11 found
Sort by:
Disambiguations:
Rafik I. Beekun [9]Rafik Issa Beekun [2]
  1. Yvonne Stedham & Rafik I. Beekun (2013). Ethical Judgment in Business: Culture and Differential Perceptions of Justice Among Italians and Germans. Business Ethics 22 (2):189-201.
    This study focuses on the cultural context of ethical decision making by considering the relationship between power distance and ethical judgment. Specifically, we propose that this relationship exists because of the influence of peers on ethical judgment and perceptions of justice. Considering the importance of peers in stage three of Kohlberg's model of moral development, we argue that peers are the basis for social comparisons, social cues and social identification and, hence, are critical to an individual's beliefs about justice. Using (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Rafik I. Beekun & James W. Westerman (2012). Spirituality and National Culture as Antecedents to Ethical Decision-Making: A Comparison Between the United States and Norway. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 110 (1):33-44.
    We investigate the cross-cultural relationships between spirituality and ethical decision-making in Norway and the U.S. Data were collected from business students ( n = 149) at state universities in Norway and the U.S. Results indicate that intention to behave ethically was significantly related to spirituality, national culture, and the influence of peers. Americans were significantly less ethical than Norwegians based on the three dimensions of ethics, yet more spiritual overall. Interestingly, the more spiritual were Norwegians, the more ethical was their (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Rafik I. Beekun, Yvonne Stedham, James W. Westerman & Jeanne H. Yamamura (2010). Effects of Justice and Utilitarianism on Ethical Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Gender Similarities and Differences. Business Ethics 19 (4):309-325.
    This study investigates the relationship between intention to behave ethically and gender within the context of national culture. Using Reidenbach and Robin's measures of the ethical dimensions of justice and utilitarianism in a sample of business students from three different countries, we found that gender is significantly related to the respondents' intention to behave ethically. Women relied on both justice as well as utilitarianism when making moral decisions. By contrast, men relied only on justice, and did not rely on utilitarianism (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Rafik I. Beekun, Ramda Hamdy, James W. Westerman & Hassan R. HassabElnaby (2008). An Exploration of Ethical Decision-Making Processes in the United States and Egypt. Journal of Business Ethics 82 (3):587 - 605.
    In this comparative survey of 191 Egyptian and 92 U.S. executives, we explore the relationship between national culture and ethical decision-making within the context of business. Using Reidenbach and Robin’s (1988) multi-criteria ethics instrument, we examine how differences on two of Hofstede’s national culture dimensions, individualism/collectivism, and power distance, are related to the manner in which business practitioners make ethical decisions. Egypt and the U.S. provide an interesting comparison because of the extreme differences in their economies and related business development. (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Yvonne Stedham, Jeanne H. Yamamura & Rafik I. Beekun (2007). Gender Differences in Business Ethics: Justice and Relativist Perspectives. Business Ethics 16 (2):163–174.
  6. James W. Westerman, Rafik I. Beekun, Yvonne Stedham & Jeanne Yamamura (2007). Peers Versus National Culture: An Analysis of Antecedents to Ethical Decision-Making. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 75 (3):239 - 252.
    Given the recent ethics scandals in the United States, there has been a renewed focus on understanding the antecedents to ethical decision-making in the research literature. Since ethical norms and standards of behavior are not universally consistent, an individual’s choice of referent may exert a large influence on his/her ethical decision-making. This study used a social identity theory lens to empirically examine the relative influence of the macro- and micro-level variables of national culture and peers on an individual’s intention to (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Rafik I. Beekun & Jamal A. Badawi (2005). Balancing Ethical Responsibility Among Multiple Organizational Stakeholders: The Islamic Perspective. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 60 (2):131 - 145.
    In spite of a renewed interest in the relationship between spirituality and managerial thinking, the literature covering the link between Islam and management has been sparse – especially in the area of ethics. One potential reason may be the cultural diversity of nearly 1.3 billion Muslims globally. Yet, one common element binding Muslim individuals and countries is normative Islam. Using all four sources of this religion’s teachings, we outline the parameters of an Islamic model of normative business ethics. We explain (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Rafik I. Beekun, Jim Westerman & Jamal Barghouti (2005). Utility of Ethical Frameworks in Determining Behavioral Intention: A Comparison of the U.S. And Russia. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 61 (3):235 - 247.
    Using Reidenbach and Robin‘s ( Journal of Business Ethics 7, 871–879, 1988) multi-criteria ethics instrument, we carried out the first empirical test of Robertson and Crittenden‘s (Strategic Management Journal 24, 385–392, 2003) cross-cultural map of moral philosophies to examine what ethical criteria guide business people in Russia and the U.S. in their intention to behave. Competing divergence and convergence hypotheses were advanced. Our results support a convergence hypothesis, and reveal a common emphasis on relativism. Americans are also influenced by the (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Rafik I. Beekun, Yvonne Stedham & Jeanne H. Yamamura (2003). Business Ethics in Brazil and the U.S.: A Comparative Investigation. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 42 (3):267 - 279.
    In this comparative survey of 126 Brazilian and U.S. business professionals, we explore the effect of national culture on ethical decision-making within the context of business. Using Reidenbach and Robin''s (1988) multi-criteria ethics instrument, we examined how these two countries'' differences on Hofstede''s individualism/collectivism dimension are related to the manner in which business practitioners make ethical decisions. Our results indicate that Brazilians and Americans evaluate the ethical content of actions or decisions differently when applying utilitarian criteria. By contrast, business people (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Rafik Issa Beekun (1999). Leadership: An Islamic Perspective. Amana.
  11. Rafik Issa Beekun (1997). Islamic Business Ethics. International Institute of Islamic Thought.