Search results for 'Rational behavior' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Stuart Rachels (2009). On Three Alleged Theories of Rational Behavior. Utilitas 21 (4):506-520.score: 240.0
    What behavior is rational? It’s rational to act ethically, some think. Others endorse instrumentalism — it is rational to pursue one’s goals. Still others say that acting rationally always involves promoting one’s self-interest. Many philosophers have given each of these answers. But these answers don’t really conflict; they aren’t vying to describe some shared concept or to solve some mutually acknowledged problem. In so far as this is debated, it is a pseudo-debate. The different uses of (...)
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  2. Guido A. Rossi (1994). Rational Behaviour: A Comparison Between the Theory Stemming From de Finetti's Work and Some Other Leading Theories. Theory and Decision 36 (3):257-275.score: 210.0
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  3. Nick Chater & Mike Oaksford (2000). The Rational Analysis of Mind and Behavior. Synthese 122 (1-2):93-131.score: 174.0
    Rational analysis (Anderson 1990, 1991a) is an empiricalprogram of attempting to explain why the cognitive system isadaptive, with respect to its goals and the structure of itsenvironment. We argue that rational analysis has two importantimplications for philosophical debate concerning rationality. First,rational analysis provides a model for the relationship betweenformal principles of rationality (such as probability or decisiontheory) and everyday rationality, in the sense of successfulthought and action in daily life. Second, applying the program ofrational analysis to research (...)
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  4. Karl-Dieter Opp (2013). Norms and Rationality. Is Moral Behavior a Form of Rational Action? Theory and Decision 74 (3):383-409.score: 168.0
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  5. Daniel John Zizzo (2000). Implicit Learning of (Boundedly) Rational Behaviour. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):700-701.score: 156.0
    Stanovich & West's target article undervalues the power of implicit learning (particularly reinforcement learning). Implicit learning may allow the learning of more rational responses–and sometimes even generalisation of knowledge–in contexts where explicit, abstract knowledge proves only of limited value, such as for economic decision-making. Four other comments are made.
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  6. Louis M. Herman (2006). Intelligence and Rational Behaviour in the Bottle-Nosed Dolphin. In Susan Hurley & Matthew Nudds (eds.), Rational Animals? Oup Oxford.score: 156.0
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  7. John C. Harsanyi (forthcoming). Morality and the Theory of Rational Behavior. Social Research.score: 150.0
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  8. Peter Alexander (1962). Rational Behaviour and Psychoanalytic Explanation. Mind 71 (283):326-341.score: 150.0
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  9. John C. Harsanyi (1980). Rule Utilitarianism, Rights, Obligations and the Theory of Rational Behavior. Theory and Decision 12 (2):115-133.score: 150.0
  10. Antony Flew (1959). Determinism and Rational Behaviour. Mind 68 (271):377-382.score: 150.0
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  11. J. C. Mackenzie (1968). Prescriptivism and Rational Behaviour. Philosophical Quarterly 18 (73):310-319.score: 150.0
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  12. Philip M. Barnett (1983). Rational Behavior in Bargaining Situations. Noûs 17 (4):621-635.score: 150.0
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  13. John C. Harsanyi (1972). Notes on the so-Called Incompleteness Problem and on the Proposed Alternative Concept of Rational Behavior. Theory and Decision 2 (4):342-352.score: 150.0
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  14. Peter Krausser (1968). Dilthey's Revolution in the Theory of the Structure of Scientific Inquiry and Rational Behavior. Review of Metaphysics 22 (2):262 - 280.score: 150.0
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  15. Theodore Mischel (1965). Concerning Rational Behaviour and Psycho-Analytic Explanation. Mind 74 (293):71-78.score: 150.0
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  16. D. E. B. Pollard (1982). Rational Behaviour and Bargaining Equilibrium in Games and Social Situations. Philosophical Studies 29:354-355.score: 150.0
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  17. Klemens Szaniawski (1974). Sociology and Models of Rational Behavior. Dialectics and Humanism 1 (2):133-144.score: 150.0
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  18. Ahmed Jamal Anwar (2006). Rational Behaviour: A Review of the Requirements of Instrumental Rationality. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Progress 39:11.score: 150.0
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  19. M. C. Jensen (2008). Non-Rational Behaviour, Value Conflicts, Stakeholder Theory, and Firm Behaviour. Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (2):167-171.score: 150.0
     
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  20. A. C. Michalos (1982). Rational Behavior and Bargaining Equilibrium in Games and Social Situations. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 12 (4):444-445.score: 150.0
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  21. K. E. Stanovich, R. F. West & D. J. Zizzo (2000). Individual Differences in Reasoning: Implications for the Rationality Debate?-Open Peer Commentary-Implicit Learning of (Boundedly) Rational Behaviour. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):700-700.score: 150.0
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  22. Michael L. Anderson, The Origins of Collective Overvaluation: Irrational Exuberance Emerges From Simple, Honest and Rational Individual Behavior.score: 144.0
    The generation of value bubbles is an inherently psychological and social process, where information sharing and individual decisions can affect representations of value. Bubbles occur in many domains, from the stock market, to the runway, to the laboratories of science. Here we seek to understand how psychological and social processes lead representations (i.e., expectations) of value to become divorced from the inherent value, using asset bubbles as an example. We hypothesize that simple asset group switching rules can give rise to (...)
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  23. Ivan Moscati & Paola Tubaro (2011). Becker Random Behavior and the as-If Defense of Rational Choice Theory in Demand Analysis. Journal of Economic Methodology 18 (2):107-128.score: 144.0
    In discussing rational choice theory (RCT) as an explanation of demand behavior, Becker (1962, Journal of Political Economy, 70, 1?13) proposed a model of random choice in which consumers pick a bundle on their budget line according to a uniform distribution. This model has then been used in various ways to assess the validity of RCT and to support as-if arguments in defense of it. This paper makes both historical and methodological contributions. Historically, it investigates how the interpretation (...)
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  24. Milan Zafirovski (1999). The 'Unbearable Lightness' of the Economic Approach to Economic Behavior in the Social Setting: Rational Action and the Sociology of the Economy. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 29 (3):301–334.score: 126.0
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  25. Leon Felkins, A Rational Justification for Ethical Behavior.score: 120.0
    It has always seemed to me that the universe is a bit more diabolical than one would expect. There are just too many strange and frustrating incidents that can not be attributed to pure chance. Can there be some validity to the thousands of "Murphy's Laws" that we have heard about or been subjected to? Maybe. Murphy's Laws may not be the worst of it.
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  26. Donald Hatcher, Tony Brown & Kelli Gariglietti (2001). Critical Thinking and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Inquiry 20 (3):6-18.score: 120.0
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  27. Laurence Thomas (1988). Moral Behavior and Rational Creatures of the Universe. The Monist 71 (1):59-71.score: 120.0
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  28. Peter L. N. Naish (1986). Hypnosis: Towards a Rational Explanation of Irrational Behaviour. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (3):476.score: 120.0
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  29. Mansoor Niaz (2000). Gases as Idealized Lattices: A Rational Reconstruction of Students' Understanding of the Behavior of Gases. Science and Education 9 (3):279-287.score: 120.0
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  30. Richard H. Day (1971). Rational Choice and Economic Behavior. Theory and Decision 1 (3):229-251.score: 120.0
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  31. Brad Johnson (2008). Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and the God Image. In Glendon Moriarty & Louis Hoffman (eds.), God Image Handbook for Spiritual Counseling and Psychotherapy: Research, Theory, and Practice. Haworth Pastoral Press.score: 120.0
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  32. George Loewenstein (2000). As Economists, We Should Have Been Disturbed by My Friend's Comment Because There is No Place for Willpower in Economics or Rational Choice Theory. Economists and Others Who Embrace the Decision-Making Perspective See Behavior as a Matter of Simply. Law and Philosophy 19:51-76.score: 120.0
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  33. Craig R. M. McKenzie (2003). Rational Models as Theories – Not Standards – of Behavior. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (9):403-406.score: 120.0
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  34. W. S. Cooper (1989). How Evolutionary Biology Challenges the Classical Theory of Rational Choice. Biology and Philosophy 4 (4):457-481.score: 114.0
    A fundamental philosophical question that arises in connection with evolutionary theory is whether the fittest patterns of behavior are always the most rational. Are fitness and rationality fully compatible? When behavioral rationality is characterized formally as in classical decision theory, the question becomes mathematically meaningful and can be explored systematically by investigating whether the optimally fit behavior predicted by evolutionary process models is decision-theoretically coherent. Upon investigation, it appears that in nontrivial evolutionary models the expected behavior (...)
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  35. Gerd Gigerenzer (2010). Moral Satisficing: Rethinking Moral Behavior as Bounded Rationality. Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):528-554.score: 108.0
    What is the nature of moral behavior? According to the study of bounded rationality, it results not from character traits or rational deliberation alone, but from the interplay between mind and environment. In this view, moral behavior is based on pragmatic social heuristics rather than moral rules or maximization principles. These social heuristics are not good or bad per se, but solely in relation to the environments in which they are used. This has methodological implications for the (...)
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  36. Richard L. Lewis, Andrew Howes & Satinder Singh (2014). Computational Rationality: Linking Mechanism and Behavior Through Bounded Utility Maximization. Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (1):279-311.score: 96.0
    We propose a framework for including information-processing bounds in rational analyses. It is an application of bounded optimality (Russell & Subramanian, 1995) to the challenges of developing theories of mechanism and behavior. The framework is based on the idea that behaviors are generated by cognitive mechanisms that are adapted to the structure of not only the environment but also the mind and brain itself. We call the framework computational rationality to emphasize the incorporation of computational mechanism into the (...)
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  37. Yoav Shoham (2009). Logical Theories of Intention and the Database Perspective. Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (6):633 - 647.score: 90.0
    While logical theories of information attitudes, such as knowledge, certainty and belief, have flourished in the past two decades, formalization of other facets of rational behavior have lagged behind significantly. One intriguing line of research concerns the concept of intention. I will discuss one approach to tackling the notion within a logical framework, based on a database perspective.
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  38. Geoffrey M. Hodgson (2007). Rationality Versus Program-Based Behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):29-30.score: 84.0
    For Herbert Gintis, the “rational actor,” or “beliefs, preferences, and constraints (BPC),” model is central to his unifying framework for the behavioral sciences. It is not argued here that this model is refuted by evidence. Instead, this model relies ubiquitously on auxiliary assumptions, and is evacuated of much meaning when applied to both human and nonhuman organisms. An alternative perspective of “program-based behavior” is more consistent with evolutionary principles. (Published Online April 27 2007).
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  39. Daniel R. Fusfeld (1996). Rationality and Economic Behavior. Journal of Economic Methodology 3 (2):307-315.score: 84.0
    This paper rejects the idea that rationality can be defined as optimization, on theoretic, empirical and methodological grounds. It proposes instead a more general theory of rational action in the context of individual growth, change and development over time, in an uncertain world of social interaction, in which choices are part of a learning process. Such a theory of economic behavior is empirically testable, which is not true of either optimization or satisficing, involves conflict and tension rather than (...)
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  40. Shahar Ayal, Dan Zakay & Guy Hochman (2012). Deliberative Adjustments of Intuitive Anchors: The Case of Diversification Behavior. Synthese 189 (S1):131-145.score: 84.0
    As part of the rationality debate, we examine the impact of deliberative and intuitive thinking styles on diversity preference behavior. A sample of 230 students completed the Rational Experiential Inventory and the Diversity Preference Questionnaire, an original measure of diversification behavior in different real-life situations. In cases where no normative solution was available, we found a clear preference for diversity-seeking in the gain domain and diversity-aversion in the loss domain, regardless of cognitive thinking style. However, in cases (...)
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  41. Kai Epstude & Neal J. Roese (2007). Beyond Rationality: Counterfactual Thinking and Behavior Regulation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5-6):457-458.score: 84.0
    Counterfactual thinking may be described as disciplined, realistic, and rational, but we move a step further to describe a theoretical perspective centering on behavior regulation. According to this perspective, counterfactual thinking primarily centers on coordination of ongoing behavior. In short, most thoughts in daily life center on the acquisition of goals; hence, counterfactual thinking may be illuminated by considering the large literature on goal cognition.
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  42. Jens Christian Bjerring, Jens Ulrik Hansen & Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen (2014). On the Rationality of Pluralistic Ignorance. Synthese 191 (11):2445-2470.score: 82.0
    Pluralistic ignorance is a socio-psychological phenomenon that involves a systematic discrepancy between people’s private beliefs and public behavior in certain social contexts. Recently, pluralistic ignorance has gained increased attention in formal and social epistemology. But to get clear on what precisely a formal and social epistemological account of pluralistic ignorance should look like, we need answers to at least the following two questions: What exactly is the phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance? And can the phenomenon arise among perfectly rational (...)
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  43. Wayne D. Gray & Wai‐Tat Fu (2004). Soft Constraints in Interactive Behavior: The Case of Ignoring Perfect Knowledge in‐the‐World for Imperfect Knowledge in‐the‐Head*,*. Cognitive Science 28 (3):359-382.score: 78.0
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  44. Warren A. Shibles (1978). Rational Love. Language Press.score: 78.0
  45. Diego Lanzi (2010). Embedded Choices. Theory and Decision 68 (3):263-280.score: 72.0
    In this article, we present a contextually embedded choice theory. Using concepts and tools of poset mathematics, we show how to include in rational choice theory cultural and social effects. Specifically, we define some choice superstructures, seen as choice set transformations imposed by cultural and social norms. As we shall argue, these transformations can be of help to explain choice behavior within different contexts. Moreover, we show that, once choice superstructures are taken into account, some well-known results about (...)
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  46. Till Grüne-Yanoff & Holger Rosencrantz (2011). Beneficial Safety Decreases. Theory and Decision 70 (2):195-213.score: 72.0
    We construct a model of rational choice under risk with biased risk judgement. On its basis, we argue that sometimes, a regulator aiming at maximising social welfare should affect the environment in such a way that it becomes ‘less safe’ in common perception. More specifically, we introduce a bias into each agent’s choice of optimal risk levels: consequently, in certain environments, agents choose a behaviour that realises higher risks than intended. Individuals incur a welfare loss through this bias. We (...)
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  47. C. B. McCullagh (1990). The Rationality of Emotions and of Emotional Behavior. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 68 (1):44-58.score: 70.0
  48. Seth Bullock & Peter M. Todd (1999). Made to Measure: Ecological Rationality in Structured Environments. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 9 (4):497-541.score: 70.0
    A working assumption that processes of natural and cultural evolution have tailored the mind to fit the demands and structure of its environment begs the question: how are we to characterize the structure of cognitive environments? Decision problems faced by real organisms are not like simple multiple-choice examination papers. For example, some individual problems may occur much more frequently than others, whilst some may carry much more weight than others. Such considerations are not taken into account when (i) the performance (...)
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  49. Berent Enç (2004). Causal Theories of Intentional Behavior and Wayward Causal Chains. Behavior and Philosophy 32 (1):149 - 166.score: 66.0
    On a causal theory of rational behavior, behavior is just a causal consequence of the reasons an actor has. One of the difficulties with this theory has been the possibility of the "wayward causal chains," according to which reasons can cause the expected output, but in such an unusual way that the output is clearly not intentional. The inability to find a general way of excluding these wayward chains without implicitly appealing to elements incompatible with a pure (...)
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  50. Cristiano Castelfranchi, Francesca Giardini & Francesca Marzo (2006). Symposium on ''Cognition and Rationality: Part I'' Relationships Between Rational Decisions, Human Motives, and Emotions. [REVIEW] Mind and Society 5 (2):173-197.score: 66.0
    In the decision-making and rationality research field, rational decision theory (RDT) has always been the main framework, thanks to the elegance and complexity of its mathematical tools. Unfortunately, the formal refinement of the theory is not accompanied by a satisfying predictive accuracy, thus there is a big gap between what is predicted by the theory and the behaviour of real subjects. Here we propose a new foundation of the RDT, which has to be based on a cognitive architecture for (...)
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