Search results for 'Raghav Ramachandran' (try it on Scholar)

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Profile: Raghav Ramachandran (University of New South Wales)
Profile: Raghavan Ramachandran
  1.  18
    Raghav Ramachandran, Abhaya C. Nayak & Mehmet A. Orgun (2012). Three Approaches to Iterated Belief Contraction. Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (1):115-142.
    In this paper we investigate three approaches to iterated contraction, namely: the Moderate (or Priority) contraction, the Natural (or Conservative) contraction, and the Lexicographic contraction. We characterise these three contraction functions using certain, arguably plausible, properties of an iterated contraction function. While we provide the characterisation of the first two contraction operations using rationality postulates of the standard variety for iterated contraction, we found doing the same for the Lexicographic contraction more challenging. We provide its characterisation using a variation of (...)
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  2.  16
    Raghav Ramachandran, Arthur Ramer & Abhaya C. Nayak (2012). Probabilistic Belief Contraction. Minds and Machines 22 (4):325-351.
    Probabilistic belief contraction has been a much neglected topic in the field of probabilistic reasoning. This is due to the difficulty in establishing a reasonable reversal of the effect of Bayesian conditionalization on a probabilistic distribution. We show that indifferent contraction, a solution proposed by Ramer to this problem through a judicious use of the principle of maximum entropy, is a probabilistic version of a full meet contraction. We then propose variations of indifferent contraction, using both the Shannon entropy measure (...)
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  3. V. S. Ramachandran, By Vilayanur S. Ramachandran and Lindsay M. Oberman.
    A t first glance you might not noorder, which afflicts about 0.5 percent of tice anything odd on meeting a American children. Neither researcher young boy with autism. But if had any knowledge of the other’s work, you try to talk to him, it will and yet by an uncanny coincidence each quickly become obvious that gave the syndrome the same name: autism, something is seriously wrong. He may not which derives from the Greek word autos, make eye contact with (...)
     
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  4. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Edward M. Hubbard (2003). The Phenomenology of Synaesthesia. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (8):49-57.
    This article supplements our earlier paper on synaesthesia published in JCS (Ramachandran & Hubbard, 2001a). We discuss the phenomenology of synaesthesia in greater detail, raise several new questions that have emerged from recent studies, and suggest some tentative answers to these questions.
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  5. B. D. Josephson & V. S. Ramachandran (eds.) (1980). Consciousness and the Physical World: Edited Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Symposium on Consciousness Held at the University of Cambridge in January 1978. Pergamon Press.
    Edited proceedings of an interdisciplinary symposium on consciousness held at the University of Cambridge in January 1978. Includes a foreword by Freeman Dyson. Chapter authors: G. Vesey, R.L. Gregory, H.C. Longuet-Higgins, N.K. Humphrey, H.B. Barlow, D.M. MacKay, B.D. Josephson, M. Roth, V.S. Ramachandran, S. Padfield, and (editorial summary only) E. Noakes. A scanned pdf is available from this web site (philpapers.org), while alternative versions more suitable for copying text are available from repository.cam.ac.uk via the link provided on this page. (...)
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  6.  18
    Murali Ramachandran (1993). Restricted Rigidity: The Deeper Problem. Mind 102 (405):157-158.
    André Gallois’ (1993) modified account of restrictedly rigid designators (RRDs) does indeed block the objection I made to his original account (Gallois 1986; Ramachandran 1992). But, as I shall now show, there is a deeper problem with his approach which his modification does not shake off. The problem stems from the truth of the following compatibility claim: (CC) A term’s restrictedly rigidly designating (RR-designating) an object x is compatible with it designating an object y in a world W where (...)
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  7. V. S. Ramachandran, Neurocase.
    First Published on: 21 June 2007 To cite this Article: Ramachandran, Vilayanur S., McGeoch, Paul D., Williams, Lisa and Arcilla, Gerard (2007) 'Rapid Relief of Thalamic Pain Syndrome Induced by Vestibular Caloric Stimulation', Neurocase, 13:3, 185 - 188 To link to this article: DOI: 10.1080/13554790701450446 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13554790701450446..
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  8. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Edward M. Hubbard (2001). Synaesthesia: A Window Into Perception, Thought and Language. Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (12):3-34.
    (1) The induced colours led to perceptual grouping and pop-out, (2) a grapheme rendered invisible through ‘crowding’ or lateral masking induced synaesthetic colours — a form of blindsight — and (3) peripherally presented graphemes did not induce colours even when they were clearly visible. Taken collectively, these and other experiments prove conclusively that synaesthesia is a genuine percep- tual phenomenon, not an effect based on memory associations from childhood or on vague metaphorical speech. We identify different subtypes of number–colour synaesthesia (...)
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  9. Patricia S. Churchland, V. S. Ramachandran & Terrence J. Sejnowski (1993). A Critique of Pure Vision. In Christof Koch & Joel L. David (eds.), Large-scale neuronal theories of the brain. MIT Press 23.
    Anydomainofscientificresearchhasitssustainingorthodoxy. Thatis, research on a problem, whether in astronomy, physics, or biology, is con- ducted against a backdrop of broadly shared assumptions. It is these as- sumptionsthatguideinquiryandprovidethecanonofwhatisreasonable-- of what "makes sense." And it is these shared assumptions that constitute a framework for the interpretation of research results. Research on the problem of how we see is likewise sustained by broadly shared assump- tions, where the current orthodoxy embraces the very general idea that the business of the visual system is to (...)
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  10. Edward M. Hubbard, A. Cyrus Arman, Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Geoffrey M. Boynton (2005). Individual Differences Among Grapheme-Color Synesthetes: Brain-Behavior Correlations. Neuron 5 (6):975-985.
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  11.  33
    William Hirstein & V. S. Ramachandran (1997). Capgras Syndrome: A Novel Probe for Understanding the Neural Representation of the Identity and Familiarity of Persons. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 264:437-444.
  12.  70
    Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Edward M. Hubbard (2001). Psychophysical Investigations Into the Neural Basis of Synaesthesia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 268:979-983.
    We studied two otherwise normal, synaesthetic subjects who `saw' a speci¢c colour every time they saw a speci¢c number or letter. We conducted four experiments in order to show that this was a genuine perceptual experience rather than merely a memory association. (i)The synaesthetically induced colours could lead to perceptual grouping, even though the inducing numerals or letters did not. (ii)Synaesthetically induced colours were not experienced if the graphemes were presented peripherally. (iii)Roman numerals were ine¡ective: the actual number grapheme was (...)
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  13.  12
    Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & William Hirstein (1999). The Science of Art: A Neurological Theory of Aesthetic Experience. Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (6-7):15-41.
    We present a theory of human artistic experience and the neural mechanisms that mediate it. Any theory of art has to ideally have three components. The logic of art: whether there are universal rules or principles; The evolutionary rationale: why did these rules evolve and why do they have the form that they do; What is the brain circuitry involved? Our paper begins with a quest for artistic universals and proposes a list of ‘Eight laws of artistic experience’ -- a (...)
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  14.  79
    Edward M. Hubbard & Vilayanur S. Ramachandran (2005). Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Synesthesia. Neuron 48 (3):509-520.
  15.  64
    Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & William Hirstein (1998). The Perception of Phantom Limbs: The D. O. Hebb Lecture. Brain 121:1603-1630.
  16. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Edward M. Hubbard (2003). Hearing Colors, Tasting Shapes. Scientific American (May):52-59.
    Jones and Coleman are among a handful of otherwise normal as a child and the number 5 was red and 6 was green. This the- people who have synesthesia. They experience the ordinary ory does not answer why only some people retain such vivid world in extraordinary ways and seem to inhabit a mysterious sensory memories, however. You might _think _of cold when you no-man’s-land between fantasy and reality. For them the sens- look at a picture of an ice cube, (...)
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  17.  79
    Vilayanur S. Ramachandran (1995). Anosognosia in Parietal Lobe Syndrome. Consciousness and Cognition 4 (1):22-51.
    Patients with right parietal lesions often deny their paralysis , but do they have "tacit" knowledge of their paralysis? I devised three novel tests to explore this. First, the patients were given a choice between a bimanual task vs a unimanual one . They chose the former on 17 of 18 trials and, surprisingly, showed no frustration or learning despite repeated failed attempts. I conclude that they have no tacit knowledge of paralysis . Second, I used a "virtual reality box" (...)
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  18. Leili Fatehi, Susan M. Wolf, Jeffrey McCullough, Ralph Hall, Frances Lawrenz, Jeffrey P. Kahn, Cortney Jones, Stephen A. Campbell, Rebecca S. Dresser, Arthur G. Erdman, Christy L. Haynes, Robert A. Hoerr, Linda F. Hogle, Moira A. Keane, George Khushf, Nancy M. P. King, Efrosini Kokkoli, Gary Marchant, Andrew D. Maynard, Martin Philbert, Gurumurthy Ramachandran, Ronald A. Siegel & Samuel Wickline (2012). Recommendations for Nanomedicine Human Subjects Research Oversight: An Evolutionary Approach for an Emerging Field. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):716-750.
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  19.  92
    Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Diane Rogers-Ramachandran (1996). Synaesthesia in Phantom Limbs Induced with Mirrors. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 263:377-386.
  20.  50
    Murali Ramachandran (2009). Anti-Luminosity: Four Unsuccessful Strategies. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 87 (4):659-673.
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  21. Murali Ramachandran (1997). A Counterfactual Analysis of Causation. Mind 106 (422):263-277.
    On David Lewis's original analysis of causation, c causes e only if c is linked to e by a chain of distinct events such that each event in the chain (counter-factually) depends on the former one. But this requirement precludes the possibility of late pre-emptive causation, of causation by fragile events, and of indeterministic causation. Lewis proposes three different strategies for accommodating these three kinds of cases, but none of these turn out to be satisfactory. I offer a single analysis (...)
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  22.  45
    V. S. Ramachandran & Paul McGeoch, Can Vestibular Caloric Stimulation Be Used to Treat Apotemnophilia?
    Summary Apotemnophilia, or body integrity image disorder (BIID), is characterised by a feeling of mismatch between the internal feeling of how one’s body should be and the physical reality of how it actually is. Patients with this condition have an often overwhelming desire for an amputation- of a specific limb at a specific level. Such patients are not psychotic or delusional, however, they do express an inexplicable emotional abhorrence to the limb they wish removed. It is also known that such (...)
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  23.  82
    Vilayanur S. Ramachandran (2004). A Brief Tour of Human Consciousness: From Impostor Poodles to Purple Numbers. Pearson Professional.
  24.  31
    Edward M. Hubbard, Sanjay Manohar & Vilayanur S. Ramachandran (2006). Contrast Affects the Strength of Synesthetic Colors. Cortex (Special Issue on Synesthesia) 42 (2):184-194.
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  25. V. S. Ramachandran & W. Hirstein (1999). A Theory of Human Artistic Experience and the Neural Mechanisms That Mediate It. Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (6-7):15-51.
     
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  26. Jordan Paradise, Susan M. Wolf, Jennifer Kuzma, Aliya Kuzhabekova, Alison W. Tisdale, Efrosini Kokkoli & Gurumurthy Ramachandran (2009). Developing U.S. Oversight Strategies for Nanobiotechnology: Learning From Past Oversight Experiences. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 37 (4):688-705.
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  27. Murali Ramachandran (1998). The M-Set Analysis of Causation: Objections and Responses. Mind 107 (426):465-471.
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  28.  92
    Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Richard L. Gregory (1991). Perceptual Filling in of Artificially Induced Scotomas in Human Vision. Nature 350:699-702.
  29.  13
    Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & Steve Cobb (1995). Visual Attention Modulates Metacontrast Masking. Nature 373:66-68.
  30. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & William Hirstein (1998). Three Laws of Qualia: What Neurology Tells Us About the Biological Functions of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 4 (4-5):429-57.
    Neurological syndromes in which consciousness seems to malfunction, such as temporal lobe epilepsy, visual scotomas, Charles Bonnet syndrome, and synesthesia offer valuable clues about the normal functions of consciousness and ‘qualia’. An investigation into these syndromes reveals, we argue, that qualia are different from other brain states in that they possess three functional characteristics, which we state in the form of ‘three laws of qualia’ based on a loose analogy with Newton's three laws of classical mechanics. First, they are irrevocable: (...)
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  31.  8
    Jordan Paradise, Susan M. Wolf, Jennifer Kuzma, Aliya Kuzhabekova, Alison W. Tisdale, Efrosini Kokkoli & Gurumurthy Ramachandran (2009). Developing U.S. Oversight Strategies for Nanobiotechnology: Learning From Past Oversight Experiences. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 37 (4):688-705.
    The emergence of nanotechnology, and specifically nanobiotechnology, raises major oversight challenges. In the United States, government, industry, and researchers are debating what oversight approaches are most appropriate. Among the federal agencies already embroiled in discussion of oversight approaches are the Food and Drug Administration , Environmental Protection Agency , Department of Agriculture , Occupational Safety and Health Administration , and National Institutes of Health . All can learn from assessment of the successes and failures of past oversight efforts aimed at (...)
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  32.  77
    Murali Ramachandran (1990). Contingent Identity in Counterpart Theory. Analysis 50 (3):163-166.
    A slight modification to the translation scheme for David Lewis's counterpart theory I put forward in 'An Alternative Translation Scheme for Counterpart Theory' (Analysis 49.3 (1989)) is proposed. The motivation for this change is that it makes for a more plausible account of contingent identity. In particular, contingent identity is accommodated without admitting the contingency of self-identity.
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  33. Murali Ramachandran (2004). A Counterfactual Analysis of Indeterministic Causation. In J. Collins, E. J. Hall & L. A. Paul (eds.), Causation and Counterfactuals. MIT Press
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  34.  63
    Simon Langford & Murali Ramachandran (2000). Rigidity, Occasional Identity and Leibniz' Law. Philosophical Quarterly 50 (201):518-526.
    André Gallois (1998) attempts to defend the occasional identity thesis (OIT), the thesis that objects which are distinct at one time may nonetheless be identical at another time, in the face of two influential lines of argument against it. One argument involves Kripke’s (1971) notion of rigid designation and the other, Leibniz’s law (affirming the indiscernibility of identicals). It is reasonable for advocates of (OIT) to question the picture of rigid designation and the version of Leibniz’s law that these arguments (...)
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  35.  10
    V. S. Ramachandran (2001). Sharpening Up «the Science of Art». Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (1):9-29.
    An interview with Anthony Freeman, in which one of the original authors of ‘The Science of Art’ [JCS, 6, No. 6/7, 1999] responds to to ongoing commentary.
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  36.  28
    Murali Ramachandran (1990). Unsuccessful Revisions of CCT. Analysis 50 (3):173 - 177.
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  37. J. R. Smythies & Vilayanur S. Ramachandran (1997). An Empirical Refutation of the Direct Realist Theory of Perception. Inquiry 40 (4):437-438.
    There are currently two main philosophical theories of perception - Direct Realism and the Representative Theory. The former is supported by most contemporary philosophers, whereas the latter forms the groundwork for most scientific theories in this area. The paper describes a recent experiment involving retinal and cortical rivalry that provides strong empirical evidence that the Direct Realist theory is incorrect. There are of course a large number of related experiments on visual perception that would tend to lead us to the (...)
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  38.  50
    Murali Ramachandran (1989). An Alternative Translation Scheme for Counterpart Theory. Analysis 49 (3):131 - 141.
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  39.  36
    William Hirstein, Portia Iversen & V. S. Ramachandran (2001). Autonomic Responses of Autistic Children to People and Objects. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 268:1883-1888..
    Several recent lines of inquiry have pointed to the amygdala as a potential lesion site in autism. Because one function of the amygdala may be to produce autonomic arousal at the sight of a signi¢cant face, we compared the responses of autistic children to their mothers’ face and to a plain paper cup. Unlike normals, the autistic children as a whole did not show a larger response to the person than to the cup. We also monitored sympathetic activity in autistic (...)
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  40.  11
    Leili Fatehi, Susan M. Wolf, Jeffrey McCullough, Ralph Hall, Frances Lawrenz, Jeffrey P. Kahn, Cortney Jones, Stephen A. Campbell, Rebecca S. Dresser, Arthur G. Erdman, Christy L. Haynes, Robert A. Hoerr, Linda F. Hogle, Moira A. Keane, George Khushf, Nancy M. P. King, Efrosini Kokkoli, Gary Marchant, Andrew D. Maynard, Martin Philbert, Gurumurthy Ramachandran, Ronald A. Siegel & Samuel Wickline (2012). Recommendations for Nanomedicine Human Subjects Research Oversight: An Evolutionary Approach for an Emerging Field. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 40 (4):716-750.
    The nanomedicine field is fast evolving toward complex, “active,” and interactive formulations. Like many emerging technologies, nanomedicine raises questions of how human subjects research (HSR) should be conducted and the adequacy of current oversight, as well as how to integrate concerns over occupational, bystander, and environmental exposures. The history of oversight for HSR investigating emerging technologies is a patchwork quilt without systematic justification of when ordinary oversight for HSR is enough versus when added oversight is warranted. Nanomedicine HSR provides an (...)
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  41. Murali Ramachandran (2008). Descriptions and Pressupositions: Strawson Vs. Russel. South African Journal of Philosophy 27 (3):242-257.
    A Russellian theory of (definite) descriptions takes an utterance of the form ‘The F is G' to express a purely general proposition that affirms the existence of a (contextually) unique F: there is exactly one F [which is C] and it is G. Strawson, by contrast, takes the utterer to presuppose in some sense that there is exactly one salient F, but this is not part of what is asserted; rather, when the presupposition is not met the utterance simply fails (...)
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  42.  2
    Jae-Young Choi & Gurumurthy Ramachandran (2009). Review of the OSHA Framework for Oversight of Occupational Environments. [REVIEW] Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 37 (4):633-650.
    The OSHA system for oversight of chemicals in the workplace was evaluated to derive lessons for oversight of nanotechnology. Criteria relating to the development, attributes, evolution, and outcomes of the system were used for evaluation that was based upon quantitative expert elicitation and historical literature analysis. The oversight system had inadequate resources in terms of finances, expertise, and personnel, and insufficient incentive for compliance. The system showed a lack of flexibility in novel situations. There were minimal requirements on companies for (...)
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  43.  9
    M. Ramachandran (2015). Knowing by Way of Tracking and Epistemic Closure. Analysis 75 (2):217-223.
    Tracking accounts of knowledge were originally motivated by putative counter-examples to epistemic closure. But, as is now well known, these early accounts have many highly counterintuitive consequences. In this note, I motivate a tracking-based account which respects closure but which resolves many of the familiar problems for earlier tracking account along the way.
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  44. Patricia S. Churchland & Vilayanur S. Ramachandran (1993). Filling In: Why Dennett is Wrong. In B. Dahlbom (ed.), Dennett and His Critics. Blackwell
     
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  45.  57
    V. S. Ramachandran (2008). Phantom Penises in Transsexuals. Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (1):5-16.
    How the brain constructs one's inner sense of gender iden-tity is poorly understood. On the other hand, the phenomenon of phantom sensations-- the feeling of still having a body-part after amputation--has been much studied. Around 60% of men experience a phantom penis post-penectomy. As transsexuals report a mismatch between their inner gender identity and that of their body, we won-dered what could be learnt from this regarding innate gender-specific body image. We surveyed male-to-female transsexuals regarding the incidence of phantoms post-gender (...)
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  46. Vilayanur S. Ramachandran, Apotemnophilia: A Neurological Disorder.
    Apotemnophilia, a disorder that blurs the distinction between neurology and psychiatry, is characterized by the intense and longstanding desire for amputation of a speci¢c limb. Here we present evidence from two individuals suggestive that this condition, long thought to be entirely psychological in origin, actually has a neurological basis. We found heightened skin conductance response..
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  47.  7
    V. S. Ramachandran & William Hirstein (1999). Three Laws ofQualia. In Jonathan Shear & Shaun Gallagher (eds.), Models of the Self. Imprint Academic 83.
    Neurological syndromes in which consciousness seems to malfunction, such as temporal lobe epilepsy, visual scotomas, Charles Bonnet syndrome, and synesthesia offer valuable clues about the normal functions of consciousness and ‘qualia’. An investigation into these syndromes reveals, we argue, that qualia are different from other brain states in that they possess three functional characteristics, which we state in the form of ‘three laws of qualia ’ based on a loose analogy with Newton’s three laws of classical mechanics. First, they are (...)
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  48. Gurumurthy Ramachandran, John Howard, Andrew Maynard & Martin Philbert (2012). Handling Worker and Third-Party Exposures to Nanotherapeutics During Clinical Trials. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):856-864.
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  49. V. S. Ramachandran & Paul D. McGeoch, Occurrence of Phantom Genitalia After Gender Reassignment Surgery.
    Summary Transsexuals are individuals who identify as a member of the gender opposite to that which they are born. Many transsexuals report that they have always had a feeling of a mismatch between their inner gender-based ‘‘body image’’ and that of their body’s actual physical form. Often transsexuals undergo gender reassignment surgery to convert their bodies to the sex they feel they should have been born. The vivid sensation of still having a limb although it has been amputated, a phantom (...)
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  50.  28
    Vilayanur S. Ramachandran (1993). Behavioral and Magnetoencephalographic Correlates of Plasticity in the Adult Human Brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Usa 90:10413-10420.
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