Search results for 'Racism' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Lawrence Blum (2002). Racism: What It Is and What It Isn't. Studies in Philosophy and Education 21 (3):203-218.score: 24.0
    The words `racist' and `racism' have become so overused that they nowconstitute obstacles to understanding and interracial dialogue aboutracial matters. Instead of the current practice of referring tovirtually anything that goes wrong or amiss with respect to race as`racism,' we should recognize a much broader moral vocabulary forcharacterizing racial ills – racial insensitivity, racial ignorance,racial injustice, racial discomfort, racial exclusion. At the sametime, we should fix on a definition of `racism' that is continuouswith its historical usage, and (...)
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  2. Sharyn Clough & William E. Loges (2008). Racist Value Judgments as Objectively False Beliefs: A Philosophical and Social-Psychological Analysis. Journal of Social Philosophy 39 (1):77–95.score: 24.0
    Racist beliefs express value judgments. According to an influential view, value judgments are subjective, and not amenable to rational adjudication. In contrast, we argue that the value judgments expressed in, for example, racist beliefs, are false and objectively so. Our account combines a naturalized, philosophical account of meaning inspired by Donald Davidson, with a prominent social-psychological theory of values pioneered by the social-psychologist Milton Rokeach. We use this interdisciplinary approach to show that, just as with beliefs expressing descriptive judgments, beliefs (...)
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  3. Charles W. Mills (2003). ``Heart'' Attack: A Critique of Jorge Garcia's Volitional Conception of Racism. [REVIEW] Journal of Ethics 7 (1):29-62.score: 24.0
    Since its original 1996 publication,Jorge Garcia''s ``The Heart of Racism'''' has beenwidely reprinted, a testimony to its importanceas a distinctive and original analysis ofracism. Garcia shifts the standard framework ofdiscussion from the socio-political to theethical, and analyzes racism as essentially avice. He represents his account asnon-revisionist (capturing everyday usage),non-doxastic (not relying on belief),volitional (requiring ill-will), and moralized(racism is always wrong). In this paper, Icritique Garcia''s analysis, arguing that hedoes in fact revise everyday usage, that hisaccount does tacitly (...)
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  4. Polycarp Ikuenobe (2011). Conceptualizing Racism and Its Subtle Forms. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 41 (2):161-181.score: 24.0
    Many people are talking about being in a post-racial era, which implies that we have overcome race and racism. Their argument is based on the fact that manyof the virulent manifestations of racism are not prevalent today. I argue that racism is not seen as prevalent today because the commonplace views of racism fail to capture the more subtle and insidious new forms of racism. I critically examine some of these views and indicate that (...), its forms and manifestations have changed over time. As such, racism may not be manifested in the standard obvious negative behaviors that people know and expect, but instead, it is manifested in even positive behaviors that the commonplace views may not identify as racism. I offer a view of racism that captures the new subtle forms of racism today, which are not as harmful and invidious as the older forms. Simply because the new forms of racism are not as obvious or harmful, this does not mean that racism no longer exists. (shrink)
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  5. Susan E. Babbitt & Sue Campbell (eds.) (1999). Racism and Philosophy. Cornell University Press.score: 24.0
    By definitively establishing that racism has broad implications for how the entire field of philosophy is practiced -- and by whom -- this powerful and ...
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  6. Michael Staudigl (2012). Racism: On the Phenomenology of Embodied Desocialization. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 45 (1):23-39.score: 24.0
    This paper addresses racism from a phenomenological viewpoint. Its main task is, ultimately, to show that racism as a process of “negative socialization” does not amount to a contingent deficiency that simply disappears under the conditions of a fully integrated society. In other words, I suspect that racism does not only indicate a lack of integration, solidarity, responsibility, recognition, etc.; rather, that it is, in its extraordinary negativity, a socially constitutive phenomenon per se . After suggesting phenomenology’s (...)
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  7. Gabrielle D. V. White (2013). Should We Take Kant Literally?: On Alleged Racism in Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime. Philosophy and Literature 37 (2):542-553.score: 24.0
    The criticism has been made that Kant looks racist, at least in his early work. This, however, is to insist on a literal reading. I explore Kant’s use of irony and satire as he battles to defend his vision. I show the rhetoric of irony in a pivotal text, looking at what happens and why.
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  8. Julie E. Maybee (2011). Audience Matters: Teaching Issues of Race and Racism for a Predominantly Minority Student Body. Educational Philosophy and Theory 43 (8):853-873.score: 24.0
    Some of the literature about teaching issues of race and racism in classrooms has addressed matters of audience. Zeus Leonardo, for example, has argued that teachers should use the language of white domination, rather than white privilege, when teaching about race and racism because the former language presupposes a minority audience, while the latter addresses an imaginary or presupposed white one. However, there seems to be little discussion in the literature about teaching these issues to an audience that (...)
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  9. Joshua Mugg (2013). What Are the Cognitive Costs of Racism? A Reply to Gendler. Philosophical Studies 166 (2):217-229.score: 24.0
    Tamar Gendler argues that, for those living in a society in which race is a salient sociological feature, it is impossible to be fully rational: members of such a society must either fail to encode relevant information containing race, or suffer epistemic costs by being implicitly racist. However, I argue that, although Gendler calls attention to a pitfall worthy of study, she fails to conclusively demonstrate that there are epistemic (or cognitive) costs of being racist. Gendler offers three supporting phenomena. (...)
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  10. Derek Alan Woodard-Lehman (2008). Body Politics and the Politics of Bodies: Racism and Hauerwasian Theopolitics. Journal of Religious Ethics 36 (2):295-320.score: 24.0
    Today dominative power operates apart from, and exterior to, those state governmentalities that the "body politics" of Stanley Hauerwas disavows as "constantinian" entanglements such as military service, governmental office, and conspicuous expressions of civil religion. This is especially true with respect to those biopolitical modalities David Theo Goldberg names as "racelessness," by which material inequalities are racially correlated, thereby allowing whiteness to mediate life and ration death. If, as Hauerwas contends, radical ecclesiology is indeed a theopolitical alternative to the nation–state's (...)
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  11. Kevin McKenzie (2011). Structure and Agency in Scholarly Formulations of Racism. Human Studies 34 (1):67-92.score: 24.0
    That the issue of racism is a pressing social concern which requires serious and detailed attention is, for ethnomethodology, not a first principle from which its own inquiry is launched but rather a matter to be considered in light of how mundane actors (both professional and lay) treat that very topic. This paper explores how the assumption of an ontological distinction between social structure and individual agency is integral to the intelligibility of racism as formulated in scholarly accounts. (...)
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  12. Peter Rigby (1996). African Images: Racism and the End of Anthropology. Berg.score: 24.0
    This controversial book is an impassioned African response to the racial stereotyping of African people and people of African descent by prominent white scholars. It highlights how the media contributes to the growth of racist ideas, particularly in reporting current events in Africa, and demonstrates how some of America’s most revered intellectuals cloak racist ideologies in ostensibly egalitarian discourses. The author seeks to rewrite the image of 'race' in order to show the damage racism can cause serious scholarship.
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  13. Subrata Chattopadhyay, Catherine Myser & Raymond De Vries (2013). Bioethics and Its Gatekeepers: Does Institutional Racism Exist in Leading Bioethics Journals? [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (1):7-9.score: 24.0
    Who are the gatekeepers in bioethics? Does editorial bias or institutional racism exist in leading bioethics journals? We analyzed the composition of the editorial boards of 14 leading bioethics journals by country. Categorizing these countries according to their Human Development Index (HDI), we discovered that approximately 95 percent of editorial board members are based in (very) high-HDI countries, less than 4 percent are from medium-HDI countries, and fewer than 1.5 percent are from low-HDI countries. Eight out of 14 leading (...)
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  14. David Haekwon Kim & Ronald Sundstrom (2014). Xenophobia and Racism. Critical Philosophy of Race 2 (1).score: 24.0
    Xenophobia is conceptually distinct from racism. Xenophobia is also distinct from nativism. Furthermore, theories of racism are largely ensconced in nationalized narratives of racism, often influenced by the black-white binary, which obscures xenophobia and shelters it from normative critiques. This paper addresses these claims, arguing for the first and last, and outlining the second. Just as philosophers have recently analyzed the concept of racism, clarifying it and pinpointing why it’s immoral and the extent of its moral (...)
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  15. Nicholas Mowad (2013). The Place of Nationality in Hegel's Philosophy of Politics and Religion: A Defense of Hegel on the Charges of Racism and National Chauvinism. In Angelica Nuzzo (ed.), Hegel on Religion and Politics. State University of New York Press. 157.score: 24.0
    I analyze Hegel’s conception of nationality in order to make clear how he conceives the precise relation between the state and religion. This analysis also allows me to draw conclusions about whether Hegel can be considered racist or Eurocentric. My project involves understanding nationality as Hegel presents it in the anthropology: viz., as a form of spirit immersed in nature and closely related to geography. The geographical features of a nation’s land are reflected in its national religion; its nation-state is (...)
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  16. Nico Vorster (2010). Christian Theology and Racist Ideology: A Case Study of Nazi Theology and Apartheid Theology. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 7 (19):144-161.score: 24.0
    This article focuses on the role that distorted Christian theology played in the construction of the racial ideologies of Nazism and Apartheid. The central theoretical argument is that these theologies were instrumental in sacralising the history of a specific group by creating origin myths, by idolising the ingroup, defining the outgroup, by providing racist ideologies with rituals and symbols and by creating final utopian solutions. The theological doctrines that were used are characterised by certain common features, such as a collectivist (...)
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  17. Darren Chetty (2014). The Elephant in the Room: Picturebooks, Philosophy for Children and Racism. Childhood and Philosophy 10 (19):11-31.score: 24.0
    Whilst continuing racism is often invoked as evidence of the urgent need for Philosophy for Children, there is little in the current literature that addresses the topic. Drawing on Critical Race Theory and the related field of Critical Whiteness Studies , I argue that racism is deeply ingrained culturally in society, and best understood in the context of ‘Whiteness’. Following a CRT-informed analysis of two picturebooks that have been recommended as starting points for philosophical enquiry into multiculturalism, (...) and diversity – ‘Elmer’ and ‘Tusk Tusk’ by David McKee, I argue that whilst the use of stories with animals is commonly regarded as offering children the comfort of distance from emotionally challenging topics, this has the effect of separating racism from its temporal and spatial realities, which limits rather than enhances opportunities for engaging philosophically with it. I argue in favour of the practice of ‘reading against the text’ and consider the epistemological and practical obstacles to this practice drawing on my own experiences discussing race with P4C practitioners in the UK. I attempt to illustrate how the selection of recommended materials, combined with commonly held principles of P4C, make for a climate where a philosophical engagement with race and racism that considers the discourse of ‘Whiteness’ is highly unlikely to occur. This leads me to posit the idea of The Gated Community of Enquiry. (shrink)
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  18. M. Forgiarini, M. Gallucci & A. Maravita (2010). Racism and the Empathy for Pain on Our Skin. Frontiers in Psychology 2:108-108.score: 24.0
    Empathy is a critical function regulating human social life. In particular, empathy for pain is a source of deep emotional feelings and a strong trigger of pro-social behavior. We investigated the existence of a racial bias in the emotional reaction to other people’s pain and its link with implicit racist biases. Measuring participants’ physiological arousal, we found that Caucasian observers reacted to pain suffered by African people significantly less than to pain of Caucasian people. The reduced reaction to the pain (...)
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  19. Simon Clarke (2003). Social Theory, Psychoanalysis, and Racism. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 24.0
    Sociological explanations of racism tend to concentrate on the structures and dynamics of modern life that facilitate discrimination and hierarchies of inequality. In doing so, they often fail to address why racial hatred arises (as opposed to how it arises) as well as to explain why it can be so visceral and explosive in character. Bringing together sociological perspectives with psychoanalytic concepts and tools, this text offers a clear, accessible and thought-provoking synthesis of varieties of theory, with the aim (...)
     
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  20. Andrew Valls (ed.) (2005). Race and Racism in Modern Philosophy. Cornell University Press.score: 21.0
    From Locke' treatment of the issue of slavery and Descartes' silence on the issue to Hegel' philosophy of religion and Nietzsche' "racial profiling," this book ...
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  21. T. M. Wilkinson (2007). Racist Organ Donors and Saving Lives. Bioethics 21 (2):63–74.score: 21.0
  22. Stephen Frosh (2013). Psychoanalysis, Colonialism, Racism. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 33 (3):141.score: 21.0
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  23. Douglas Ficek (2014). Review Essay: Dwayne Tunstall, Doing Philosophy Personally: Thinking About Metaphysics, Theism, and Antiblack Racism. Journal of French and Francophone Philosophy 22 (1):124-131.score: 21.0
    Review essay on Tunstall, Doing Philosophy Personally.
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  24. Philippe Lefait (1982). Science and Racism: The Unnatural Alliance. Unesco.score: 21.0
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  25. Lawrence Lengbeyer (2004). Racism and Impure Hearts. In Michael Levine & Tamas Pataki (eds.), Racism in Mind: Philosophical Explanations of Racism and Its Implications. Cornell UP.score: 21.0
    If racism is a matter of possessing racist beliefs, then it would seem that its cure involves purging one’s mind of all racist beliefs. But the truth is more complicated, and does not permit such a straightforward strategy. Racist beliefs are resistant to subjective repudiation, and even those that are so repudiated are resistant to lasting expulsion from one’s belief system. Moreover, those that remain available for use in cognition can shape thought and behavior even in the event that (...)
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  26. Lynne Tirrell (1999). Derogatory Terms: Racism, Sexism and the Inferential Role Theory of Meaning. In Kelly Oliver & Christina Hendricks (eds.), Language and Liberation: Feminism, Philosophy and Language,. SUNY Press.score: 18.0
    Derogatory terms (racist, sexist, ethnic, and homophobic epithets) are bully words with ontological force: they serve to establish and maintain a corrupt social system fuelled by distinctions designed to justify relations of dominance and subordination. No wonder they have occasioned public outcry and legal response. The inferential role analysis developed here helps move us away from thinking of the harms as being located in connotation (representing mere speaker bias) or denotation (holding that the terms fail to refer due to inaccurate (...)
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  27. Albert Mosley, Expanding the Moral Circle: From Racism to Speciesism.score: 18.0
    This paper reviews the argument by Peter Singer that speciesism, the exploitation of other species without regard for their interests, is as morally objectionable as racism and sexism. Objections to this argument by philosophers such as Peter Carruthers, Mary Midgley, and Cora Diamond as well as conventional wisdom about notions of species differences are presented and critically examined. I conclude that Alaine Locke would have supported Singer's expansion of the moral circle.
     
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  28. Howard Mcgary (1997). Racism, Social Justice, and Interracial Coalitions. Journal of Ethics 1 (3):249-264.score: 18.0
    Is racism in the United States alive and well? Do African Americans still experience alienation and social injustice because of racism? What are the various proposals that have been tendered by conservatives and liberals for overcoming racism? Can interracial coalitions be used as an effective tool for combating racism? I attempt to answer these questions in part by offering an analysis of Cornel West''s interracial coalition proposal in Race Matters.
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  29. Daniel Kelly, Luc Faucher & Edouard Machery (2010). Getting Rid of Racism: Assessing Three Proposals in Light of Psychological Evidence. Journal of Social Philosophy 41 (3):293-322.score: 18.0
    At the end of a chapter in his book Race, Racism and Reparations, Angelo Corlett notes that “[t]here remain other queries about racism [than those he addressed in his chapter], which need philosophical exploration. … Perhaps most important, how might racism be unlearned?” (2003, 93). We agree with Corlett’s assessment of its importance, but find that philosophers have not been very keen to directly engage with the issue of how to best deal with, and ultimately do away (...)
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  30. Luc Faucher & Edouard Machery (2009). Racism: Against Jorge Garcia's Moral and Psychological Monism. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 39 (1):41-62.score: 18.0
    In this article, we argue that it can be fruitful for philosophers interested in the nature and moral significance of racism to pay more attention to psychology. We do this by showing that psychology provides new arguments against Garcia's views about the nature and moral significance of racism. We contend that some scientific studies of racial cognition undermine Garcia's moral and psychological monism about racism: Garcia disregards (1) the rich affective texture of racism and (2) the (...)
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  31. Jorge Garcia (1999). Philosophical Analysis and the Moral Concept of Racism. Philosophy and Social Criticism 25 (5):1-32.score: 18.0
    This paper uses tools of philosophical analysis critically to examine accounts of the nature of racism that have recently been offered by writers including existentialist philosopher Lewis Gordon, conservative theorist Dinesh D'Souza, and sociologists Michael Omi and Howard Winant. These approaches, which conceive of racism either as a bad-faith choice to believe, a doctrine, or as a type of 'social formation', are found wanting for a variety of reasons, especially that they cannot comprehend some forms of (...). I propose an account that conceives racism chiefly as a motivational/volitional matter, in short, as a form of moral viciousness. I show how this approach offers a unified account that comprises inter alia individual and institutional racism, expressed and unexpressed racism. I point out advantages that my view has over Thomas Schmid's somewhat similar suggestion, and use the account to examine a number of claims made about racism by H. L. Gates, Jr, Elizabeth Young-Bruehl, Gertrude Ezorsky, and others. Finally, I defend this approach from the general criticism that Benjamin DeMott has levelled against any effort so to understand racism. Key Words: Benjamin DeMott • Dinesh D'Souza • existentialism • Lewis Gordon • moral concepts • Michael Omi • racism • social formation • Howard Winant. (shrink)
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  32. Bence Nanay (2010). Three Ways of Resisting Racism. The Monist 93 (2):255-280.score: 18.0
    Two widespread strategies of resisting racism are the following. The first one is to deny the existence of races and thus block even the possibility of racist claims. The second one is to grant that races exist but insist that racial differences do not imply value differences. The aim of this paper is to outline a strategy of resisting racism that is weaker than the first but stronger than the second strategy: even if we accept that races exist, (...)
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  33. Drucilla Cornell & Susan Murphy (2002). Anti-Racism, Multiculturalism and the Ethics of Identification. Philosophy and Social Criticism 28 (4):419-449.score: 18.0
    New York University, USA In theoritical and political writings, multiculturalism is most frequently understood in the language of recognition. Multiculturalist initiatives responds to the demands of minority cultures for political and cultural recognition so long denied them with devastating effects. In this article, we argue that the politics of recognition may have implicit dangers. In so far as it is articulated as a demand placed upon a dominant group and integrally tied to the substantiation of pre-given or fixed identity, it (...)
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  34. David Theo Goldberg (1990). Racism and Rationality: The Need for a New Critique. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 20 (3):317-350.score: 18.0
    Two classes of argument, logical and moral, are usually offered for the general assumption that racism is inherently irrational. The logical arguments involve accusations concerning stereotyping (category mistakes and empirical errors resulting from overgeneralization) as well as inconsistencies between attitudes and behavior and inconsistencies in beliefs. Moral arguments claim that racism fails as means to well-defined ends, or that racist acts achieve ends other than moral ones. Based on a rationality-neutral definition of racism, it is argued in (...)
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  35. Lisa Gannett (2001). Racism and Human Genome Diversity Research: The Ethical Limits of "Population Thinking". Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2001 (3):S479-.score: 18.0
    This paper questions the prevailing historical understanding that scientific racism "retreated" in the 1950s when anthropology adopted the concepts and methods of population genetics and race was recognized to be a social construct and replaced by the concept of population. More accurately, a "populational" concept of race was substituted for a "typological one"-this is demonstrated by looking at the work of Theodosius Dobzhansky circa 1950. The potential for contemporary research in human population genetics to contribute to racism needs (...)
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  36. Matt Lamkin (2011). Racist Appearance Standards and the Enhancements That Love Them: Norman Daniels and Skin-Lightening Cosmetics. Bioethics 25 (4):185-191.score: 18.0
    Darker skin correlates with reduced opportunities and negative health outcomes. Recent discoveries related to the genes associated with skin tone, and the historical use of cosmetics to conform to racist appearance standards, suggest effective skin-lightening products may soon become available. This article examines whether medical interventions of this sort should be permitted, subsidized, or restricted, using Norman Daniels's framework for determining what justice requires in terms of protecting health. I argue that Daniels's expansive view of the requirements of justice in (...)
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  37. Susan E. Babbitt (1994). Identity, Knowledge, and Toni Morrison's "Beloved": Questions About Understanding Racism. Hypatia 9 (3):1 - 18.score: 18.0
    In discussing Drucilla Cornell's remarks about Toni Morrison's Beloved, I consider epistemological questions raised by the acquiring of understanding of racism, particularly the deep-rooted racism embodied in social norms and values. I suggest that questions about understanding racism are, in part, questions about personal and political identities and that questions about personal and political identities are often, importantly, epistemological questions.
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  38. Edouard Machery (2009). Racism Against Jorge Garcia's Moral and Psychological Monism. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 39 (1):41-62.score: 18.0
    In this article, we argue that it can be fruitful for philosophers interested in the nature and moral significance of racism to pay more attention to psychology. We do this by showing that psychology provides new arguments against Garcia's views about the nature and moral significance of racism. We contend that some scientific studies of racial cognition undermine Garcia's moral and psychological monism about racism: Garcia disregards (1) the rich affective texture of racism and (2) the (...)
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  39. J. L. A. Garcia (2011). Racism, Psychology, and Morality: Dialogue with Faucher and Machery. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 41 (2):250-268.score: 18.0
    I here respond to several points in Faucher and Machery’s vigorous and informative critique of my volitional account of racism (VAR). First, although the authors deem it a form of "implicit racial bias," a mere tendency to associate black people with "negative" concepts falls short of racial "bias" or prejudice in the relevant sense. Second, such an associative disposition need not even be morally objectionable. Third, even for more substantial forms of implicit racial bias such as race-based fear or (...)
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  40. Bernard Boxill (ed.) (1996). Race and Racism (Oxford Readings in Philosophy). Oxford UP.score: 18.0
    Investigating the meaning of race and racism, the eighteen superb essays in this book not only explore the nature of these controversial ideas but also promote ...
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  41. Shannon Winnubst (2004). Is the Mirror Racist?: Interrogating the Space of Whiteness. Philosophy and Social Criticism 30 (1):25-50.score: 18.0
    This essay draws on a wide range of feminist, psychoanalytic and other anti-racist theorists to work out the specific mode of space as ‘contained’ and the ways it grounds dominant contemporary forms of racism i.e. the space of phallicized whiteness. Offering a close reading of Lacan’s primary models for ego-formation, the mirror stage and the inverted bouquet, I argue that psychoanalysis can help us to map contemporary power relations of racism because it enacts some of those very dynamics. (...)
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  42. Andrew Valls (2009). Racism: In Defense of Garcia. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 39 (3):475-480.score: 18.0
    Luc Faucher and Edouard Machery’s recent article in this journal uses evidence from psychological studies to criticize Jorge Garcia’s view of racism. This brief response argues that their critique fails because they misinterpret Garcia’s view and engage in some conceptual equivocation. It also argues that their focus on affect and human psychology is in fact compatible with Garcia’s view of racism as rooted in the human heart. Hence the evidence that they cite should be seen as empirical enrichment (...)
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  43. Nick Gier, The Color of Sin / the Color of Skin: Ancient Color Blindness and the Philosophical Origins of Modern Racism.score: 18.0
    We tend to think that the two great scourges of humankind, sexism and racism, have been around since the beginning of time. With regard to sexism, this is true. Aristotle, for example, thought women are malformed men: they do not have rational souls; they do not have enough soul heat to think properly or to boil their menstrual blood into semen; and, the cruelest cut of all, they are inferior because they have one less tooth than men. Aristotle also (...)
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  44. Adale Sholock (2012). Methodology of the Privileged: White Anti-Racist Feminism, Systematic Ignorance, and Epistemic Uncertainty. Hypatia 27 (3):701 - 714.score: 18.0
    This article addresses the impact of systematic ignorance and epistemic uncertainty upon white Western women's participation in anti-racist and transnational feminisms. I argue that a “methodology of the privileged” is necessary for effective coalition-building across racial and geopolitical inequities. Examining both self-reflexivity and racial sedition as existing methods, I conclude that epistemic uncertainty should be considered an additional strategy rather than a dilemma for the privileged.
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  45. Barbara Applebaum (1997). Good Liberal Intentions Are Not Enough! Racism, Intentions and Moral Responsibility. Journal of Moral Education 26 (4):409-421.score: 18.0
    Abstract The relationship of intention to moral responsibility in contemporary notions of racism is explored. It is argued that, although the moral import of efforts to reveal and recognise dominance in western society is to be lauded, the peripheral role attributed to intentions in ascriptions of racism can be counterproductive to the aim of helping dominant group members acknowledge their embeddedness in a culture which oppresses others.
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  46. Laura Janara (2004). Brothers and Others: Tocqueville and Beaumont, U.S. Genealogy, Democracy, and Racism. Political Theory 32 (6):773-800.score: 18.0
    After their voyage through the United States, Alexis de Tocqueville and Gustave de Beaumont each wrote about the nature of race relations there. The author offers two theses regarding the nature of U.S. racism and its relation to U.S. democracy as revealed in Tocqueville's and Beaumont's texts. First, these works illustrate how European Americans, in subordinating Indians and blacks, produce not a politically and socially egalitarian democracy situated amid an otherwise racist society and culture but, rather, a social state (...)
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  47. T. J. Berard (2010). Unpacking “Institutional Racism”. Schutzian Research 2:109-133.score: 18.0
    Overt racism and discrimination have been on the decline in the United States for at least two generations. Yet many American institutions continue to produce racial disparities. Sociologists and social critics have predominantly explained continuing disparities as results of continuing racism and discrimination, albeit in increasingly covert, anonymous forms; these critics suggest racism and discrimination have to be understood as historical, systemic problems operating at the level of institutions, culture, and society, even if overt forms are now (...)
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  48. Jack Kay & Priscilla Marie Meddaugh (2009). Hate Speech or “Reasonable Racism?” The Other in Stormfront. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 24 (4):251-268.score: 18.0
    We use the construct of the “other” to explore how hate operates rhetorically within the virtual conclave of Stormfront, credited as the first hate Web site. Through the Internet, white supremacists create a rhetorical vision that resonates with those who feel marginalized by contemporary political, social, and economic forces. However, as compared to previous studies of on-line white supremacist rhetoric, we show that Stormfront discourse appears less virulent and more palatable to the naive reader. We suggest that Stormfront provides a (...)
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  49. Benjamin Baez (2000). Agency, Structure, and Power: An Inquiry Into Racism and Resistance for Education. Studies in Philosophy and Education 19 (4):329-348.score: 18.0
    This paper argues that the agency/structure dichotomy thatpredominates in racism discourse is problematic because itobscures how racism is produced and resisted at the local sitesof relations between individuals and between individualsand institutions. Racism permeates social relations,ensured by `knowledge' and guaranteed through self-regulation. Resistance to racism requires arecognition of racism's `local' character. As aresult, educators, particularly in classrooms,play important roles in resistance-practices.
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  50. Joseph W. Long (2001). The Logical Mistake of Racism. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 8 (1):47-51.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I will explore and attempt to define one very important type of egregious discrimination of persons, racism. I will argue that racism involves a kind of logical mistake; specifically. I hope to show that racists commit the naturalistic fallacy. Finally, I will defend my account of racism against two challenges, the most important of which argues that if racism is merely a logical error then racists are not morally culpable.
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