Search results for 'Raphal Falk' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Raphal Falk & Sahotra Sarkar (1992). Harmony From Discord. Biology and Philosophy 7 (4):463-472.score: 240.0
  2. W. D. Falk (1986). Ought, Reasons, and Morality: The Collected Papers of W.D. Falk. Cornell University Press.score: 180.0
  3. Richard A. Falk (2004). The Declining World Order: America's Imperial Geopolitics. Routledge.score: 60.0
    This work delineates the impact of terrorism--and the American response--on the basic structure of international relations, the dimming prospects for global reform and the tendency to override the role of sovereign territorial states. Falk examines the changing role of the state, the relevance of institutions, the role of individuals and the importance of the worldwide religious resurgence, with its positive and negative implications. He also considers the post-modern geopolitics of the Bush presidency, with its emphasis on the militarization of (...)
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  4. Peter J. Beurton, Raphael Falk & Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (eds.) (2000). The Concept of the Gene in Development and Evolution: Historical and Epistemological Perspectives. Cambridge University Press.score: 30.0
    Advances in molecular biological research in the last forty years have made the story of the gene vastly complicated: the more we learn about genes, the less sure we are of what a gene really is. Knowledge about the structure and functioning of genes abounds, but the gene has also become curiously intangible. This collection of essays renews the question: what are genes? Philosophers, historians, and working scientists re-evaluate the question in this volume, treating the gene as a focal point (...)
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  5. Arthur E. Falk (1995). Consciousness and Self-Reference. Erkenntnis 43 (2):151-80.score: 30.0
    Reflection on the self's way of being "in" consciousness yields two arguments for a theory of self-reference not based in any way all all on self-cognition. First, I show that one theory of self-reference predicts an experience of the self because the theory inadequately analyzes the semantical facts about indexicality. I construct a dilemma for this cognitivism, which it cannot get out of, for it requires even solitary self-reference to be based on some original self-knowledge, which is not available. I (...)
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  6. Raphael Falk (1994). Issues in Evolutionary Epistemology. Philosophia 23 (1-4):333-343.score: 30.0
  7. Arthur E. Falk (2004). Desire and Belief: Introduction to Some Recent Philosophical Debates. Hamilton Books, University Press of America.score: 30.0
    This work examines the nature of what philosophers call de re mental attitudes, paying close attention to the controversies over the nature of these and allied...
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  8. W. D. Falk (1947). "Ought" and Motivation. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 48:111 - 138.score: 30.0
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  9. Richard Falk (2002). Revisiting Westphalia, Discovering Post-Westphalia. Journal of Ethics 6 (4):311-352.score: 30.0
    This article explores the structure of world order fromthe perspective of the Treaty of Westphalia, which is treated asthe benchmark for the emergence of the modern system of sovereignstates. Emphasis is placed on Westphalia as historical event, ideaand ideal, and process of evolution, and also on developments thatsupersede this framing of world politics, especially, globalizationand the megaterrorist challenge of September 11, 2001. At issue is whether the state system is resilient enough to adapt to new globalconditions or is in the (...)
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  10. Arthur Falk (2005). A Pascal-Type Justification of Faith in a Scientific Age. Philosophy 80 (4):543-563.score: 30.0
    The author argues that faith survives as a rational option, despite science rendering improbable distinctively theological claims about the world and history. After rejecting justifications of faith from natural theology and natural law, he defends a seemingly weaker strategy, a corrected version of Pascal's wager argument. The wager lets one's desires count toward showing one's faith to be rational, and the faith requires that oneÕs desires undergo radical transformation to protect the faith, making the wager argument really quite strong. As (...)
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  11. W. D. Falk (1963). Action-Guiding Reasons. Journal of Philosophy 60 (23):702-718.score: 30.0
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  12. Raphael Falk (1986). What is a Gene? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 17 (2):133-173.score: 30.0
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  13. Raphael Falk (1993). Evolutionary Epistemology: What Phenotype is Selected and Which Genotype Evolves? Biology and Philosophy 8 (2):153-172.score: 30.0
    In 1941/42 Konrad Lorenz suggested that Kant's transcendental categories ofa priori knowledge could be given an empirical interpretation in Darwinian material evolutionary terms: a priori propositional knowledge was an organ subject to natural selection for adaptation to its specific environments. D. Campbell extended the conception, and termed evolution a process of knowledge. The philosophical problem of what knowledge is became a descriptive one of how knowledge developed, the normative semantic questions have been sidestepped, as if the descriptive insights would automatically (...)
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  14. W. D. Falk (1976). Hume on Is and Ought. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 6 (3):359 - 378.score: 30.0
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  15. W. D. Falk (1975). Hume on Practical Reason. Philosophical Studies 27 (1):1 - 18.score: 30.0
    Offers a reading of philosopher David Hume regarding his views on practical reason. Arguments of Hume for his conception of practical reason; View of Hume on the influencing motives of the will; Approach of Hume on the standards of practical reasoning.
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  16. W. D. Falk (1956). Moral Perplexity. Ethics 66 (2):123-131.score: 30.0
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  17. Lia Ettinger, Eva Jablonka & Raphael Falk (1991). On Causality, Heritability and Fitness. Biology and Philosophy 6 (1):27-29.score: 30.0
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  18. Dean Falk (2004). Prelinguistic Evolution in Early Hominins: Whence Motherese? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):491-503.score: 30.0
    In order to formulate hypotheses about the evolutionary underpinnings that preceded the first glimmerings of language, mother-infant gestural and vocal interactions are compared in chimpanzees and humans and used to model those of early hominins. These data, along with paleoanthropological evidence, suggest that prelinguistic vocal substrates for protolanguage that had prosodic features similar to contemporary motherese evolved as the trend for enlarging brains in late australopithecines/early Homo progressively increased the difficulty of parturition, thus causing a selective shift toward females that (...)
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  19. Barrie Falk (1993). Consciousness, Cognition, and the Phenomenal. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 67 (67):55-73.score: 30.0
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  20. Raphael Falk (2004). Long Live the Genome! So Should the Gene. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 26 (1):105 - 121.score: 30.0
    Developments in the sequencing of whole genomes and in simultaneously surveying many thousands of transcription and translation products of specific cells have ushered in a conceptual revolution in genetics that rationally introduces top-down, holistic analyses. This emphasized the futility of attempts to reduce genes to structurally discrete entities along the genome, and the need to return to Johannsen's definition of a gene as 'something' that refers to an invariant entity of inheritance and development. We may view genes either as generic (...)
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  21. W. D. Falk (1950). Morality and Nature. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 28 (2):69 – 92.score: 30.0
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  22. Raphael Falk (2010). M. Ruse (Ed.). (2009). Thomas Henry Huxley: Evolution & Ethics. Philosophia 38 (2):417-428.score: 30.0
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  23. Raphael Falk (2001). The Rise and Fall of Dominance. Biology and Philosophy 16 (3):285-323.score: 30.0
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  24. Raphael Falk & Sahotra Sarkar (1991). The Real Objective of Mendel's Paper: A Response to Monaghan and Corcos. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 6 (4):447-451.score: 30.0
    Mendel's work in hybridization is ipso facto a study in inheritance. He is explicit in his interest to formulate universal generalizations, and at least in the case of the independent segregation of traits, he formulated his conclusions in the form of a law. Mendel did not discern, however, the inheritance of traits from that of the potential for traits. Choosing to study discrete non-overlapping traits, this did not hamper his efforts.
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  25. W. D. Falk (1953). Goading and Guiding. Mind 62 (246):145-171.score: 30.0
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  26. Arthur E. Falk (1975). Learning to Report One's Introspections. Philosophy of Science 42 (September):223-241.score: 30.0
    The author argues for a purely naturalistic underpinning of the linguistic practice of reporting one's introspections. In doing so he avoids any commitments about the ontological status of entities referred to in introspective reports. He also presents evidence of the inadequacy of peripheralistic behaviorism as a naturalistic underpinning of introspective reports. The paper includes (a) a definition of 'introspection' and criticism of alternative definitions, (b) a classification scheme that sorts introspections into six different types, and (c) a presentation of evidence (...)
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  27. Raphael Falk (1988). Species as Individuals. Biology and Philosophy 3 (4):455-462.score: 30.0
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  28. Dean Falk (2004). The “Putting the Baby Down” Hypothesis: Bipedalism, Babbling, and Baby Slings. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):526-534.score: 30.0
    My responses to the observations and criticisms of 26 commentaries focus on the coregulated and affective nature of initial mother/infant interactions, the relationship between motherese and emergent linguistic skills and its implication for hominin evolution, the plausibility of the “putting the baby down” hypothesis, and details about specific neurological substrates that may have formed the basis for the evolution of prelinguistic behaviors and, eventually, protolanguage.
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  29. Arthur E. Falk (1981). Purpose, Feedback, and Evolution. Philosophy of Science 48 (2):198-217.score: 30.0
    This essay develops a theory of natural signs in order to show how evolutionary theory breathes new life into teleology. An argument to the contrary presented by Richard Taylor is refuted. The essay defends the view that the concept of negative feedback explicates purposiveness and that symbiotic evolution explains the occurrence of naturally adapted feedback systems. But evolution itself is not a teleological process, nor is it a negative feedback system. There is an exploration of the nature of the dissatisfaction (...)
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  30. Raphael Falk (2010). What is a Gene?—Revisited. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 41 (4):396-406.score: 30.0
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  31. Arthur Falk (2004). Desire and Belief: Introduction to Some Philosophical Debates. University Press of America.score: 30.0
    First published in 2004, this book is a rigorous textbook on the metaphysics of the mind for advanced students of philosophy, covering the background they need to understand the debates and bringing them to the frontiers of current research. It is also a monograph on the nature of de re and de se states of mind, incorporating material the author published in journals. The short file you will see is only a gateway to more than two dozen other files which (...)
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  32. Richard Falk (2008). The Power of Rights and the Rights of Power: What Future for Human Rights? Ethics and Global Politics 1.score: 30.0
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  33. Raphael Falk (1987). Evolutionary Epistemology as a Philosophy of Nature. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 9 (2):339 - 346.score: 30.0
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  34. W. D. Falk (1960). Morality and Convention. Journal of Philosophy 57 (20/21):675-685.score: 30.0
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  35. Raymond S. Nickerson & Ruma Falk (2006). The Exchange Paradox: Probabilistic and Cognitive Analysis of a Psychological Conundrum. Thinking and Reasoning 12 (2):181 – 213.score: 30.0
    The term “exchange paradox” refers to a situation in which it appears to be advantageous for each of two holders of an envelope containing some amount of money to always exchange his or her envelope for that of the other individual, which they know contains either half or twice their own amount. We review several versions of the problem and show that resolving the paradox depends on the specifics of the situation, which must be disambiguated, and on the player's beliefs. (...)
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  36. Barrie Falk (1982). What Are We Frightened Of? Inquiry 25 (2):165 – 198.score: 30.0
    I am concerned to understand that relation to a situation which we call fearing it. Some say this cannot be done: it is a brute fact about us that we fear certain things and we understand another's fear when we see that he confronts a situation of this sort (a basic fear object) or one which he understandably associates with this sort. In Section I, I argue that being associated with a basic fear object will not usefully explain a current (...)
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  37. Dean Falk (2004). Prelinguistic Evolution in Hominin Mothers and Babies: For Cryin' Out Loud! Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):461-462.score: 30.0
    Unlike chimpanzees, human infants engage in persistent adult-directed (AD) crying, and human mothers produce a special form of infant-directed vocalization, known as motherese. These complementary behaviors are hypothesized to have evolved initially in our hominin ancestors in conjunction with the evolution of bipedalism, and to represent prelinguistic substrates that paved the way for the eventual emergence of protolanguage.
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  38. W. D. Falk (1945). Obligation and Rightness. Philosophy 20 (76):129 - 147.score: 30.0
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  39. Winston H. F. Barnes, W. D. Falk & A. E. Duncan-Jones (1945). Symposium: Intention, Motive and Responsibility. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 19:230 - 288.score: 30.0
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  40. Arthur E. Falk (1985). Ifs and Newcombs. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 15 (3):449 - 481.score: 30.0
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  41. Arthur Falk, Theaetetus Makes Book; Axiothea Reads Minds.score: 30.0
    Three dialogues introducing the mathematical way of treating desire and belief, that is to say, the theory of probability interpreted as degree of belief, and decision theory in the way that Ramsey envisioned it being developed. Suitable as a textbook.
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  42. Arthur Falk (1995). Wisdom Updated. Philosophy of Science 62 (3):389-403.score: 30.0
    Given the personalist's latitudinarian conception of rationality, what is progress toward wisdom? An answer is in C. I. Lewis's concept of the "congruence" of propositions, propositions so related that the antecedent probability of any one of them will be increased if the remainder can be assumed. This effect can be modelled in the probability calculus with due attention to the temporal sequencing of our learning of contingent propositions without ever becoming certain of them, as Jeffrey proposes. A diachronic bootstrapping effect (...)
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  43. Arthur Falk (1995). A Connectionist Solution to Problems Posed by Plato and Aristotle. Behavior and Philosophy 23 (3-1):1 - 12.score: 30.0
    Intentionality occurs in connectionist nets among those traits of the nets that scientists call flaws. This label has obscured for philosophers the fact that the naturalistic basis of intentionality has been discovered. I show this while staying on our profession's common ground of discourse about ancient philosophy. In the "Theaetetus", Plato invokes a homunculus to explain perceptual misrecognition, and in "On Memory and Recollection", Aristotle invokes a mental operation of disregarding in order to overcome the extraneous determinateness of mental images. (...)
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  44. Barrie Falk (1994). Doing What One Meant to Do. Synthese 98 (3):379 - 399.score: 30.0
    When I engage in some routine activity, it will usually be the case that I mean or intend the present move to be followed by others. What does meaning the later moves consist in? How do I know, when I come to perform them, that they were what I meant? Problems familiar from Wittgenstein's and Kripke's discussions of linguistic meaning arise here. Normally, I will not think of the later moves. But, even if I do, there are reasons to deny (...)
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  45. Ruma Falk (2011). When Truisms Clash: Coping with a Counterintuitive Problem Concerning the Notorious Two-Child Family. Thinking and Reasoning 17 (4):353 - 366.score: 30.0
    You know that a two-child family has a son. What is the probability that the family has two sons? And what is this probability if you know that the family has a son born on a Tuesday? The former question has been widely discussed previously. The latter adds a new puzzling twist to the situation. In both cases the answer should depend on the specifics of the assumed underlying procedure by which the given information has been obtained. Quantitative analysis, assuming (...)
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  46. Arthur Falk (1986). Cohen on Corroboration. Mind 95 (377):110-115.score: 30.0
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  47. Raphael Falk (2003). How Many Chromosomes? Biology and Philosophy 18 (4):619-619.score: 30.0
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  48. Arthur E. Falk (2007). What Divides Us Today. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 7:45-49.score: 30.0
    According to philosophical naturalism, the main anti-naturalism in philosophy derives from Kant and depends on transcendental arguments, which are invalid or polemically toothless. Many of naturalism's characteristic features follow from this repudiation of Kantian method. Anti-naturalists should be aware that the rationale for naturalism depends on this attack on their own position. There remains for philosophy a distinctively philosophical role that depends on the indexical element in our thought, the role of elaborating a scientific worldview.
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  49. Raphael Falk (1990). Between Beanbag Genetics and Natural Selection. Biology and Philosophy 5 (3):313-325.score: 30.0
    The encounter between the Darwinian theory of evolution and Mendelism could be resolved only when reductionist tools could be applied to the analysis of complex systems. The instrumental reductionist interpretation of the hereditary basis of continuously varying traits provided mathematical tools which eventually allowed the construction of the Modern Synthesis of the theory of evolution.When genotypic as well as environmental variance allow the isolation of parts of the system, it is possible to apply Mendelian reductionism, that is , to treat (...)
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  50. Dean Falk (1990). Brain Evolution in Homo: The “Radiator” Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (2):333-344.score: 30.0
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