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    Ralph J. Greenspan (2012). Biological Indeterminacy. Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (3):447-452.
    Reductionist explanations in biology generally assume that biological mechanisms are highly deterministic and basically similar between individuals. A contrasting view has emerged recently that takes into account the degeneracy of biological processes—the ability to arrive at a given endpoint by a variety of available paths, even within the same individual. This perspective casts significant doubt on the prospects for the ability to predict behavior accurately based on brain imaging or genotyping, and on the ability of neuroscience to stipulate ethics.
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    Ralph J. Greenspan & Bernard J. Baars (2005). Consciousness Eclipsed: Jacques Loeb, Ivan P. Pavlov, and the Rise of Reductionistic Biology After 1900. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):219-230.
    The life sciences in the 20th century were guided to a large extent by a reductionist program seeking to explain biological phenomena in terms of physics and chemistry. Two scientists who figured prominently in the establishment and dissemination of this program were Jacques Loeb in biology and Ivan P. Pavlov in psychological behaviorism. While neither succeeded in accounting for higher mental functions in physical-chemical terms, both adopted positions that reduced the problem of consciousness to the level of reflexes and (...)
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  3. Ralph J. Greenspan (2004). Chapter Sixteen–Darwinian Uncertainty. In Paul Harris & Michael Crawford (eds.), Time and Uncertainty. Brill 11--245.
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