Search results for 'Ralph Lyndal Worrall' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Ralph Lyndal Worrall (1948). Energy and Matter. New York, Staples Press.
     
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  2. Ralph Lyndal Worrall (1946). The Outlook of Science. London [Etc.]Staples Press Limited, John Bale Medical Publications Limited.
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  3. John Worrall, Adhocness and Content-Increase: Is There Life After Grünbaum? John Worrall.
    Most of us believe that theory-change in science has been a rationally analysable process. We believe, that is, that when one theory, Newton’s for example, is replaced as the accepted theory in science by a rival, Einstein’s in the same example, it is because the newer theory turns out to be better than the old in some objective sense and a sense, moreover, crucially related to the experimental evidence. Even those who have abjectly surrendered (at any rate on Mondays, Wednesdays (...)
     
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  4. Imre Lakatos, Gregory Currie & John Worrall (1978). Mathematics, Science, and Epistemology. Edited by John Worrall and Gregory Currie. --. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  5. John Worrall (2000). II–John Worrall. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 74 (1):207-235.
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  6.  11
    John Worrall, Homeopathy and Evidence-Based Policy.
    With the UK government considering a ban on the prescription of homeopathic remedies on the NHS, John Worrall examines the rationale for such a proposal and suggests that the decision is not as simple as it might initially seem.
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  7. John Worrall, Miracles, Pessimism and Scientific Realism.
    Worrall argued that structural realism provides a ‘synthesis’ of the main pro-realist argument – the ‘No Miracles Argument’, and the main anti-realist argument – the ‘Pessimistic Induction’. More recently, however, it has been claimed that each of these arguments is an instance of the same probabilistic fallacy – sometimes called the ‘base-rate fallacy’. If correct, this clearly seems to undermine structural realism and Magnus and Callender have indeed claimed that both arguments are fallacious and ‘without [them] we lose the (...)
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  8. John Worrall, Does Science Discredit Religion?
    JOHN WORRALL (ABOUT TO APPEAR –W ITH REPLY BY DEL RATZCH – IN PETERSON AND VANARRAGON (EDS) CONTEMPORARY DEBATES IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION. BLACKWELL) We get the ages of rock, and they get the rock of ages; we work out how the heavens go and they work out how to get to heaven.
     
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  9.  7
    John Worrall (2000). Tracking Track Records. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 74 (1):207-35.
    [Peter Lipton] From a reliabilist point of view, our inferential practices make us into instruments for determining the truth value of hypotheses where, like all instruments, reliability is a central virtue. I apply this perspective to second-order inductions, the inductive assessments of inductive practices. Such assessments are extremely common, for example whenever we test the reliability of our instruments or our informants. Nevertheless, the inductive assessment of induction has had a bad name ever since David Hume maintained that any attempt (...)
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  10.  16
    John Worrall (2000). Tracking Track Records, II. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 74 (1):207–235.
    [Peter Lipton] From a reliabilist point of view, our inferential practices make us into instruments for determining the truth value of hypotheses where, like all instruments, reliability is a central virtue. I apply this perspective to second-order inductions, the inductive assessments of inductive practices. Such assessments are extremely common, for example whenever we test the reliability of our instruments or our informants. Nevertheless, the inductive assessment of induction has had a bad name ever since David Hume maintained that any attempt (...)
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  11.  1
    Denis Worrall (1988). The Real Struggle in South Africa: An Insider's View. Ethics and International Affairs 2 (1):115–137.
    Denis Worrall draws on 20th century South African history and his own experience as a South African to show some of the less obvious but extremely important facets of apartheid that directly impact its dissemination.
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  12. John Worrall (2002). What Evidence in Evidence-Based Medicine? Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2002 (3):S316-S330.
    Evidence-Based Medicine is a relatively new movement that seeks to put clinical med- icine on a firmer scientific footing. I take it as uncontroversial that medical practice should be based on best evidence-the interesting questions concern the details. This paper tries to move towards a coherent and unified account of best evidence in medicine, by exploring in particular the EBM position on RCTs (randomized controlled trials).
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  13. John Worrall (2007). Why There's No Cause to Randomize. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (3):451-488.
    The evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is widely regarded as supplying the ‘gold standard’ in medicine—we may sometimes have to settle for other forms of evidence, but this is always epistemically second-best. But how well justified is the epistemic claim about the superiority of RCTs? This paper adds to my earlier (predominantly negative) analyses of the claims produced in favour of the idea that randomization plays a uniquely privileged epistemic role, by closely inspecting three related arguments from leading contributors (...)
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  14.  77
    John Worrall (2007). Evidence in Medicine and Evidence-Based Medicine. Philosophy Compass 2 (6):981–1022.
  15. John Worrall (1989). Fix It and Be Damned: A Reply to Laudan. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 40 (3):376-388.
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  16.  50
    John Worrall (1988). The Value of a Fixed Methodology. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 39 (2):263-275.
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  17.  71
    John Worrall (1984). An Unreal Image. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 35 (1):65-80.
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  18.  24
    J. Worrall (2000). The Scope, Limits, and Distinctiveness of the Method of 'Deduction From the Phenomena': Some Lessons From Newton's 'Demonstrations' in Optics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (1):45-80.
    Having been neglected or maligned for most of this century, Newton's method of 'deduction from the phenomena' has recently attracted renewed attention and support. John Norton, for example, has argued that this method has been applied with notable success in a variety of cases in the history of physics and that this explains why the massive underdetermination of theory by evidence, seemingly entailed by hypothetico-deductive methods, is invisible to working physicists. This paper, through a detailed analysis of Newton's deduction of (...)
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  19.  65
    John Worrall (1982). Scientific Realism and Scientific Change. Philosophical Quarterly 32 (128):201-231.
    The topic of the paper is the "realism-Instrumentalism" debate concerning the status of scientific theories. Popper's contributions to this debate are critically examined. In the first part his arguments against instrumentalism are considered; it is claimed that none strikes home against better versions of the doctrine (specifically those developed by duhem and poincare). In the second part, Various arguments against realism propounded by duhem and/or poincare (and much discussed by more recent philosophers) are evaluated. These are the arguments from the (...)
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  20.  16
    John Worrall (1982). Broken Bootstraps. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 18 (1):105 - 130.
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  21.  31
    J. Worrall (1999). Obituary. John Watkins (1924-1999). British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (4):787-789.
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  22. R. E. & J. Worrall (2001). Prediction and the Periodic Table. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 32 (3):407-452.
    The debate about the relative epistemic weights carried in favour of a theory by predictions of new phenomena as opposed to accommodations of already known phenomena has a long history. We readdress the issue through a detailed re-examination of a particular historical case that has often been discussed in connection with it-that of Mendeleev and the prediction by his periodic law of the three 'new' elements, gallium, scandium and germanium. We find little support for the standard story that these predictive (...)
     
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  23.  13
    John Worrall (1978). Review. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 13 (1):279 - 295.
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  24.  8
    John Worrall (1974). Nachruf Auf Imre Lakatos. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 5 (2):i-217.
  25.  2
    John Worrall (1994). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] Mind 103 (410):672-.
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  26.  5
    Matthew A. Lambon Ralph & Peter Garrard (2001). Category-Specific Deficits: Insights From Semantic Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):485-486.
    Recent investigations and theorising about category-specific deficits have begun to focus upon patients with progressive brain disease such as semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease. In this commentary we briefly review what insights have been gained from studying patients of this type. We concentrate on four specific issues: the sensory/functional distinction, correlation between features, neuroanatomical considerations, and confounding factors.
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  27.  5
    Colin Howson & John Worrall (1974). The Contemporary State of Philosophy of Science in Britain. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 5 (2):363-374.
    Some of the problem areas in which British philosophers of science have recently been engaged are described and some of the major contributions noted. Two sets of problems are given special attention: one concerned with the analysis of probability statements and one concerned with the appraisal of scientific theories. Three traditions in the approach to this second set of problems are distinguished. These might be called the Carnapian, the Popperian and the Wittgensteinian traditions.
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  28.  4
    John Worrall (1995). Review. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 46 (4):279-295.
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  29.  3
    John Worrall (1985). Reviews. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 36 (1):81-85.
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  30.  3
    John Worrall, A Bridge Over Troubled Cultures. The Impact of Philosophy of Science in Britain.
    Who are the major figures that have shaped philosophy of science in Britain? What impact has the subject had in Britain outside academic philosophy? How have two of the major centers of the subject - in Pittsburgh and in London - interacted over the years? I begin by looking briefly at the recent history of philosophy of science in Britain and its general impact (tying this in with its interaction with the Pittsburgh Center and Pittsburgh people. It seems to me, (...)
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  31.  9
    Philip Hefner (2014). Ralph Burhoe: Reconsidering the Man and His Vision of Yoking Religion and Science. Zygon 49 (3):629-641.
    Ralph Wendell Burhoe was a leading figure in relating religion and science in the second half of the twentieth century. His autodidactic style and character as a public intellectual resulted in a vision that is comprehensive in its concern for the salvation of society. He does not fit easily into academic frameworks, even though he has been influential upon scholars who work in academia. This article discusses some conundrums posed by his work. There are also brief presentations of the (...)
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  32.  7
    Christopher W. Tindale (2002). A Concept Divided: Ralph Johnson's Definition of Argument. [REVIEW] Argumentation 16 (3):299-309.
    Ralph Johnson's Manifest Rationality (2000) is a major contribution to the field of informal logic, but the concept of argument that is central to its project suffers from a tension between the components that comprise it. This paper explores and addresses that tension by examining the implications of each of five aspects of the definition of ‘argument’.
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  33.  15
    Catherine Osborne (2011). Ralph Cudworth's The True Intellectual System of the Universe and the Presocratic Philosophers. In Oliver Primavesi & Katharina Luchner (eds.), The Presocratics from the Latin Middle Ages to Hermann Diels. Steiner Verlag
    Ralph Cudworth (1617-88) was one of the Cambridge Platonists. His major work, The True Intellectual System of the Universe, was completed in 1671, a year after Spinoza published (anonymously) the Tractatus Logico-philosophicus. It was published a few years later, in 1678. Cudworth offers a spirited attack against the materialism and mechanism of Thomas Hobbes. His work is couched as a search for truth among the ancient philosophers, and this paper examines his use of the Presocratics as a tool for (...)
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  34.  24
    Russell Goodman, Ralph Waldo Emerson. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    An American essayist, poet, and popular philosopher, Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–82) began his career as a Unitarian minister in Boston, but achieved worldwide fame as a lecturer and the author of such essays as “Self-Reliance,” “History,” “The Over-Soul,” and “Fate.” Drawing on English and German Romanticism, Neoplatonism, Kantianism, and Hinduism, Emerson developed a metaphysics of process, an epistemology of moods, and an “existentialist” ethics of self-improvement. He influenced generations of Americans, from his friend Henry David Thoreau to John Dewey, (...)
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  35. Ralph Tyler Flewelling (1962). The Forest of Yggdrasill the Autobiography of Ralph Tyler Flewelling. University of Southern California Press.
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  36.  9
    Robert B. Glassman (1998). Symbioses Can Transcend Particularisms: A Memoir of Friendship with Ralph Wendell Burhoe. Zygon 33 (4):661-683.
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  37.  10
    Katri Käsper (2008). Ralph Wedgwood, The Nature of Normativity. [REVIEW] Studia Philosophica Estonica 1 (1):118-121.
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  38.  6
    Author unknown, Ralph Cudworth. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  39. J. A. Passmore (2013). Ralph Cudworth. Cambridge University Press.
    Originally published in 1951, this concise book presents an engaging study of the works and influence of the renowned English philosopher Ralph Cudworth, the leader of the Cambridge Platonists. A bibliography of writings by and about Cudworth is also included, together with an appendix section on his manuscripts. The text was an early work by Australian philosopher and historian of ideas John Passmore. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in Cudworth, the Cambridge Platonists and (...)
     
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  40.  87
    Anderson Weekes (2006). The Many Streams in Ralph Pred’s Onflow: A Review Essay. Chromatikon II. Annuaire de la Philosophie En Procès - Yearbook of Philosophy in Process 2:229-246.
    This study of Ralph Pred’s Onflow (MIT Press, 2005) expands on Pred’s arguments and raises doubts about the viability of phenomenology. Showing that Pred’s method is indeed phenomenological, I validate his interpretations of William James as phenomenologist and his critique of John Searle in light of James, which documents the extent to which the role of habit in the constitution of experience is neglected by philosophers. In explaining habit, however, Pred himself reverts to non-phenomenological models drawn from James’ postulate (...)
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  41.  35
    Tristram McPherson (2009). Unnatural Normativity? Critical Notice of Ralph Wedgwood's Nature of Normativity. [REVIEW] Philosophical Books 50 (2):63-82.
    Ralph Wedgwood’s The Nature of Normativity significantly advances our understanding of metaethical realism. After briefly reviewing the overall structure of Wedgwood’s argument for a Platonist realism about normativity, this critical notice focuses on three of the central metaphysical and epistemological claims that he defends. I first explain and raise difficulties for Wedgwood’s core claim that the intentional is normative. I then argue that his innovative attempt to finesse the supervenience problem that faces metaethical Platonists fails. Finally, I critically examine (...)
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  42.  63
    Howard Sankey (1996). Normative Naturalism and the Challenge of Relativism: Laudan Versus Worrall on the Justification of Methodological Principles. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 10 (1):37 – 51.
    In a recent exchange, John Worrall and Larry Laudan have debated the merits of the model of rational scientific change proposed by Laudan in his book Science and Values. On the model advocated by Laudan, rational change may take place at the level of scientific theory and methodology, as well as at the level of the epistemic aims of science. Moreover, the rationality of a change which occurs at any one of these three levels may be dependent on considerations (...)
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  43.  16
    Benjamin Carter (2010). Ralph Cudworth and the Theological Origins of Consciousness. History of the Human Sciences 23 (3):29-47.
    The English Neoplatonic philosopher Ralph Cudworth introduced the term ‘consciousness’ into the English philosophical lexicon. Cudworth uses the term to define the form and structure of cognitive acts, including acts of freewill. In this article I highlight the important role of theological disputes over the place and extent of human freewill within an overarching system of providence. Cudworth’s intellectual development can be understood in the main as an increasingly detailed and nuanced reaction to the strict voluntarist Calvinism that is (...)
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  44.  32
    Catarina Dutilh Novaes (2006). Ralph Strode's Obligationes: The Return of Consistency and the Epistemic Turn. Vivarium 44 (s 2-3):338-374.
    In what follows, I analyze Ralph Strode's treatise on obligations. I have used a hitherto unpublished edition of the text (based on 14 manuscripts) made by Prof. E.J. Ashworth. I first give a brief description of Strode's text, which is all the more necessary given that it is not available to the average reader; I also offer a reconstruction of the rules proposed by Strode, following the style of reconstruction used in my analysis of Burley's and Swyneshed's rules elsewhere—that (...)
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  45.  38
    F. Michael Akeroyd (2003). Prediction and the Periodic Table: A Response to Scerri and Worrall. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 34 (2):337-355.
    In a lengthy article E. Scerri and J. Worrall (2001) put forward the case for a novel ‘accommodationist’ version of the events surrounding the development of Mendeleef's Periodic Table 1869–1899. However these authors lay undue stress on the fact that President of the Royal Society of London Spottiswoode made absolutely no mention of Mendeleef's famous predictions in the Davy Medal eulogy in 1883 and undue stress on the fact that Cleve's classic 1879 Scandium paper contained an acknowledgement of Mendeleef's (...)
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  46.  6
    David R. Breed (1991). Ralph Wendell Burhoe: His Life and His Thought. Zygon 26 (3):397-428.
    . This is the first of four installments by the author, presenting an intellectual biography of Ralph Wendell Burhoe. This first segment follows Burhoe from his college years at Harvard through the founding of the Institute on Religion in an Age of Science in 1954. In this period, after his college and seminary study, Burhoe worked at Harvard's Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory and as executive officer of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Throughout his early life he had (...)
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  47.  32
    Nigel J. T. Thomas (1997). A Stimulus to the Imagination: A Review of Questioning Consciousness: The Interplay of Imagery, Cognition and Emotion in the Human Brain by Ralph D. Ellis. [REVIEW] Psyche 3 (4).
    Twentieth century philosophy and psychology have been peculiarly averse to mental images. Throughout nearly two and a half millennia of philosophical wrangling, from Aristotle to Hume to Bergson, images (perceptual and quasi-perceptual experiences), sometimes under the alias of "ideas", were almost universally considered to be both the prime contents of consciousness, and the vehicles of cognition. The founding fathers of experimental psychology saw no reason to dissent from this view, it was commonsensical, and true to the lived experience of conscious (...)
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  48.  16
    Wim de Muijnck (2010). Thinking About Normativity: Ralph Wedgwood on 'Ought'. Journal of Moral Philosophy 7 (1):133-144.
    Ralph Wedgwood's The Nature of Normativity provides a theory about the semantics, metaphysics, and epistemology of normative judgments, taken to be judgments of the form 'I ought to ___'. The theory is based on the principle of Normative Judgment Internalism, and the principle that 'the intentional is normative'. I argue, first, that by being merely about oughts, Wedgwood's account leaves out one essential constituent of normativity: value. Secondly, I argue that mainly because of this, the account faces a serious (...)
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  49.  12
    Eduardo R. Cruz (1995). Ralph Wendell Burhoe and the Two Cultures. Zygon 30 (4):591-612.
    Ralph Burhoe developed his proposals for a social reformation at a time when the “two cultures” debate was still active. It is suggested here that Burhoe, sharing with his contemporaries an understanding of culture that was Western and normative in character, overlooked the distinction between the culture of the elites and popular culture, and consequently between religion as presented by theologians and church officials and popular religion. Therefore, his proposals for the revitalization of traditional religions, even if implemented, would (...)
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  50.  16
    Vince Brewton, Ralph Waldo Emerson. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    In his lifetime, Ralph Waldo Emerson became the most widely known man of letters in America, establishing himself as a prolific poet, essayist, popular lecturer, and an advocate of social reforms who was nevertheless suspicious of reform and reformers. Emerson achieved some reputation with his verse, corresponded with many of the leading intellectual and artistic figures of his day, and during an off and on again career as a Unitarian minister, delivered and later published a number of controversial sermons. (...)
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