Search results for 'Rationalism' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. I. Classical Rationalism & Descartes as an Example (1996). Tolerant Rationalism^. Annals of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science 9 (1-5).score: 120.0
     
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  2. Douglas W. Portmore (2011). Consequentialism and Moral Rationalism. In Mark Timmons (ed.), Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics. Oxford Univ Pr.score: 18.0
    IN THIS PAPER, I make a presumptive case for moral rationalism: the view that agents can be morally required to do only what they have decisive reason to do, all things considered. And I argue that this view leads us to reject all traditional versions of act‐consequentialism. I begin by explaining how moral rationalism leads us to reject utilitarianism.
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  3. Christopher E. Cosans (1997). Galen's Critique of Rationalist and Empiricist Anatomy. Journal of the History of Biology 30 (1):35 - 54.score: 18.0
    This article explores Galen's analysis of and response to the Rationalist and Empiricist medical sects. It argues that his interest in their debate concerning the epistemology of medicine and anatomy was key to his advancement of an experimental methodology.
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  4. Terry Horgan & Mark Timmons (2007). Morphological Rationalism and the Psychology of Moral Judgment. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (3):279 - 295.score: 18.0
    According to rationalism regarding the psychology of moral judgment, people’s moral judgments are generally the result of a process of reasoning that relies on moral principles or rules. By contrast, intuitionist models of moral judgment hold that people generally come to have moral judgments about particular cases on the basis of gut-level, emotion-driven intuition, and do so without reliance on reasoning and hence without reliance on moral principles. In recent years the intuitionist model has been forcefully defended by Jonathan (...)
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  5. Laura Schroeter (2004). The Rationalist Foundations of Chalmers's 2-D Semantics. Philosophical Studies 118 (1-2):227-255.score: 18.0
    In Epistemic Two-Dimensional Semantics, David Chalmers seeks to develop a version of 2-D semantics which can vindicate the rationalist claim that there are constitutive connections between meaning, possibility and a priority. Chalmers lays out different ways of filling in his preferred epistemic approach to 2-D semantics so as to avoid controversial philosophical assumptions. In these comments, however, I argue that there are some distinctively rationalist commitments in Chalmers's epistemic approach to 2-D semantics. I start by explaining why Chalmers's approach requires (...)
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  6. Martin Lin (2012). Rationalism and Necessitarianism. Noûs 46 (3):418-448.score: 18.0
    Metaphysical rationalism, the doctrine which affirms the Principle of Sufficient Reason (the PSR), is out of favor today. The best argument against it is that it appears to lead to necessitarianism, the claim that all truths are necessarily true. Whatever the intuitive appeal of the PSR, the intuitive appeal of the claim that things could have been otherwise is greater. This problem did not go unnoticed by the great metaphysical rationalists Spinoza and Leibniz. Spinoza’s response was to embrace necessitarianism. (...)
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  7. Patricia Marino (2010). Moral Rationalism and the Normative Status of Desiderative Coherence. Journal of Moral Philosophy 7 (2):227-252.score: 18.0
    This paper concerns the normative status of coherence of desires, in the context of moral rationalism. I argue that 'desiderative coherence' is not tied to rationality, but is rather of pragmatic, instrumental, and sometimes moral value. This means that desire-based views cannot rely on coherence to support non-agent-relative accounts of moral reasons. For example, on Michael Smith's neo-rationalist view, you have 'normative reason' to do whatever your maximally coherent and fully informed self would want you to do, whether you (...)
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  8. Darrell P. Rowbottom (2011). Popper's Critical Rationalism: A Philosophical Investigation. Routledge.score: 18.0
    Popper’s Critical Rationalism presents Popper’s views on science, knowledge, and inquiry, and examines the significance and tenability of these in light of recent developments in philosophy of science, philosophy of probability, and epistemology. It develops a fresh and novel philosophical position on science, which employs key insights from Popper while rejecting other elements of his philosophy. -/- Central theses include: -/- Crucial questions about scientific method arise at the level of the group, rather than that of the individual. -/- (...)
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  9. Setargew Kenaw (2008). Hubert L. Dreyfus's Critique of Classical AI and its Rationalist Assumptions. Minds and Machines 18 (2):227-238.score: 18.0
    This paper deals with the rationalist assumptions behind researches of artificial intelligence (AI) on the basis of Hubert Dreyfus’s critique. Dreyfus is a leading American philosopher known for his rigorous critique on the underlying assumptions of the field of artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence specialists, especially those whose view is commonly dubbed as “classical AI,” assume that creating a thinking machine like the human brain is not a too far away project because they believe that human intelligence works on the basis (...)
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  10. Frederick C. Beiser (2009). Diotima's Children: German Aesthetic Rationalism From Leibniz to Lessing. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    Diotima's Children is a re-examination of the rationalist tradition of aesthetics which prevailed in Germany in the late seventeenth and eighteenth century.
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  11. John Wettersten (1992). The Roots of Critical Rationalism. Rodopi.score: 18.0
    Foreword I. Critical rationalism is a genuinely new philosophical perspective. It is not, however, one systematic view. The development of it by Popper and ...
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  12. Anya Plutynski (2011). In Defense of Rationalist Science. In William Krieger (ed.), Science at the Frontiers: Perspectives on the History and Philosophy of Science.score: 18.0
    Mainstream philosophy of science has embraced an “empiricist” approach to scientific method. To be slightly more precise, I venture that most philosophers of science today would endorse the view that experience is the source of most scientific knowledge. The aim of this essay will be to challenge the consensus, by showing how we cannot and should not abandon all elements of the “rationalist” tradition, a tradition often identified with philosophers such as Descartes. There are several elements frequently identified with “rationalist” (...)
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  13. Alberto Vanzo (2013). Kant on Empiricism and Rationalism. History of Philosophy Quarterly 30 (1):53-74.score: 18.0
    Several scholars have criticized the histories of early modern philosophy based on the dichotomy of empiricism and rationalism. They view them as overestimating the importance of epistemological issues for early modern philosophers (epistemological bias), portraying Kant's Critical philosophy as a superior alternative to empiricism and rationalism (Kantian bias), and forcing most or all early modern thinkers prior to Kant into the empiricist or rationalist camps (classificatory bias). Kant is often said to be the source of the three biases. (...)
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  14. Alan Nelson (ed.) (2005). A Companion to Rationalism. Blackwell Pub..score: 18.0
    This book is a wide-ranging examination of rationalist thought in philosophy from ancient times to the present day. Written by a superbly qualified cast of philosophers. Critically analyses the concept of rationalism. Focuses principally on the golden age of rationalism in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Also covers ancient rationalism, nineteenth-century rationalism, and rationalist themes in recent thought. Organised chronologically. Various philosophical methods and viewpoints are represented.
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  15. Sinan Dogramaci (2014). A Problem for Rationalist Responses to Skepticism. Philosophical Studies 168 (2):355-369.score: 18.0
    Rationalism, my target, says that in order to have perceptual knowledge, such as that your hand is making a fist, you must “antecedently” (or “independently”) know that skeptical scenarios don’t obtain, such as the skeptical scenario that you are in the Matrix. I motivate the specific form of Rationalism shared by, among others, White (Philos Stud 131:525–557, 2006) and Wright (Proc Aristot Soc Suppl Vol 78:167–212, 2004), which credits us with warrant to believe (or “accept”, in Wright’s terms) (...)
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  16. Christopher Gregory Weaver (forthcoming). Evilism, Moral Rationalism, and Reasons Internalism. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion:1-22.score: 18.0
    I show that the existence of an omniscient, omnipotent, and essentially omnimalevolent being is impossible given only two metaethical assumptions (viz., moral rationalism and reasons internalism). I then argue (pace Stephen Law) that such an impossibility undercuts Law's (2010) evil god challenge.
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  17. Dudley Shapere (1988). Rationalism and Empiricism: A New Perspective. [REVIEW] Argumentation 2 (3):299-312.score: 18.0
    Though classical and twentieth-century versions of empiricism and rationalism fail in their aims, as does the Kantian attempt at a compromise between those views, there are residues of those views that play important roles in the scientific enterprise. Those residue, and their scientific roles, are examined in this paper.
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  18. Gary Hatfield (2005). Rationalist Theories of Sense Perception and Mind-Body Relation. In A Companion to Rationalism (Blackwell Companions to Philosophy). Blackwell.score: 18.0
  19. Jianping Xu (2008). A Transition of Chinese Humanism and Aesthetics From Rationalism to Irrationalism. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (2):229-253.score: 18.0
    Chinese people attach importance to intuition and imagery in ways of thinking that are quite sensible, but the result, i.e. the thoughts that are popularized in virtue of political power, are rather rational. These rational thoughts, which were influenced by Buddhism and continually became introspective, had been growing more irrational factors. Up to the middle and late Ming Dynasty, when the economy was developed, they merged with the growing emphasis on daily needs of food and clothes and the envisagement to (...)
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  20. Nikos Psarros (1997). Critical Rationalism in the Test Tube? Lecture Given at the ''International Summer School on the Philosophy of Chemistry and Biochemistry'', Bradford & Ilkley Community College, 11. – 14. July 1994. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 28 (2):297-305.score: 18.0
    Popper's critical rationalism is widely accepted under scientists and philosophers of science as a proper method for the reconstruction of scientific theories. On occasion of the application of the Popperian ideas for the reconstruction of chemistry by Akeroyd the flaws of the critical rationalist approach are criticised and a methodical alternative is proposed, involving the operational definition of scientific terms.
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  21. Peter J. Ahrensdorf (2009). Greek Tragedy and Political Philosophy: Rationalism and Religion in Sophocles' Theban Plays. Cambridge University Press.score: 18.0
    Oedipus the tyrant and the limits of political rationalism -- Blind faith and enlightened statesmanship in Oedipus at colonus -- The pious heroism of Antigone -- Conclusion: Nietzsche, Plato, and Aristotle on philosophy and tragedy.
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  22. George L. Kline (2011). Skepticism and Faith in Shestov's Early Critique of Rationalism. Studies in East European Thought 63 (1):15 - 29.score: 18.0
    Shestov's work can be summed up under six headings. Three are sharp contrasts, three are paradoxes. (1) First there is the contrast between Shestov the person, who was moderate, competent, and calm, and Shestov the thinker, who was extreme, incandescent, and impassioned. (2) Then there is the contrast between his critique of reason, his acceptance of irrationalism, and the means by which he attacks the former and defends the latter: namely, careful rational argument. Sometimes he argues like a lawyer (after (...)
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  23. Víctor M. Verdejo (2013). The Rationalist Reply to Fodor's Analyticity and Circularity Challenge. Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 28 (1):7-25.score: 18.0
    The central Fodorian objections to Inferential Role Semantics (IRS) can be taken to include an ‘Analyticity Challenge’ and a ‘Circularity Challenge’, which are ultimately challenges to IRS explanations of concept possession. In this paper I present inferential role theories, critically examine those two challenges and point out two misunderstandings to which the challenges are exposed. I then state in detail a rationalist version of IRS and argue that this version meets the Fodorian challenges head on. If sound, this line of (...)
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  24. Mark Staples (2014). Critical Rationalism and Engineering: Ontology. Synthese 191 (10):2255-2279.score: 18.0
    Engineering is often said to be ‘scientific’, but the nature of knowledge in engineering is different to science. Engineering has a different ontological basis—its theories address different entities and are judged by different criteria. In this paper I use Popper’s three worlds ontological framework to propose a model of engineering theories, and provide an abstract logical view of engineering theories analogous to the deductive-nomological view of scientific theories. These models frame three key elements from definitions of engineering: requirements, designs of (...)
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  25. Werner Ulrich (2006). Rethinking Critically Reflective Research Practice: Beyond Popper's Critical Rationalism. Journal of Research Practice 2 (2):Article P1.score: 18.0
    We all know that ships are safest in the harbor; but alas, that is not what ships are built for. They are destined to leave the harbor and to confront the challenges that are waiting beyond the harbor mole. A similar challenge confronts the practice of research. Research at work cannot play it safe and stay in whatever theoretical and methodological harbors in which it may have found shelter in the past. Still less can it examine and maintain its foundations (...)
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  26. Michael Ayers (ed.) (2007). Rationalism, Platonism, and God. Published for the British Academy by Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    Rationalism, Platonism and God comprises three main papers on Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz, with extensive responses. It provides a significant contribution to the exploration of the common ground of the great early-modern Rationalist theories, and an examination of the ways in which the mainstream Platonic tradition permeates these theories. -/- John Cottingham identifies characteristically Platonic themes in Descartes's cosmology and metaphysics, finding them associated with two distinct, even opposed attitudes to nature and the human condition, one ancient and 'contemplative', (...)
     
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  27. Alfred Schramm (2006). Methodological Objectivism and Critical Rationalist ’Induction’. In Ian Jarvie, Karl Milford & David Miller (eds.), Karl Popper: A Centenary Assessment, Volume II. Ashgate.score: 18.0
    This paper constitutes one extended argument, which touches on various topics of Critical Rationalism as it was initiated by Karl Popper and further developed (although into different directions) in his aftermath. The result of the argument will be that critical rationalism either offers no solution to the problem of induction at all , or that it amounts, in the last resort, to a kind of Critical Rationalist Inductivism as it were, a version of what I call Good Old (...)
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  28. Chad Engelland (2008). Heidegger on Overcoming Rationalism Through Transcendental Philosophy. Continental Philosophy Review 41 (1):17-41.score: 16.0
    Modernity is not only the culmination of the “oblivion of being,” for it also provides, in the form of transcendental thinking, a way to recover the original relation of thought to being. Heidegger develops this account through several lecture courses from 1935–1937, especially the 1935–1936 lecture course on Kant, and the account receives a kind of completion in the 1936–1938 manuscript, Contributions to Philosophy. Kant limits the dominance of rationalistic prejudices by reconnecting thought to the givenness of being. He thereby (...)
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  29. Kelly C. Smith (1992). Neo-Rationalism Versus Neo-Darwinism: Integrating Development and Evolution. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 7 (4):431-451.score: 16.0
    An increasing number of biologists are expressing discontent with the prevailing theory of neo-Darwinism. In particular, the tendency of neo-Darwinians to adopt genetic determinism and atomistic notions of both genes and organisms is seen as grossly unfair to the body of developmental theory. One faction of dissenteers, the Process Structuralists, take their inspiration from the rational morphologists who preceded Darwin. These neo-rationalists argue that a mature biology must possess universal laws and that these generative laws should be sought within organismal (...)
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  30. Bruce Aune (1970). Rationalism, Empiricism, and Pragmatism: An Introduction. New York,Random House.score: 15.0
  31. Gunnar Andersson (1994). Criticism and the History of Science: Kuhn's, Lakatos's, and Feyrabend's Criticisms of Critical Rationalism. E.J. Brill.score: 15.0
    In "Criticism and the History of Science" Karl Popper's falsificationist conception of science is developed and defended against criticisms raised by Thomas ...
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  32. Stephen P. Stich (1979). Between Chomskian Rationalism and Popperian Empiricism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 30 (December):329-47.score: 15.0
  33. Andy Clark (1993). Minimal Rationalism. Mind 102 (408):587-610.score: 15.0
    Enquiries into the possible nature and scope of innate knowledge never proceed in an empirical vaccuum. Instead, such conjectures are informed by a theory (perhaps only tacitly endorsed) concerning probable representational form. Classical approaches to the nativism debate often assume a quasi-linguistic form of knowledge representation and deliniate a space of options (concerning the nature and extent of innate knowledge) accordingly. Recent connectionist theorizing posits a different kind of represenational form, and thus determines a different picture of the space of (...)
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  34. William S. Robinson (1991). Rationalism, Expertise, and the Dreyfuses' Critique of AI Research. Southern Journal of Philosophy 29 (2):271-90.score: 15.0
  35. Harvey Siegel & John Biro (2008). Rationality, Reasonableness, and Critical Rationalism: Problems with the Pragma-Dialectical View. [REVIEW] Argumentation 22 (2):191-203.score: 15.0
    A major virtue of the Pragma-Dialectical theory of argumentation is its commitment to reasonableness and rationality as central criteria of argumentative quality. However, the account of these key notions offered by the originators of this theory, Frans van Eemeren and Rob Grootendorst, seems to us problematic in several respects. In what follows we criticize that account and suggest an alternative, offered elsewhere, that seems to us to be both independently preferable and more in keeping with the epistemic approach to arguments (...)
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  36. Robert L. Arrington (1989). Rationalism, Realism, and Relativism: Perspectives in Contemporary Moral Epistemology. Cornell University Press.score: 15.0
  37. Alfred William Benn (1962). The History of English Rationalism in the Nineteenth Century. New York, Russell & Russell.score: 15.0
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  38. Robert Blanché (1968). Contemporary Science and Rationalism. Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd.score: 15.0
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  39. Norman F. Cantor (1969). Seventeenth-Century Rationalism: Bacon & Descartes. Waltham, Mass.,Blaisdell Pub. Co..score: 15.0
     
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  40. D. P. Chattopadhyaya (1976). Individuals and Worlds: Essays in Anthropological Rationalism. Oxford University Press.score: 15.0
     
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  41. John Cottingham (1984). Rationalism. Paladin.score: 15.0
     
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  42. Shefali Gupta (1974). Between Scepticism and Rationalism. Scientific Book Agency.score: 15.0
     
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  43. Martin Hollis (1973). The Light of Reason: Rationalist Philosophers of the 17th Century. London,Fontana.score: 15.0
     
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  44. Charles Huenemann (2008). Understanding Rationalism. Acumen.score: 15.0
     
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  45. Saeeda Iqbal (1984). Islamic Rationalism in the Subcontinent, with Special Reference to Shāh Walīullāh, Sayyid Ahmad Khān and Allāma Muhammad Iqbāl. Islamic Book Service.score: 15.0
     
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  46. N. Kunju (2011). Questioning the Unquestionable: Thoughts on Religion and Rationalism. Pancham Publications.score: 15.0
     
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  47. Frederick Henry Amphlett[from old catalog] Micklewright (1944). Rationalism and Culture. London, Watts & Co..score: 15.0
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  48. Raghunath Purushottam Paranjpye (1935). Rationalism in Practice. [Calcutta]University of Calcutta.score: 15.0
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  49. G. H. R. Parkinson (ed.) (1981). Truth, Knowledge, and Reality: Inquiries Into the Foundations of Seventeenth Century Rationalism: A Symposium of the Leibniz-Gesellschaft, Reading, 27-30 July 1979. [REVIEW] F. Steiner.score: 15.0
     
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  50. R. S. Yadava, V. M. Tarkunde & Krishna Gopal (eds.) (1985). Rationalism, Humanism, and Democracy: A Commemoration Volume in Honour of Professor R.S. Yadava. Distributors, Anu Books.score: 15.0
     
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