In response to the rapidly increasing application and abuse of psychological tests in China, the Psychometrics Division of the Chinese Psychological Society published the 2008 revisions of the Chinese Code of Ethical Use of Psychological Tests. We investigated the implementation status of the code 2½ years after its promulgation. Sample included 284 psychological professionals and psychology graduate students. The average accuracy rate for the appropriate use of psychological tests was 67.1% (range = 25.5?97.5%), with 10 items having accuracy rates below (...) 45%. Participants remained uncertain about the clients' rights to information about the purpose, psychometric properties, and scores of the tests. The most frequent violations involved ?using psychological tests without psychometric information for entertainment purposes? and ?using SCL-90 to measure mental health of normal people.? (shrink)
This article contributes to scholarly understanding of the significance of procedural fairness in pricing contexts. It has been widely recognized that price fairness judgments concern both the outcome (fair price) and the procedure leading to the outcome (fair pricing). However, extant research has traditionally viewed procedural fairness as a means to outcome fairness. According to this instrumental view, procedural fairness is a component or antecedent of outcome fairness, but has no direct effects on consumers’ responses to prices. Building on the (...) relational perspective on fairness, we develop and test a model of price procedural fairness as an end in itself. In three lab studies, we show that (1) when information regarding outcome (an unfavorable price difference) and procedure (the pricing practice underlying the price difference) is available simultaneously and unambiguously, procedural fairness has direct and stronger effects than outcome fairness on consumers’ responses and (2) procedural fairness mediates the effects of pricing practices on these responses. In all three studies, adding procedural fairness as a direct predictor of consumers’ responses increases the explanatory power of a model of price fairness significantly. Our model can explain peculiar real-world cases in which consumers reacted very strongly over relatively small price differences. The research findings point to the significance of the non-instrumental aspect of consumer’s demand for ethical (fair pricing) behavior and the need for companies to assess the fairness of their pricing practices from the consumer perspective. (shrink)
Mind was the oneness of form and function. The change from an old theory to a new one about zhong ä¸ (the mean) and he å (harmony) was a shift from the idea of the separate form of nature and function of mind to one about both form and function of mind. Form was both the form of the spirit of the mind and of the substantiality of nature (not the same as substantial realities in substantialism); it was the integration (...) of vacancy and substantiality, the integration of mind and nature. In contrast, function meant both feelings and perceiving action. It was infeasible to interpret function without reference to form; likewise, it was impractical to talk about perception without mentioning nature. On the other hand, a knower represented nature through concrete things and his actions, and a perceiver enlightened himself, realizing the self-consciousness of nature as a whole. Mind, nature, and perception could be interpreted as a whole, and these three could be separated too. Viewed in general, mind, nature, and principles were oneness; observed separately, nature differed with principles: nature meant principles, but perception was the quintessence of qi. The unfolding of perception, however, had its independence, and could be easily influenced by qi; thus, it was necessary to transform and cultivate qi-related temperament. Realistically, a man needs to face up to himself and to transform himself, and this sentiment is inspiring for today. (shrink)
The influence of local moment magnetism on the boron isotope effect of was studied on single crystals of . Values of the partial isotope effect exponent of and were obtained based on two different criteria applied to extract . No significant change in the partial isotope effect exponent compared to the ones obtained for was observed. Based on this result, we conclude that pair-breaking due to the Er local magnetic moment appears to have no detectable influence on boron isotope effect (...) of. (shrink)
We report the single crystal growth of Ca(Fe1?x Co x )2As2 (0?≤?x?≤?0.082) from Sn flux. The temperature?composition phase diagram is mapped out based on the magnetic susceptibility and electrical transport measurements. The phase diagram of Ca(Fe1?x Co x )2As2 is qualitatively different from those of Sr and Ba; this could be due to both the charge doping and structural tuning effects associated with Co substitution.
Compression, tension and high-velocity plate impact experiments were performed on a typical tough Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu10Ni12.5Be22.5 (Vit 1) bulk metallic glass (BMG) over a wide range of strain rates from ?10?4 to 106 s?1. Surprisingly, fine dimples and periodic corrugations on a nanoscale were also observed on dynamic mode I fracture surfaces of this tough Vit 1. Taking a broad overview of the fracture patterning of specimens, we proposed a criterion to assess whether the fracture of BMGs is essentially brittle or plastic. (...) If the curvature radius of the crack tip is greater than the critical wavelength of meniscus instability [F. Spaepen, Acta Metall. 23 615 (1975); A.S. Argon and M. Salama, Mater. Sci. Eng. 23 219 (1976)], microscale vein patterns and nanoscale dimples appear on crack surfaces. However, in the opposite case, the local quasi-cleavage/separation through local atomic clusters with local softening in the background ahead of the crack tip dominates, producing nanoscale periodic corrugations. At the atomic cluster level, energy dissipation in fracture of BMGs is, therefore, determined by two competing elementary processes, viz. conventional shear transformation zones (STZs) and envisioned tension transformation zones (TTZs) ahead of the crack tip. Finally, the mechanism for the formation of nanoscale periodic corrugation is quantitatively discussed by applying the present energy dissipation mechanism. (shrink)
To plan college students’ own careers, they should deeply understand the society, confirm the struggle target, construct reasonable knowledge structure, actively participate in the social practice, and cultivate good psychological quality to establish firm base for their successful employments.
This article examines whether economic performance could affect EID and how the relationship is determined by the form of ownership from voluntarism to regulation under the current Chinese context. In this study, our empirical results show that the relationship between firms’ performance and EID is complex and the interactive impact of ownership and economic performance on EID significantly varies from voluntary disclosure to mandatory disclosure. This study provides a more comprehensive understanding of the motivations in corporate EID. The performance–impression theory (...) can be used to explain the disclosure behaviors during the period of voluntary disclosure, while the pressure–legitimacy theory can be used during the period of mandatory disclosure. The finding suggests that when evaluating corporate EID associated with economic performance in emerging economies such as China, it needs to be cautious, as which tends to vary with the form of ownership and whether there is any mandatory regulation in place. (shrink)
Using transmission electron microscopy, in-situ changes in ferroelastic domains in 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 single crystals were observed at 60 to -163°C. At -163°C, the microscopic tweed morphology of the ferroelastic domains rotated by 90°, and certain orientation changes in the mesoscopic sawtooth domains took place. At this temperature, the ferroelastic domains became coarsened and certain S-shaped mesoscopic domains were reshaped. The disappearance and/or changes in the orientations of both the sawtooth and the ferroelastic domains were reversible upon return to room temperature. On (...) heating to 60°C, both the mesoscopic sawtooth and the microscopic tweed domains were stable below 53°C. Above 53°C, the mesoscopic walls disappeared and the contrast of the tweed domains became blurred. Upon return to room temperature from 60°C, the mesoscopic domain patterns could not be retrieved, indicating that the transformation was irreversible. The morphology of the tweeds at this temperature indicated a structural transition from a two-variant domain state to a multivariant state, eliminating mesoscopic boundaries. (shrink)
We have empirically examined the relationship between top executives’ turnover and the corporate environmental responsibility by identifying the influence of ten specific turnover reasons resulting in the chairman’s departure and two important types of chairman’s succession. Using a sample of 782 manufacturing listed companies across 3 years in China, we find that the corporate environmental responsibility is negatively associated with the involuntary and negative turnover (i.e., dismissal, health and death, and forced resignation) and positively associated with improving corporate governance, and (...) not associated with the normal turnover (i.e., retirement and contract expiration) and the types of chairman’s succession (i.e., independence, and internal or external promotion). Our study significantly contributes to research in environmental disclosure by revealing the relationship between chairman’s turnover and the corporate environmental responsibility. A feasible way is suggested to regulators and other stakeholders in monitoring or assessing the possible abnormality of environmental responsibility when firms experience involuntary and negative chairman’s turnover in the emerging economies. (shrink)
The Chinese translation of Coca Cola is thought to be a well-known good translation, and many people discussed the translation or brand translation with it as an example. A large number of books or articles generally and abstractly conclude that the Chinese translation leaves people a kind of feeling of coolness and cleanness, pleases and attracts consumers’ attention and their favor, however there is not still a book or an article studying systematically and scientifically how good the translation is, neither (...) wholly from perspectives of linguistics, culture and aesthetic translation. Based on the literature review and comparative analysis with cultural translation study and translation aesthetics, the thesis is to discover how good the translation is, based on the analysis of Chinese translation of Coca Cola from the aspects of linguistics, culture and translation aesthetics, and to build a criticism model of translation of brand names, in addition, to analyze the enlightenment of this translation in other translation activities. (shrink)
The low-temperature magnetic phase transition in LuFe2Ge2 is thought to be associated with itinerant magnetism. The effects of Y and Sc substitutions on the Lu site, as well as Ru and Co substitutions on the Fe site, on the low-temperature magnetic phase transition of the LuFe2Ge2 compound have been studied in single crystals via microscopic, thermodynamic and transport measurements. On one hand, Co substitution suppresses the transition below our base temperature of 2?K even at our lowest substitution level. On the (...) other hand, Sc substitution enhances the transition temperature, and Y or Ru substitution suppresses the transition to lower temperature. Phase diagrams for Y, Sc and Ru substitutions have been constructed and the possibility of a unifying, composite diagram is discussed. (shrink)
1. Introduction In the post 9/11 political world, many commentators have pointed to the need for locating and exploring cultural continuities between Islam and the West by way of defusing Samuel Huntington's thesis of a “clash of civilizations,” which seemed to have been given such explosive corroboration by the events of 9/11. It seems to me that one of the most promising ways of doing this is to investigate whether—and to what extent—the Qu'ran can be interpreted as a negative theological (...) Scripture. Negative theology emphasizes that we can only say what God is not—but not what He is. Our only…. (shrink)