This paper reviews the fate of the central ideas behind the complementary learning systems (CLS) framework as originally articulated in McClelland, McNaughton, and O’Reilly (1995). This framework explains why the brain requires two differentially specialized learning and memory systems, and it nicely specifies their central properties (i.e., the hippocampus as a sparse, pattern-separated system for rapidly learning episodic memories, and the neocortex as a distributed, overlapping system for gradually integrating across episodes to extract latent semantic structure). We review the application (...) of the CLS framework to a range of important topics, including the following: the basic neural processes of hippocampal memory encoding and recall, conjunctive encoding, human recognition memory, consolidation of initial hippocampal learning in cortex, dynamic modulation of encoding versus recall, and the synergistic interactions between hippocampus and neocortex. Overall, the CLS framework remains a vital theoretical force in the field, with the empirical data over the past 15 years generally confirming its key principles. (shrink)
This book is the first English translation of the classic philosophical treatise Kantadarsaner Tatparyya. Bhattacharyya combines the basic tenets of Kant to present it in terms of Indian philosophical traditions. The introduction discusses the need for the translation, the challenges involved, and the context of Bhattacharyya's interpretations and thought. The detailed notes and annotations to the translation guide the reader through a variety of concepts in Western and Indian philosophy, as well as comments on the Bengali text. -/- (...) This book will be of considerable interest to scholars, teachers, and students of Western and Indian philosophy. (shrink)
This book is the first English translation of the classic philosophical treatise Kantadarsaner Tatparyya . Bhattacharyya combines the basic tenets of Kant to present it in terms of Indian philosophical traditions. The introduction discusses the need for the translation, the challenges involved, and the context of Bhattacharyya's interpretations and thought. The detailed notes and annotations to the translation guide the reader through a variety of concepts in Western and Indian philosophy, as well as comments on the Bengali text. (...) This book will be of considerable interest to scholars, teachers, and students of Western and Indian philosophy. (shrink)
Bortolotti’s Delusions and Other Irrational Beliefs defends the view that delusions are beliefs on a continuum with other beliefs. A different view is that delusions are more like illusions, that is, they arise from faulty perception. This view, which is not targeted by the book, makes it easier to explain why delusions are so alien and disabling but needs to appeal to forensic aspects of functioning.
Does humanity have a moral obligation toward the estimated millions of individuals who will be displaced from their homes over the course of this century primarily due to sea-level rise as the Earth’s climate warms? If there are indeed sound reasons for the world to act on their behalf, what form should these actions take? -/- This paper argues that migration and permanent resettlement would be the only possible “adaptation” strategy available to millions. While existing international law provides no solution (...) for these individuals, the only just remedy is in the form of special rights of free global movement and resettlement in regions and countries on higher ground in advance of disaster. (shrink)
Most universities solicit feedback from students at the end of a course in order to assess student perceptions of the course. This feedback is used for various objectives, including for evaluating teaching by academic administrators. One would therefore expect faculty to rationally take this into account while formulating their teaching strategy. In certain cases, such strategic considerations can give rise to moral hazard. I have modelled the situation using the well-known Prisoners Dilemma game and found that in equilibrium, the teaching (...) style will be examination-centric, while considerations of societal good would demand that the teaching style be knowledge-centric. I also discuss the policy implications for this finding. (shrink)
This book disentangles two terms that were conflated in the initial Anglo-American appropriation of French theory: deconstruction and poststructuralism. Focusing on Sartre, Derrida, Foucault, and Baudrillard (but also considering Levinas, Blanchot, de Man, and others), it traces the turn from a deconstruction inflected by phenomenology to a poststructuralism formed by the rejection of models based on consciousness in favor of ones based on language and structure. The book provides a wide-ranging and complex genealogy of French theory from the 1940s onward, (...) placing particular emphasis on the largely neglected early work of the theorists involved and on deconstruction’s continuing relevance. The author argues that deconstruction is a form of radical, antiscientific modernity: an interdisciplinary reconfiguration of philosophy as it confronted the positivism of the human sciences in the 1960s. By contrast, poststructuralism is a type of postmodern theory inflected by changes in technology and the mode of information. Inasmuch as poststructuralism is founded upon its “constitutive loss” of phenomenology (in Judith Butler’s phrase), the author is also concerned with the ways phenomenology (particularly Sartre’s forgotten but seminal Being and Nothingness) is remembered, repeated in different ways, and never quite worked through in its theoretical successors. Thus the book also exemplifies a way of reading intellectual history that is not only concerned with the transmission of concepts, but also with the processes of transference, mourning, and disavowal that inform the relationships between bodies of thought. (shrink)
The paper analyzes dewey's two different philosophical accounts of intelligence, one as a method of adjustment within given situations, and the other as creative of new ends and means for the realization of those ends. it also points out that these two accounts of intelligence are not mutually exclusive; and we have in their combination a parallel with scientific method, in which resolution of a specific problem requires imaginative theorizing. it is also shown that dewey's concept of 'intelligence' requires the (...) formation of certain intellectual and moral dispositions, and that reflection can become enlightened striving only when it is sustained and guided by those dispositions. (shrink)
The success of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) worldwide has led to an accumulation of frozen embryos that are surplus to the reproductive needs of those for whom they were created. In these situations, couples must decide whether to discard them or donate them for scientific research or for use by other infertile couples. While legislation and regulation may limit the decisions that couples make, their decisions are often shaped by their religious beliefs. Unfortunately, health professionals, scientists and policy-makers are often (...) unaware of the way in which faith traditions view ART and decisions concerning the ‘fate’ of surplus embryos. In this paper scholars representing six major religious traditions provide a commentary on a hypothetical case concerning the donation or destruction of excess ART embryos. These commentaries provide a rich account of religious perspectives on the status of the human embryo and an insight into the relevance of faith to health and policy decisions, particularly in reproductive medicine, ART and embryo research. (shrink)
The classical theory of rational choice is built on several important internal consistency conditions. In recent years, the reasonableness of those internal consistency conditions has been questioned and criticized, and several responses to accommodate such criticisms have been proposed in the literature. This paper develops a general framework to accommodate the issues raised by the criticisms of classical rational choice theory, and examines the broad impact of these criticisms from both normative and positive points of view.
Automobility, or the myriad institutions that foster car culture, has rarely if ever been put under the lens of liberal political theory, even though driving is one of the most common and widely accepted features of daily life in modern societies. When its implied promise of guaranteeing both freedom and equality is examined more closely, however, it appears that the ethical implications of driving may be darker than initially supposed. Automobility may indeed be in violation of both the Kantian categorical (...) imperative and Gewirth’s principle of generic consistency, even though there has thus far been remarkably little ethical analysis to reveal these possibilities. It is conceivable that liberal political theory has turned a blind eye to automobility precisely because the latter has naturalized us into accepting what Roberto Unger has called a routine of “false necessity,” so that driving is now virtually imperceptible as a social fact worthy of critical analysis. (shrink)
Nanoscale multilayered Al?TiN composites were deposited using the dc magnetron sputtering technique in two different layer thickness ratios, Al : TiN = 1 : 1 and Al : TiN = 9 : 1. The Al layer thickness varied from 2 nm to 450 nm. The hardness of the samples was tested by nanoindentation using a Berkovich tip. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was carried out on samples extracted with focused ion beam from below the nanoindents. The results of the hardness (...) tests on the Al?TiN multilayers with two different thickness ratios are presented, together with observations from the cross-sectional TEM studies of the regions underneath the indents. These studies revealed remarkable strength in the multilayers, as well as some very interesting deformation behavior in the TiN layers at extremely small length scales, where the hard TiN layers undergo co-deformation with the Al layers. (shrink)
As students progress towards their PhD degrees, they will become more independent and practitioner-like; for those moving into academia, it is often assumed the programs of their PhD mentors will serve as prototypes for their own successful research programs. However, the author's research program as an Assistant Professor led him in directions never considered as a graduate student. The author had to make significant decisions in choosing a primary audience, finding an overarching theme, defining the individual problems, and developing these (...) problems into researchable projects. Infrastructure-related issues associated with the author's research program were also considered. The details of his journey from the end of his doctoral degree to his current position as an Assistant Professor are described in this article. (shrink)
The remarkable radiation damage resistance of nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) is attributed to the large numbers of matrix nanofeatures (NFs) of various types, which can enhance the recombination of displacement defects and trap transmutant helium in fine scale bubbles. Characterizing the chemistry, crystallographic structure and orientation relationships of the NFs is critical to understanding how they enhance the radiation damage resistance of NFAs. Conventional and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to characterize the various types of NF (...) and larger oxide phases in a model 14Cr?3?W?0.4Ti?0.25Y2O3 NFA (14YWT) hot isostatic pressed (HIP-ed) at 1150°C. Large CrTiO3 precipitates (50?300?nm) and small diffracting NFs (<5?nm) were found in this alloy. One major new result is the observation of an additional type of nanofeature (10?50?nm), orthorhombic in structure, with a square center cross-section, which constitutes a new kind of Y?Ti-oxide phase with lattice parameters different from those of known Y and Ti complex oxides. The interfaces of these particles seem to be semicoherent, while manifesting a possible orientation relationship with the BCC matrix. The ratio of Y to Ti varies between <1 and 2 for these larger NFs. (shrink)
Machine generated contents note: PREFACE -- SCHEME OF TRANSLITERATION -- ABBREVIATIONS -- CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1-13 -- 1. Sarvajfiatmamuni, His Date, Life and Works1 -- 2. Scope And Utility of the Present Study 10 -- References11 -- CHAPTER II: ANUBANDHAS 14-24 -- Adhikarin or Competent person 14 -- Prayojanaor Necessity19 -- Necessity of Brahmavicdra20 -- References 22 -- CHAPTER III : THE CONCEPT OF BRAHMAN 25-52 -- 1. Significance of the Upanisads in Brahman25 -- 2. The Nature of Brahman27 -- (...) (1) Svarupalaksana of Brahman28 -- (2) Tatasthalaksana of Brahman35 -- 3. The Problem of Saguna Brahman and37 -- Nirguna Brahman -- 4. The Problem of Pramana about Brahman40 -- 5. References47 -- CHAPTER IV: THE CONCEPT OF AJNANA 53-82 -- 1. The Nature of Ajfinna53 -- 2. Pramana for the Existence of Ajnana56 -- 3. Two Powers of Avidyd57 -- 4. The Object and Locus of Ajhana58 -- (i) The object of Ajhana58 -- (ii) The Locus of Ajhna59 -- 5. Avidya--One or Many64 -- 6. Difference between Maya and Avidya66 -- 7. Cessation of Nescience69 -- 8. References75 -- CHAPTER V: THE CONCEPT OF ADHYASA 83-101 -- 1. The Nature of Adhyasa84 -- 2. Cause of Adhyasa89 -- 3. The Problem of the Material and the Locus -- of Dream 94 -- 4. The Problem of Adhara and Adhisthana96 -- 5, References98 -- CHAPTER VI : THE CONCEPT OF THE JiVA 102-138 -- 1. The Real Nature of the Jiva102 -- 2. The Empirical Jva 102 -- 3. Three States of the Empirical Jva106 -- 4. The Theories of Avaccheda, Pratibimba and108 -- Abhasa Regarding the Nature of the Jiva. -- 5. Number of the Jva114 -- (a) Eka-Sariraika-jiva-vada114 -- (b) Aneka-sariraikajiva-vada 115 -- 6. The Relation between the Jiva and Brahman 122 -- 7. Meaning of Tattvamasi-Akhcandartha 123 -- 8. References 131 -- CHAPTER VII: THE CONCEPT OF THE WORLD 139-165 -- 1. The Cause of the World139 -- 2. Parindmavada and Vivartavada 146 -- 3. Falsity of the World 151 -- 4. Refutation of Vynanavada 155 -- 5. Drstisrstivada and Srstidrstivada 157 -- 6. The Cessation of the World 159 -- 7. References 161 -- CHAPTER VIII: THE PATH TO LIBERATION 166-194 -- 1. Means of Liberation 166 -- 2. Internal and External Means of Liberation170 -- 3. The Final Means of Brahma-Realisation172 -- 4. Problem of Injunction in Sravana 174 -- 5. JThna as the only Means of Liberation 180 -- 6. The place of obligatory and Non-obligatory183 -- Rites in the Path of Liberation -- 7. Refutation ofjfnana-Karma-Samuccaya-vada 187 -- 8. References 189 -- CHAPTER IX: LIBERATION 195-212 -- 1. Nature of Liberation195 -- 2. Jivanmukti and Videhamukti 201 -- (i) Jlvanmukti 201 -- (ii) Videhamukti 206 -- 3. References 210 -- CONCLUSION 213 -- BIBLIOGRAPHY 219 -- INDEX 227. (shrink)
The decimation of the Sundarbans has resulted from attempts to satisfy short-term demands by exhausting the chances of satisfying future demands. The forest cannot be preserved by a policy that under-valorizes the urgency of the short-term needs or by a policy that is imposed from above, but it may be by social forestry. Social forestry augments the supply of forest products from non-forest lands, and, most significantly, includes the users in developing appropriate forest policies.
A phase-field model for modeling the diffusional processes in an elastically anisotropic polycrystalline binary solid solution is described. The elastic interactions due to coherency elastic strain are incorporated by solving the mechanical equilibrium equation using an iterative-perturbation scheme taking into account elastic modulus inhomogeneity stemming from different grain orientations. We studied the precipitate interactions among precipitates across a grain boundary and grain boundary segregation?precipitate interactions. It was shown that the local pressure field from one coherent precipitate influences the shape of (...) precipitates in other grains. The local pressure distribution due to primary coherent precipitates near the grain boundary leads to inhomogeneous solute distribution along the grain boundary, resulting in non-uniform distribution of secondary nuclei at the grain boundary. (shrink)