Search results for 'Ralph Lyndal Worrall' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Ralph Lyndal Worrall (1948). Energy and Matter. New York, Staples Press.score: 870.0
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  2. Ralph Lyndal Worrall (1946). The Outlook of Science. London [Etc.]Staples Press Limited, John Bale Medical Publications Limited.score: 870.0
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  3. John Worrall, Adhocness and Content-Increase: Is There Life After Grünbaum? John Worrall.score: 180.0
    Most of us believe that theory-change in science has been a rationally analysable process. We believe, that is, that when one theory, Newton’s for example, is replaced as the accepted theory in science by a rival, Einstein’s in the same example, it is because the newer theory turns out to be better than the old in some objective sense and a sense, moreover, crucially related to the experimental evidence. Even those who have abjectly surrendered (at any rate on Mondays, Wednesdays (...)
     
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  4. John Worrall, Miracles, Pessimism and Scientific Realism.score: 60.0
    Worrall ([1989]) argued that structural realism provides a ‘synthesis’ of the main pro-realist argument – the ‘No Miracles Argument’, and the main anti-realist argument – the ‘Pessimistic Induction’. More recently, however, it has been claimed (Howson [2000] and Lewis [2001], respectively) that each of these arguments is an instance of the same probabilistic fallacy – sometimes called the ‘base-rate fallacy’. If correct, this clearly seems to undermine structural realism and Magnus and Callender have indeed claimed that both arguments are (...)
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  5. John Worrall, Does Science Discredit Religion?score: 60.0
    JOHN WORRALL (ABOUT TO APPEAR –W ITH REPLY BY DEL RATZCH – IN PETERSON AND VANARRAGON (EDS) CONTEMPORARY DEBATES IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION. BLACKWELL) We get the ages of rock, and they get the rock of ages; we work out how the heavens go and they work out how to get to heaven.
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  6. John Worrall (2000). Tracking Track Records. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 74 (1):207-35.score: 60.0
    [Peter Lipton] From a reliabilist point of view, our inferential practices make us into instruments for determining the truth value of hypotheses where, like all instruments, reliability is a central virtue. I apply this perspective to second-order inductions, the inductive assessments of inductive practices. Such assessments are extremely common, for example whenever we test the reliability of our instruments or our informants. Nevertheless, the inductive assessment of induction has had a bad name ever since David Hume maintained that any attempt (...)
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  7. John Worrall (2000). Tracking Track Records, II. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 74 (1):207–235.score: 60.0
    [Peter Lipton] From a reliabilist point of view, our inferential practices make us into instruments for determining the truth value of hypotheses where, like all instruments, reliability is a central virtue. I apply this perspective to second-order inductions, the inductive assessments of inductive practices. Such assessments are extremely common, for example whenever we test the reliability of our instruments or our informants. Nevertheless, the inductive assessment of induction has had a bad name ever since David Hume maintained that any attempt (...)
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  8. John Worrall (2011). Underdetermination, Realism and Empirical Equivalence. Synthese 180 (2):157 - 172.score: 30.0
    Are theories 'underdetermined by the evidence' in any way that should worry the scientific realist? I argue that no convincing reason has been given for thinking so. A crucial distinction is drawn between data equivalence and empirical equivalence. Duhem showed that it is always possible to produce a data equivalent rival to any accepted scientific theory. But there is no reason to regard such a rival as equally well empirically supported and hence no threat to realism. Two theories are empirically (...)
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  9. John Worrall, 1. Introduction: The 'Threat' to Realism From Underdetermination.score: 30.0
    The appeal of scientific realism is chiefly based on the – staggering – empirical success of the theories currently accepted in science. The realist exhibits some currently accepted scientific theory (the General Theory of Relativity, say), points to its astounding empirical success (with the gravitational redshift, the precession of Mercury’s perihelion, etc) and suggests that it would be monumentally implausible to suppose that the theory could score such empirical successes and yet not reflect, at least to some good approximation, the (...)
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  10. John Worrall (2009). Do We Need Some Large, Simple Randomized Trials in Medicine? Epsa.score: 30.0
    In a randomized clinical trial (RCT), a group of patients, initially assembled through a mixture of deliberation (involving explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria) and serendipity (which patients happen to walk into which doctor’s clinic while the trial is in progress), are divided by some random process into an experimental group (members of which will receive the therapy under test) and a control group (members of which will receive some other treatment – perhaps placebo, perhaps the currently standard treatment for the (...)
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  11. John Worrall (1989). Structural Realism: The Best of Both Worlds? Dialectica 43 (1-2):99-124.score: 30.0
    The no-miracles argument for realism and the pessimistic meta-induction for anti-realism pull in opposite directions. Structural Realism---the position that the mathematical structure of mature science reflects reality---relieves this tension.
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  12. John Worrall (2007). Why There's No Cause to Randomize. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (3):451-488.score: 30.0
    The evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is widely regarded as supplying the ‘gold standard’ in medicine—we may sometimes have to settle for other forms of evidence, but this is always epistemically second-best. But how well justified is the epistemic claim about the superiority of RCTs? This paper adds to my earlier (predominantly negative) analyses of the claims produced in favour of the idea that randomization plays a uniquely privileged epistemic role, by closely inspecting three related arguments from leading contributors (...)
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  13. John Worrall (2002). What Evidence in Evidence-Based Medicine? Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2002 (3):S316-S330.score: 30.0
    Evidence-Based Medicine is a relatively new movement that seeks to put clinical med- icine on a firmer scientific footing. I take it as uncontroversial that medical practice should be based on best evidence-the interesting questions concern the details. This paper tries to move towards a coherent and unified account of best evidence in medicine, by exploring in particular the EBM position on RCTs (randomized controlled trials).
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  14. John Worrall (2007). Evidence in Medicine and Evidence-Based Medicine. Philosophy Compass 2 (6):981–1022.score: 30.0
  15. John Worrall (1982). Scientific Realism and Scientific Change. Philosophical Quarterly 32 (128):201-231.score: 30.0
    The topic of the paper is the "realism-Instrumentalism" debate concerning the status of scientific theories. Popper's contributions to this debate are critically examined. In the first part his arguments against instrumentalism are considered; it is claimed that none strikes home against better versions of the doctrine (specifically those developed by duhem and poincare). In the second part, Various arguments against realism propounded by duhem and/or poincare (and much discussed by more recent philosophers) are evaluated. These are the arguments from the (...)
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  16. John Worrall (1989). Fix It and Be Damned: A Reply to Laudan. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 40 (3):376-388.score: 30.0
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  17. R. E. & J. Worrall (2001). Prediction and the Periodic Table. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 32 (3):407-452.score: 30.0
    The debate about the relative epistemic weights carried in favour of a theory by predictions of new phenomena as opposed to accommodations of already known phenomena has a long history. We readdress the issue through a detailed re-examination of a particular historical case that has often been discussed in connection with it-that of Mendeleev and the prediction by his periodic law of the three 'new' elements, gallium, scandium and germanium. We find little support for the standard story that these predictive (...)
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  18. John Worrall (1984). An Unreal Image. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 35 (1):65-80.score: 30.0
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  19. J. Worrall (2000). The Scope, Limits, and Distinctiveness of the Method of 'Deduction From the Phenomena': Some Lessons From Newton's 'Demonstrations' in Optics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (1):45-80.score: 30.0
    Having been neglected or maligned for most of this century, Newton's method of 'deduction from the phenomena' has recently attracted renewed attention and support. John Norton, for example, has argued that this method has been applied with notable success in a variety of cases in the history of physics and that this explains why the massive underdetermination of theory by evidence, seemingly entailed by hypothetico-deductive methods, is invisible to working physicists. This paper, through a detailed analysis of Newton's deduction (...)
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  20. John Worrall (1988). The Value of a Fixed Methodology. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 39 (2):263-275.score: 30.0
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  21. John Worrall (1990). Rationality, Sociology and the Symmetry Thesis. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 4 (3):305 – 319.score: 30.0
    Abstract This paper attempts to clarify the debate between those philosophers who hold that the development of science is governed by objective standards of rationality and those sociologists of science who deny this. In particular it focuses on the debate over the ?symmetry thesis?. Bloor and Barnes argue that a properly scientific approach to science itself demands that an investigator should seek the same general type of explanation for all decisions and actions by past scientists, quite independently of whether or (...)
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  22. Eric Scerri & John Worrall (2001). Prediction and the Periodic Table. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 32 (3):407-452.score: 30.0
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  23. John Worrall (1982). Broken Bootstraps. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 18 (1):105 - 130.score: 30.0
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  24. John Worrall (1974). Nachruf Auf Imre Lakatos. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 5 (2):i-217.score: 30.0
  25. J. Worrall (1999). Obituary. John Watkins (1924-1999). British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (4):787-789.score: 30.0
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  26. John Worrall (1995). Review. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 46 (4):279-295.score: 30.0
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  27. John Worrall, A Bridge Over Troubled Cultures. The Impact of Philosophy of Science in Britain.score: 30.0
    Who are the major figures that have shaped philosophy of science in Britain? What impact has the subject had in Britain outside academic philosophy? How have two of the major centers of the subject - in Pittsburgh and in London - interacted over the years? I begin by looking briefly at the recent history of philosophy of science in Britain and its general impact (tying this in with its interaction with the Pittsburgh Center and Pittsburgh people. It seems to me, (...)
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  28. John Worrall (1985). Reviews. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 36 (1):81-85.score: 30.0
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  29. Matthew A. Lambon Ralph & Peter Garrard (2001). Category-Specific Deficits: Insights From Semantic Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):485-486.score: 30.0
    Recent investigations and theorising about category-specific deficits have begun to focus upon patients with progressive brain disease such as semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease. In this commentary we briefly review what insights have been gained from studying patients of this type. We concentrate on four specific issues: the sensory/functional distinction, correlation between features, neuroanatomical considerations, and confounding factors.
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  30. John Worrall (1994). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] Mind 103 (410):672-.score: 30.0
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  31. John Worrall (1999). Two Cheers for Naturalised Philosophy of Science - Or: Why Naturalised Philosophy of Science is Not the Cats's Whiskers. Science and Education 8 (4):339-361.score: 30.0
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  32. Colin Howson & John Worrall (1974). The Contemporary State of Philosophy of Science in Britain. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 5 (2):363-374.score: 30.0
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  33. John Worrall (1978). Review. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 13 (1):279 - 295.score: 30.0
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  34. Denis Worrall (1988). The Real Struggle in South Africa: An Insider's View. Ethics and International Affairs 2 (1):115–137.score: 30.0
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  35. Colin Cheyne & John Worrall (eds.) (2006). Rationality and Reality: Conversations with Alan Musgrave. Springer.score: 30.0
  36. Leslie[from old catalog] Ralph (1961). Pythagoras. London, Krikos.score: 30.0
     
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  37. Russell Goodman, Ralph Waldo Emerson. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 24.0
    An American essayist, poet, and popular philosopher, Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–82) began his career as a Unitarian minister in Boston, but achieved worldwide fame as a lecturer and the author of such essays as “Self-Reliance,” “History,” “The Over-Soul,” and “Fate.” Drawing on English and German Romanticism, Neoplatonism, Kantianism, and Hinduism, Emerson developed a metaphysics of process, an epistemology of moods, and an “existentialist” ethics of self-improvement. He influenced generations of Americans, from his friend Henry David Thoreau to John Dewey, (...)
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  38. Catherine Osborne (2011). Ralph Cudworth's The True Intellectual System of the Universe and the Presocratic Philosophers. In Oliver Primavesi & Katharina Luchner (eds.), The Presocratics from the Latin Middle Ages to Hermann Diels. Steiner Verlag.score: 24.0
    Ralph Cudworth (1617-88) was one of the Cambridge Platonists. His major work, The True Intellectual System of the Universe, was completed in 1671, a year after Spinoza published (anonymously) the Tractatus Logico-philosophicus. It was published a few years later, in 1678. Cudworth offers a spirited attack against the materialism and mechanism of Thomas Hobbes. His work is couched as a search for truth among the ancient philosophers, and this paper examines his use of the Presocratics as a tool for (...)
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  39. Christopher W. Tindale (2002). A Concept Divided: Ralph Johnson's Definition of Argument. [REVIEW] Argumentation 16 (3):299-309.score: 24.0
    Ralph Johnson's Manifest Rationality (2000) is a major contribution to the field of informal logic, but the concept of argument that is central to its project suffers from a tension between the components that comprise it. This paper explores and addresses that tension by examining the implications of each of five aspects of the definition of ‘argument’.
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  40. Author unknown, Ralph Cudworth. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 21.0
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  41. Katri Käsper (2008). Ralph Wedgwood, The Nature of Normativity. [REVIEW] Studia Philosophica Estonica 1 (1):118-121.score: 21.0
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  42. Anderson Weekes (2006). The Many Streams in Ralph Pred’s Onflow: A Review Essay. Chromatikon II. Annuaire de la Philosophie En Procès - Yearbook of Philosophy in Process 2:229-246.score: 18.0
    This study of Ralph Pred’s Onflow (MIT Press, 2005) expands on Pred’s arguments and raises doubts about the viability of phenomenology. Showing that Pred’s method is indeed phenomenological, I validate his interpretations of William James as phenomenologist and his critique of John Searle in light of James, which documents the extent to which the role of habit in the constitution of experience is neglected by philosophers. In explaining habit, however, Pred himself reverts to non-phenomenological models drawn from James’ postulate (...)
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  43. F. Michael Akeroyd (2003). Prediction and the Periodic Table: A Response to Scerri and Worrall. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 34 (2):337-355.score: 18.0
    In a lengthy article E. Scerri and J. Worrall (2001) put forward the case for a novel ‘accommodationist’ version of the events surrounding the development of Mendeleef's Periodic Table 1869–1899. However these authors lay undue stress on the fact that President of the Royal Society of London Spottiswoode made absolutely no mention of Mendeleef's famous predictions in the Davy Medal eulogy in 1883 and undue stress on the fact that Cleve's classic 1879 Scandium paper contained an acknowledgement of Mendeleef's (...)
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  44. Ralph Waldo Emerson (1884). The Correspondence of Thomas Carlyle and Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1834-1872, Vol. I. unknown.score: 18.0
    This is an important book historically, documenting the long friendship and correspondence of Emerson and Carlyle. It should be noted that there is a more up-to-date edition, done in the 20th century (edited by Joseph Slater, Columbia U.P. 1964). Many of the common themes and interests of the two thinkers are indicated in the correspondence, and often enough, one can also see evidence of the differences and how they approached them.
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  45. Catarina Dutilh Novaes (2006). Ralph Strode's Obligationes: The Return of Consistency and the Epistemic Turn. Vivarium 44 (s 2-3):338-374.score: 18.0
    In what follows, I analyze Ralph Strode's treatise on obligations. I have used a hitherto unpublished edition of the text (based on 14 manuscripts) made by Prof. E.J. Ashworth. I first give a brief description of Strode's text, which is all the more necessary given that it is not available to the average reader; I also offer a reconstruction of the rules proposed by Strode, following the style of reconstruction used in my analysis of Burley's and Swyneshed's rules elsewhere—that (...)
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  46. Howard Sankey (1996). Normative Naturalism and the Challenge of Relativism: Laudan Versus Worrall on the Justification of Methodological Principles. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 10 (1):37 – 51.score: 18.0
    In a recent exchange, John Worrall and Larry Laudan have debated the merits of the model of rational scientific change proposed by Laudan in his book Science and Values. On the model advocated by Laudan, rational change may take place at the level of scientific theory and methodology, as well as at the level of the epistemic aims of science. Moreover, the rationality of a change which occurs at any one of these three levels may be dependent on considerations (...)
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  47. Vince Brewton, Ralph Waldo Emerson. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 18.0
    In his lifetime, Ralph Waldo Emerson became the most widely known man of letters in America, establishing himself as a prolific poet, essayist, popular lecturer, and an advocate of social reforms who was nevertheless suspicious of reform and reformers. Emerson achieved some reputation with his verse, corresponded with many of the leading intellectual and artistic figures of his day, and during an off and on again career as a Unitarian minister, delivered and later published a number of controversial sermons. (...)
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  48. Benjamin Carter (2010). Ralph Cudworth and the Theological Origins of Consciousness. History of the Human Sciences 23 (3):29-47.score: 18.0
    The English Neoplatonic philosopher Ralph Cudworth introduced the term ‘consciousness’ into the English philosophical lexicon. Cudworth uses the term to define the form and structure of cognitive acts, including acts of freewill. In this article I highlight the important role of theological disputes over the place and extent of human freewill within an overarching system of providence. Cudworth’s intellectual development can be understood in the main as an increasingly detailed and nuanced reaction to the strict voluntarist Calvinism that is (...)
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  49. Nigel J. T. Thomas (1997). A Stimulus to the Imagination: A Review of Questioning Consciousness: The Interplay of Imagery, Cognition and Emotion in the Human Brain by Ralph D. Ellis. [REVIEW] Psyche 3 (4).score: 18.0
    Twentieth century philosophy and psychology have been peculiarly averse to mental images. Throughout nearly two and a half millennia of philosophical wrangling, from Aristotle to Hume to Bergson, images (perceptual and quasi-perceptual experiences), sometimes under the alias of "ideas", were almost universally considered to be both the prime contents of consciousness, and the vehicles of cognition. The founding fathers of experimental psychology saw no reason to dissent from this view, it was commonsensical, and true to the lived experience of conscious (...)
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  50. Tristram McPherson (2009). Unnatural Normativity? Critical Notice of Ralph Wedgwood's Nature of Normativity. [REVIEW] Philosophical Books 50 (2):63-82.score: 18.0
    Ralph Wedgwood’s The Nature of Normativity significantly advances our understanding of metaethical realism. After briefly reviewing the overall structure of Wedgwood’s argument for a Platonist realism about normativity, this critical notice focuses on three of the central metaphysical and epistemological claims that he defends. I first explain and raise difficulties for Wedgwood’s core claim that the intentional is normative. I then argue that his innovative attempt to finesse the supervenience problem that faces metaethical Platonists fails. Finally, I critically examine (...)
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