, the anthology first addresses identity issues, then injustices and inequalities, and then specific social and legal issues relevant to race, sex and gender. By exposing readers to both theoretical foundations, opposing views, and "real life" applications, the anthology prepares them to make critically reasoned decisions concerning today's race, gender (...)
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  11. Oscar H. Gandy (2010). Engaging Rational Discrimination: Exploring Reasons for Placing Regulatory Constraints on Decision Support Systems. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 12 (1):29-42.score: 84.0
    In the future systems of ambient intelligence will include decision support systems that will automate the process of discrimination among people that seek entry into environments and to engage in search of the opportunities that are available there. This article argues that these systems must be subject to active and continuous assessment and regulation because of the ways in which they are likely to contribute to economic and social inequality. This regulatory constraint must involve limitations on the collection and (...)
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  12. William A. Edmundson (1990). The "Race-of-the-Victim" Effect in Capital Sentencing: McClesky V. Kemp and Underadjustment Bias. Jurimetrics 32:125-41.score: 84.0
    This is a critical discussion of the Baldus study of capital sentencing in Georgia. It concludes that the Baldus finding of a "race-of-the-victim" effect is less robust than capital-punishment abolitionists have claimed. But the flaws in the Baldus study should not comfort death-penalty advocates, for they reveal an epistemological barrier to the US Supreme Court's ever being able to satisfy itself both that the sentence reflects particularized consideration of the circumstances and character of the defendant (mandated by Woodson v (...)
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  13. Qudsia Mirza (1999). Patricia Williams: Inflecting Critical Race Theory. [REVIEW] Feminist Legal Studies 7 (2):111-132.score: 84.0
    Critical Race Theory (C.R.T.) has developed out of a deep dissatisfaction that many black legal scholars in the U.S. felt with liberal civil rights discourse, a discourse premised upon the ideals of assimilation, ‘colour-blindness’ and integration. In addition, the emergence of the Critical Legal Studies movement provided Critical Race theorists with an innovative lexicon and practice which allowed them to develop a critique of traditional race analysis and U.S. law. Patricia Williams has played a key role in (...)
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  14. Mark V. Roehling (2002). Weight Discrimination in the American Workplace: Ethical Issues and Analysis. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 40 (2):177 - 189.score: 66.0
    Research providing consistent evidence of pervasive discrimination against overweight job applicants and employees in the American workplace raises important questions for organizational stakeholders. To what extent is the disparate treatment of job applicants or employees based on their weight ethically justified? Are there aspects of weight discrimination that make it more acceptable than discrimination based on other characteristics, such as race or gender? What operational steps can employers take to address concerns regarding the ethical treatment of (...)
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  15. Matt Zwolinski (2006). Why Not Regulate Private Discrimination? San Diego Law Review 43 (Fall):1043.score: 66.0
    In the United States, discrimination based on race, religion, and other suspect categories is strictly regulated when it takes place in hiring, promotion, and other areas of the world of commerce. Discrimination in one's private affairs, however, is not subject to legal regulation at all. Assuming that both sorts of discrimination can be equally morally wrong, why then should this disparity in legal treatment exist? This paper attempts to find a theory that can simultaneously explain these (...)
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  16. Kalpana Seshadri-Crooks (2000). Desiring Whiteness: A Lacanian Analysis of Race. Routledge.score: 66.0
    Desiring Whiteness provides a compelling new interpretation of how we understand race. Race is often presumed to be a social construction and we continue to deploy race thinking in our everyday life as a way of telling people apart visually. Desiring Whiteness explores this visual discrimination by asking questions in specifically psychoanalytic terms: how do subjects become raced? Is it common sense to read bodies as racially marked? Employing Lacan's theories of the subject and sexual difference, (...)
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  17. Javier Portillo & Walter E. Block (2012). Anti-Discrimination Laws: Undermining Our Rights. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 109 (2):209-217.score: 66.0
    The purpose of this article is to argue in favor of a private employer’s right to discriminate amongst job applicants on any basis he chooses, and this certainly includes unlawful characteristics such as race, sex, national origin, sexual preference, religion, etc. John Locke and many after him have argued that people have natural rights to life, liberty, and property or the pursuit of happiness. In this view, law should be confined to protecting these rights and be limited to prohibiting (...)
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  18. David Edmonds (2006). Caste Wars: A Philosophy of Discrimination. Routledge.score: 66.0
    The central topic for this book is the ethics of treating individuals as though they are members of groups. The book raises many interesting questions, including: why do we feel so much more strongly about discrimination on certain grounds e.g. of race and sex - than discrimination on other grounds? Are we right to think that discrimination based on these characteristics is especially invidious? what should we think about rational discrimination discrimination which is based (...)
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  19. K. E. Himma (2001). Discrimination and Disidentification: The Fair-Start Defense of Affirmative Action. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 30 (3):277 - 289.score: 54.0
    The Fair-Start Defense justifies affirmative action preferences as a response to harms caused by race- and sex-based discrimination. Rather than base a justification for preferences on the traditional appeal to self-esteem, I argue they are justified in virtue of the effects institutional discrimination has on the goals and aspirations of its victims. In particular, I argue that institutional discrimination puts women and blacks at an unfair competitive disadvantage by causing academic disidentification. Affirmative action is justified as (...)
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  20. Michael Cholbi (2006). Race, Capital Punishment, and the Cost of Murder. Philosophical Studies 127 (2):255 - 282.score: 54.0
    Numerous studies indicate that racial minorities are both more likely to be executed for murder and that those who murder them are less likely to be executed than if they murder whites. Death penalty opponents have long attempted to use these studies to argue for a moratorium on capital punishment. Whatever the merits of such arguments, they overlook the fact that such discrimination alters the costs of murder; racial discrimination imposes higher costs on minorities for murdering through tougher (...)
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  21. Anita L. Allen (2011). Was I Entitled or Should I Apologize? Affirmative Action Going Forward. Journal of Ethics 15 (3):253-263.score: 54.0
    As a U.S. civil rights policy, affirmative action commonly denotes race-conscious and result-oriented efforts by private and public officials to correct the unequal distribution of economic opportunity and education attributed to slavery, segregation, poverty and racism. Opponents argue that affirmative action (1) violates ideals of color-blind public policies, offending moral principles of fairness and constitutional principles of equality and due process; (2) has proven to be socially and politically divisive; (3) has not made things better; (4) mainly benefits middle-class, (...)
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  22. C. Daryl Cameron, Joshua Knobe & B. Keith Payne (2010). Do Theories of Implicit Race Bias Change Moral Judgments? Social Justice Research 23:272-289.score: 54.0
    Recent work in social psychology suggests that people harbor “implicit race biases,” biases which can be unconscious or uncontrollable. Because awareness and control have traditionally been deemed necessary for the ascription of moral responsibility, implicit biases present a unique challenge: do we pardon discrimination based on implicit biases because of its unintentional nature, or do we punish discrimination regardless of how it comes about? The present experiments investigated the impact such theories have upon moral judgments about racial (...)
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  23. Anne Warfield Rawls (2000). "Race" as an Interaction Order Phenomenon: W.E.B. Du Bois's "Double Consciousness" Thesis Revisited. Sociological Theory 18 (2):241-274.score: 54.0
    This article reports on a study of interaction between Americans who self-identify as Black and White that reveals underlying expectations with regard to conversation that differ between the two groups. These differences seem not to have much to do with class or gender, but rather vary largely according to self-identification by "race." The argument of this paper will be that the social phenomena of "race" are constructed at the level of interaction whenever Americans self-identified as Black and White (...)
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  24. José Jorge Mendoza (2014). Discrimination and the Presumptive Rights of Immigrants. Critical Philosophy of Race 2 (1):68-83.score: 54.0
    Philosophers have assumed that as long as discriminatory admission and exclusion policies are off the table, it is possible for one to adopt a restrictionist position on the issue of immigration without having to worry that this position might entail discriminatory outcomes. The problem with this assumption emerges, however,when two important points are taken into consideration. First, immigration controls are not simply discriminatory because they are based on racist or ethnocentric attitudes and beliefs, but can themselves also be the source (...)
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  25. Walter Block (1992). Discrimination: An Interdisciplinary Analysis. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 11 (4):241 - 254.score: 54.0
    Discrimination on the basis of race, sex, national origin, etc., is often morally wrong. But should such behaviour be proscribed by legislation, and penalized by fines or jail sentences? This paper argues that such enactments are incompatible with the law of free association, and with the concept of economic liberty and civil rights.
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  26. M. O. Hardimon (2013). Race Concepts in Medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (1):6-31.score: 54.0
    Confusions about the place of race in medicine result in part from a failure to recognize the plurality of race concepts. Recognition that the ordinary concept of race is not identical to the racialist concept of race makes it possible to ask whether there might be a legitimate place for the deployment of concepts of race in medical contexts. Two technical race concepts are considered. The concept of social race is the concept of (...)
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  27. Michael A. Rosenthal (2005). ‘The Black, Scabby Brazilian’: Some Thoughts on Race and Early Modern Philosophy. Philosophy and Social Criticism 31 (2):211-221.score: 54.0
    When Spinoza described his dream of a ‘black, scabby Brazilian’, was the image indicative of a larger pattern of racial discrimination? Should today’s readers regard racist comments and theories in the texts of 17th- and 18th-century philosophers as reflecting the prejudices of their time or as symptomatic of philosophical discourse? This article discusses whether a critical discussion of race is itself a form of racism and whether supposedly minor prejudices are evidence of a deeper social pathology. Given historical (...)
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  28. Polycarp Ikuenobe (2013). Conceptualizing and Theorizing About the Idea of a “Post‐Racial” Era. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 43 (4):446-468.score: 54.0
    I critically examine the eliminativist theories of race or racism, and the behavioral theory of racism, which provide the theoretical foundation, respectively, for the nominalist and substantive conceptualizations of the idea of a post-racial era. The eliminativist theories seek to eliminate the concepts of “race” or “racism” from our discourse. Such elimination indicates a nominalist sense of the idea of a post-racial era. The behavioral theory of racism argues that racism must be manifested in obviously harmful actions. And (...)
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  29. Rebecca Ann Lind (1996). Race and Viewer Evaluations of Ethically Controversial Tv News Stories. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 11 (1):40 – 52.score: 54.0
    Interviews with 111 African-American and European-Americans investigated racial differences in viewer evaluations of ethically controversial TV news stories. The study focused on judgments of whether three news stories (Genniger Flowers's alleged affair with Bill Clinton, a hit-and-run accident, and racial discrimination by Realtors) should be aired, the criteria applied in reaching those judgements, and the indications of reasons to attend to or to reject each story. No simple relationship was found between race and judgments of whether the stories (...)
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  30. Geoffrey Short & Bruce Carrington (1991). Unfair Discrimination: Teaching the Principles to Children of Primary School Age. Journal of Moral Education 20 (2):157-176.score: 54.0
    Abstract This paper describes an initiative to promote social justice in two groups of primary aged children. The initiative was concerned with the extent to which first? and third?year juniors can apply principles of unfair discrimination to issues of gender, ?race? and social class having been taught the principles in contexts unrelated to structural inequality. The study provides evidence consistent with the claim that children between the ages of seven and 11 can learn to recognise certain manifestations of (...)
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  31. M. Lowe, I. H. Kerridge & K. R. Mitchell (1995). 'These Sorts of People Don't Do Very Well': Race and Allocation of Health Care Resources. Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (6):356-360.score: 54.0
    Recent literature has highlighted issues of racial discrimination in medicine. In order to explore the sometimes subtle influence of racial determinants in decisions about resource allocation, we present the case of a 53-year-old Australian Aboriginal woman with end-stage renal failure. The epidemiology of renal failure in the Australian Aboriginal population and amongst other indigenous peoples is discussed. We show that the use of utilitarian outcome criteria for resource allocation may embody subtle racial discrimination where consideration is not given (...)
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  32. Rida Usman Khalafzai (2009). Racial Discrimination and Health. Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin 14 (3):9.score: 54.0
    Khalafzai, Rida Usman This article explores race as a social construct, discrimination based on race, and its impact on health.
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  33. Daniel J. Sharfstein (2013). Frizzly Studies Negotiating the Invisible Lines of Race. Common Knowledge 19 (3):518-529.score: 54.0
    Beginning with the assumption that race is a conceptual blur, this contribution to the Common Knowledge symposium “Fuzzy Studies” argues that race conflates what is plain to see with something that is invisible. Race roots today's policy decisions in a remote and often imagined past. It blurs agency and overwhelming structural inequality. It is a set of categories that people define for themselves and that, at the same time, others — strangers, neighbors, government officials — relentlessly impose (...)
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  34. Adam Hochman (2013). Racial Discrimination: How Not to Do It. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C (3):278-286.score: 48.0
    The UNESCO Statements on Race of the early 1950s are understood to have marked a consensus amongst natural scientists and social scientists that ‘race’ is a social construct. Human biological diversity was shown to be predominantly clinal, or gradual, not discreet, and clustered, as racial naturalism implied. From the seventies social constructionists added that the vast majority of human genetic diversity resides within any given racialised group. While social constructionism about race became the majority consensus view on (...)
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  35. Jeffrey Reiman (2011). Is Racial Profiling Just? Making Criminal Justice Policy in the Original Position. Journal of Ethics 15 (1/2):3 - 19.score: 48.0
    The justice of racial profiling is addressed in the original position first for a society without racism, then for a society marked by racism. In the first case, the practice is argued to be just if carried out respectfully and expeditiously and likely to contribute to effective crime control. Thus it is not intrinsically racist. Addressing the second case, the idea that the harms of racial profiling are modest because expressive is critiqued. The practice is shown to carry the danger (...)
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  36. Michael C. Brannigan (2012). Cultural Fault Lines in Healthcare: Reflections on Cultural Competency. Lexington Books.score: 48.0
    Machine generated contents note: Introduction -- Chapter One: When Worldviews Collide -- Chapter Two: From Fault Lines to Cultural Competency -- Chapter Three: Cultural Discourse and Its Hurdles -- Chapter Four: On the Path to Presence -- Chapter Five: Cultivating Presence When There Is Distrust.
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  37. Dominique Vidal (2009). De l'écart entre la fiction et la réalité. Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie 2 (2):199-222.score: 48.0
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  38. Susan Randolph, Michelle Prairie & John Stewart (2012). Monitoring State Fulfillment of Economic and Social Rights Obligations in the United States. Human Rights Review 13 (2):139-165.score: 42.0
    This article adapts the economic and social rights fulfillment index (SERF Index) developed by Fukuda-Parr, Lawson-Remer, and Randolph to assess the extent to which each of the 50 US states fulfills the economic and social rights obligations set forth in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. It then extends the index to incorporate discrimination and examines differences in economic and social rights fulfillment by race and sex within each of the states. The overall SERF Index (...)
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  39. Anne Morris (2003). Embodying the Law:Coker and Osamor V. The Lord Chancellorand the Lord Chancellor's Department [2002]I.R.L.R. 80 (Court of Appeal). [REVIEW] Feminist Legal Studies 11 (1):45-55.score: 42.0
    In Britiain, it is unlawful,regardless of the motive of the discriminator,to refuse to give a woman a job because of hersex. On the other hand, the U.K. case ofCoker and Osamor v. The Lord Chancellor and theLord Chancellor's Department suggests that itis permissible, by `pre-selecting' anindividual man, to rule out any possible femalecandidates. The singular facts of this caseshould not disguise the troubling conclusionthat while sex (and race) discrimination maysometimes be blatant and deliberate, morefrequently it is subtle and (...)
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  40. Victor Oltra, Jaime Bonache & Chris Brewster (2013). A New Framework for Understanding Inequalities Between Expatriates and Host Country Nationals. Journal of Business Ethics 115 (2):291-310.score: 36.0
    An interdisciplinary theoretical framework is proposed for analysing justice in global working conditions. In addition to gender and race as popular criteria to identify disadvantaged groups in organizations, in multinational corporations (MNCs) local employees (i.e. host country nationals (HCNs) working in foreign subsidiaries) deserve special attention. Their working conditions are often substantially worse than those of expatriates (i.e. parent country nationals temporarily assigned to a foreign subsidiary). Although a number of reasons have been put forward to justify such inequalities—usually (...)
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  41. Shelley M. Park (2008). Commentary on Nancy Nicol’s Politics of the Heart: Recogniiton of Homoparental Families. Florida Philosophical Review 8.score: 36.0
    This paper comments on the strategies and goals of a politics of recognition as celebrated by Nancy Nicol’s important documentary coverage of the gay and lesbian movement for family rights in Quebec. While agreeing that ending legal discrimination against lgbt families is important, I suggest that political recognition of same-sex families and their children is a too limited goal for queer families and their allies. Moreover, it is a goal, I argue, that often trades on trades on troublesome assumptions (...)
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  42. Harry Targ (2006). Class and Race in the USA Labor Movement. Radical Philosophy Today 3:33-44.score: 36.0
    Drawing on several recent studies, and a few personal interviews with leadership, the author reviews the history (1937-1968) of the United Packinghouse Workers of America (UPWA) in order to demonstrate how this Chicago-based labor movement exemplified radical commitments to social welfare and civil rights, in addition to more traditional concerns with pay and other shopfloor issues. Not only did the union have significant membership among African-American workers, but it also undertook active programs of anti-racism in order to fight racial (...) with its own ranks. The union also resisted much of the anti-communist politics of the post-Cold War era, resulting in a tradition of racial commitments to “social unionism.” For example, this was one of the first unions to offer financial support to the Southern Christian Leadership Conference soon after the civil rights organization was founded by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (shrink)
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  43. Maleiha Malik (2011). El derecho de la igualdad: Resolviendo conflictos de igualdad Y derechos humanos. La experiencia británica. Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez 45:109-146.score: 36.0
    This paper examines conflicts of rights and competing interests in the context of the British equalities framework. The expansion of the grounds of European Union and domestic discrimination law beyond the traditional categories of race and sex to also include disability, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion or belief and age has made this an important issue. In addition, the increasing recognition of ‘equality’ and ‘non-discrimination’ as important rights raises the spectre of conflict with other human rights such (...)
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  44. Adrian Piper (2000). Two Kinds of Discrimination. In Bernard Boxill (ed.), Race and Racism. Oup Oxford.score: 36.0
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  45. Falguni A. Sheth (2009). Toward a Political Philosophy of Race. State University of New York Press.score: 36.0
    Examines how liberal society enables racism and other forms of discrimination.
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  46. Allyson D. Polsky (2002). Blood, Race, and National Identity: Scientific and Popular Discourses. Journal of Medical Humanities 23 (3/4):171-186.score: 30.0
    This essay examines the symbolic significance of blood in the twentieth century and its role in determining the composition of a national community along racial lines. By drawing parallels between Nazi notions of blood and racial purity and historically contemporaneous U.S. policies regarding blood and blood products, Polsky reveals a disturbing proximity in discourse and policy. While the Nazis attempted to locate Jewish racial essence and inferiority in blood and instituted eugenic measures and laws forbidding racial admixture, similar policies existed (...)
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  47. Kirsty Duncanson (2011). 'We the People of the United States…': The Matrix and the Realisation of Constitutional Sovereignty. [REVIEW] International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 24 (4):385-404.score: 30.0
    In its enunciation of “We the people,” the Constitution of the United States of America becomes a constitution of the flesh as it simultaneously invokes a constitution, a nation and a people. Correspondingly, its amendments as a list of rights pertaining to sex and race discrimination, and freedoms of bodily movement and action, assert the Constitution’s authority through the evocation of “natural” human bodies. In this article, I explore the way in which a sovereignty of the United States’ (...)
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  48. David Ost (1996). Race and Bad Social Science: Reply to Murray. Telos 1996 (106):147-151.score: 30.0
    The first part of a rebuttal to Hugh Murray must be ad hominem, since Murray himself argues ad hominem whenever he can. Murray is a very angry man. He feels he has been discriminated against because he is white. It seems to be the key factor shaping his ideas, informing all his writings. “My mother graduated from eighth grade,” writes Murray, “my father quit school after the third. I was the first in the family to attend the university. And while (...)
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  49. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (2014). The Genetic Reification of 'Race'? A Story of Two Mathematical Methods. Critical Philosophy of Race 2 (2):204-223.score: 27.0
    Two families of mathematical methods lie at the heart of investigating the hierarchical structure of genetic variation in Homo sapiens: /diversity partitioning/, which assesses genetic variation within and among pre-determined groups, and /clustering analysis/, which simultaneously produces clusters and assigns individuals to these “unsupervised” cluster classifications. While mathematically consistent, these two methodologies are understood by many to ground diametrically opposed claims about the reality of human races. Moreover, modeling results are sensitive to assumptions such as preexisting theoretical commitments to certain (...)
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  50. Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (2013). Prisoners of Abstraction? The Theory and Measure of Genetic Variation, and the Very Concept of 'Race'. Biological Theory 7 (1):401-412.score: 24.0
    It is illegitimate to read any ontology about "race" off of biological theory or data. Indeed, the technical meaning of "genetic variation" is fluid, and there is no single theoretical agreed-upon criterion for defining and distinguishing populations (or groups or clusters) given a particular set of genetic variation data. Thus, by analyzing three formal senses of "genetic variation"—diversity, differentiation, and heterozygosity—we argue that the use of biological theory for making epistemic claims about "race" can only seem plausible when (...)
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