Although the following essay does not strictly fall within the discipline of classical Indian philosophy, in which our Journal specializes, we publish it here for two reasons: (1) K. C. Bhattacharya was an outstanding philosopher of India in the past generation, and his thought was deeply influenced by his thorough study of classical Indian Vedanta and Jainism, as well as by the study of Kant (four of our consulting editors were his direct students). (2) His view about the notion of (...) the speakable and philosophy is unique, and it has remained opaque to most of us. Hence some discussion will be illuminating. (shrink)
I am most grateful to Elizabeth Anderson (2000), Philip Pettit (2000) and Thomas Scanlon (2000) for making such insightful and penetrating comments on my work and the related literature. I have reason enough to be happy, having been powerfully defended in some respects and engagingly challenged in others. I must also take this opportunity of thanking Martha Nussbaum, for not only chairing the session in which these papers were presented followed by a splendid discussion (which she led), but also for (...) taking the initiative, in the first place, to arrange the session. (shrink)
This paper is a portrayal of how social responsibility performance evaluation can act as an accounting measure of management efficiency. In fact, it has given much importance to socio-economic and socio-human obligations to others. The paper attempts to show that these days there is a great need to emphasise more clearly social responsibility, which the corporate sector can and should undertake. The theme of the paper is that the scope of corporate social responsibility encompasses not only economic well-being but also (...) the human aspects of life. In addition, if management of a corporation performs its social responsibility well, one may say that management has done its job efficiently. This study is based on mainly literature review. Analytical thinking is also another building block of this paper. However, the limitation of this study is that no data of the existing situation of Bangladesh or India pertaining to the subject matter referred to in the present paper has been used. (shrink)
Prof. G.C. Pande in his work ‘ Studies in the Origins of Buddhism ’ speaks of the theory of relation ( paccaya) while discussing the principle of dependent origination ( paṭiccasamuppāda ). Theory of relation ( paccaya) is a law explaining the existence of the dhammas , being related by some relations. It is further extension of the law of dependent origination ( paṭiccasamuppāda ). Things come to existence in our day-to-day life. The law of dependent origination explains that they (...) come into existence; depending upon some other factors. The theory of relation explains that such dependence on the other dhammas is possible due to some relations. In other words, Paṭiccasamuppāda explains the process of existence of conditioned things. The relation ( paccaya ) explains the relation existing between different phases coming into existence. Such relations are also explained in conditioned things only. (shrink)
Contrary Thinking, an anthology of selected essays by Daya Krishna, contains, among others, two essays that deal with problems pertaining to negation: “Negation: Can Philosophy Ever Recover from It?” and “Some Problems Regarding Thinking about Abhāva in the Indian Tradition.” These essays comprise part 5 of this book, and the editorial introduction to this part concludes with the following remark:With characteristic philosophical irony, Daya Krishna raises the problem that non-being itself is non-existent and that negation is nothing at all.In both (...) these essays, we find some observations by Daya Krishna regarding the views about negation (abhāva) that are admitted by the Nyāya and Vaiśeṣika schools, and the way in .. (shrink)
Two types of logical consequence are compared: one, with respect to matrix and designated elements and the other with respect to ordering in a suitable algebraic structure. Particular emphasis is laid on algebraic structures in which there is no top-element relative to the ordering. The significance of this special condition is discussed. Sequent calculi for a number of such structures are developed. As a consequence it is re-established that the notion of truth as such, not to speak of tautologies, is (...) inessential in order to define validity of an argument. (shrink)
A volume of studies of utilitarianism considered both as a theory of personal morality and a theory of public choice. All but two of the papers have been commissioned especially for the volume, and between them they represent not only a wide range of arguments for and against utilitarianism but also a first-class selection of the most interesting and influential work in this very active area. There is also a substantial introduction by the two editors. The volume will constitute an (...) important stimulus and point of reference for a wide range of philosophers, economists and social theorists. (shrink)
Este artículo trata de las comparaciones ordinales de desigualdad de bienestar y su uso en los juicios de bienestar social, especialmente en el contexto del "principio de diferencia" de Rawls. En la sección 1 se desarrolla el concepto de comparaciones de desigualdad ordinales y se presenta un teorema sobre las comparaciones de desigualdad de bienestar para problemas de distribución. La sección 2 se dedicaa la discusión de Harsanyi (1955) de que la preocupación por reducir las desigualdades de bienestar entre las (...) personas no debe interferir en los juicios de bienestar social. En la sección 3 se presenta una derivación axiomática de la regla lexicográfica maximin de Rawls; ésta se relaciona directamente con los resultados establecidos por Hammond (1975), d'Aspremont y Gevers (1975), y Strasnick (1975). En la última sección se examinan los axiomas usados y se analizan algunos axiomas alternativos con la intención de llegar a una evaluación crítica del enfoque de Rawls de los juicios sobre el bienestar social. (shrink)
The paper examines problems for rationality and morality arising out of prisoners' dilemma. Section I criticizes a k sen's attempt to elimate, By variations of preference patterns, The clash between individual rationality and individual or social optimality. Section ii rejects sen's account of morality as a moral ordering of preferences over outcomes, Because it fails to resolve the conflict raised by prisoners' dilemma between individual and social optimality and creates a new conflict between rationality and individual optimality. Section iii sketches (...) accounts of morality and rationality which can avoid these problems. An appendix further explains the distinctions between four kinds of preferences introduced in the paper itself. (shrink)
First published in 1973, this book presents a systematic treatment of the conceptual framework as well as the practical problems of measurement of inequality. Alternative approaches are evaluated in terms of their philosophical assumptions, economic content, and statistical requirements. -/- In a new introduction, Amartya Sen, jointly with James Foster, critically surveys the literature that followed the publication of this book, and also evaluates the main analytical issues in the appraisal of economic inequality and poverty.
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Amartya Sen (2009). Response. In Reiko Gotoh & Paul Dumouchel (eds.), Against Injustice: The New Economics of Amartya Sen. Cambridge University Press.score: 60.0
La démocratie est certainement le fil conducteur de l’ensemble de l’œuvre – a priori épars – de l’économiste et philosophe Amartya Sen. D’une part, sa foi en la démocratie apparaît comme la raison première de sa volonté de défier le « théorème d’impossibilité » établi par Kenneth Arrow au début des années cinquante, et comme une ligne directrice dans sa recherche en théorie du choix social. D’autre part, dans ses analyses de problèmes sociaux plus empiriques, comme la famine ou les (...) inégalités.. (shrink)
Two central issues for ethical analysis of equality are: (1) Why equality? (2) Equality of what? The two questions are distinct but thoroughly interdependent, We cannot begin to defend or criticize equality without knowing what on earth we are talking about, i,e., equality of what features (e,g., incomes, wealths, opportunities, achievements, freedoms, rights)? We cannot possibly answer the first question without addressing the second, That seems obvious enough.
This paper is about three distinct but interrelated problems: (1) the role 0f rights in moral theory, (2) thc characterization 0f agent relative values and their admissibility in consequ<—:ncc—bascd evaluation, and ( 3) the nature 0f moral evaluation 0f states 0f aihirs.
Personal identity and social identity are two very different concepts and the idea of getting them together, as Bhikhu Parekh proposes, within an integrated bundle of some `overall identity' raises serious questions of coherence. Personal identity demands the `sameness' of a person (Who is this guy? Am I still the same person that I was ten years ago?). Social identity is focused instead on our social affiliations, such as identifying with others with, say, the same nationality, or the same religion, (...) or same political partnership. We can make reasoned choices about our priorities in social affiliation. Those who want to make our social affiliation a matter of `discovery' rather than of choice may frighten us by saying that we would lose our overall identity if we were to choose to affiliate differently (for example as an Indian and not just as a Hindu, or as British and not just as a Muslim). To understand that there is no threat to personal identity involved in such choices is important both for clarity of analysis and for standing up against the herd behaviour of identity politics. (shrink)
Intellectualist theories attempt to assimilate know how to propositional knowledge and, in so doing, fail to properly explain the close relation know how bears to action. I develop here an anti-intellectualist theory that is warranted, I argue, because it best accounts for the difference between know how and mere “armchair knowledge.” Know how is a mental state characterized by a certain world-to-mind direction of fit (though it is non-motivational) and attendant functional role. It is essential of know how, but not (...) propositional knowledge, that it makes possible performance errors and has the functional role of guiding action. The theory is attractive, in part, because it allows for propositional, non-propositional and perhaps even non-representational varieties of know how. (shrink)
This is a review essay of Jeff McMahan's recent book The Ethics of Killing: Problems at the Margins of Life (OUP: 2002). In the first part, I lay out the central features of McMahan's account of the wrongness of killing and its implications for when it is permissible to kill. In the second part of the essay, I argue that we ought not to accept McMahan's rejection of species membership as having any bearing on whether it is permissible to kill (...) a particular individual, as there are ways of understanding its relevance that are more plausible than McMahan allows. (shrink)
It is a great privilege for me to be present at the launch of the Report on Making Infrastructure Work for the Poor prepared by the UNDP in collaboration with the Japanese Government. We have had high expectations about this forthcoming report, given the quality of the work that the UNDP has continued to produce (and the quality and dedication of the Poverty Group led now by Dr. Selim Jahan), and given the visionary commitment of the Japanese Government on developmental (...) issues, led - in this case - by JICA. Our expectations are not disappointed - a number of ideas and assessments of older theses can be found in the studies that lie.. (shrink)
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) continues to gain attention atop the corporate agenda and is by now an important component of the dialogue between companies and their stakeholders. Nevertheless, there is still little guidance as to how companies can implement CSR activity in order to maximize returns to CSR investment. Theorists have identified many company-favoring outcomes of CSR; yet there is a dearth of research on the psychological mechanisms that drive stakeholder responses to CSR activity. Borrowing from the literatures on meansend (...) chains and relationship marketing, we propose a conceptual model that explains how CSR provides individual stakeholders with numerous benefits (functional, psychosocial, and values) and how the type and extent to which a stakeholder derives these benefits from CSR initiatives influences the quality of the relationship between the stakeholder and the company. The paper discusses the implications of these insights and highlights a number of areas for future research. (shrink)