This article examines ways in which research conducted under the Human Microbiome Project, an effort to establish a “reference catalogue” of the micro-organisms present in the human body and determine how changes in those micro-organisms affect health and disease, raise challenging issues for regulation of human subject research. The article focuses on issues related to subject selection and recruitment, group stigma, and informational risks, and explores whether: (1) the Common Rule or proposed changes to the Rule adequately address these issues (...) and (2) the Common Rule is the most appropriate vehicle to provide regulatory oversight and guidance on these topics. (shrink)
Nobody should have a monopoly of the truth in this universe. The censorship and suppression of challenging ideas against the tide of mainstream research, the blacklisting of scientists, for instance, is neither the best way to do and filter science, nor to promote progress in the human knowledge. The removal of good and novel ideas from the scientific stage is very detrimental to the pursuit of the truth. There are instances in which a mere unqualified belief can occasionally be converted (...) into a generally accepted scientific theory through the screening action of refereed literature and meetings planned by the scientific organizing committees and through the distribution of funds controlled by "club opinions". It leads to unitary paradigms and unitary thinking not necessarily associated to the unique truth. This is the topic of this book: to critically analyze the problems of the official (and sometimes illicit) mechanisms under which current science (physics and astronomy in particular) is being administered and filtered today, along with the onerous consequences these mechanisms have on all of us. The authors, all of them professional researchers, reveal a pessimistic view of the miseries of the actual system, while a glimmer of hope remains in the "leitmotiv" claim towards the freedom in doing research and attaining an acceptable level of ethics in science. (shrink)
This paper focuses on corporate social responsibilities to employees, one key stakeholder for each firm. In particular, the views and attitudes of managers and entrepreneurs with respect to various social aspects related to their employees are investigated. The context of this research, Romania, a postcommunist country in Eastern Europe, allows us to look for dissimilarities between the talk of local firms and MNCs or foreign-based companies. The analysis is based on qualitative research and adopts an interpretative approach.The articles of the (...) weekly Romanian Capital magazine are investigated from an eight-year longitudinal perspective. (shrink)
This paper looks at the current state-of-the-art and at potential changes in CSR thinking in a developing country: Romania. It seeks to understand what kind oftransformations are emerging in this field and what are the reasons behind them. The analysis is interpretative, using discourse analysis and focuses on the articles of the weekly Romanian business publication Capital. The results indicate that the local business environment features the characteristics of wild capitalism, largely contradicting the idea of responsibility. However, foreign actors have (...) recently entered the local environment, acting as travelling vehicles of Western ideas and inducing positive developments in business social behaviour. This study upholds that emerging trends in the business social thinking in Romania are not an outcome of local societal expectations but, rather, are brought from abroad and sold to the local community. (shrink)
Originating in the Anglo-American management literature, stakeholder thinking embraces a set of common reasoning and rests on a range of assumptions that pay little attention to the institutional variations across countries and regions with different economic systems. Our aim in this article is to contribute to the stakeholder literature by discussing the significance and implications of this institutional diversity for the stakeholder model.
The study provides insights on why large Finnish municipalities are engaging in sustainability reporting. The dataset consists of the sustainability disclosures of five large Finnish cities and of a set of interviews conducted with the personnel responsible for composing the sustainability reports in these cities. Preliminary findings suggest that this rising practice is again an example of a fad, arising as the public sector organizations mimic the corporate sector without anyone really pondering whether the municipalities and the public sector as (...) a whole truly need a similar practice the corporations have. We maintain that there are better ways to use a municipality’s scarce resources than imitating the corporate sustainability reporting practices through producing a sustainability report, the main task of which seems to be to exist. (shrink)
Whether or not one is justified in speaking of a “third quest of the historical Jesus” is open to debate. Any historical quest for Jesus, however, involves three stages of research: (a) establishing a data base of authentic materials; (b) reconstructing a plausible picture of Jesus; and (c) assessing the significance of one's reconstructed Jesus for later history.
The Lasallian District of Medellin, Colombia requested Corporación Universitaria Lasallista to analyze the formation process received by postulants to De La Salle Brothers in Istmina, Colombia, from 2002 to 2010. Academic, religious, pedagogical, apostolic and personal formation experiences received there were analyzed in this case study –from a qualitative approach– by means of semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Personal and apostolic formations stand out among the results due to the characteristics of Istmina as a proper place for sensibilization and subjugation (...) in proof of vocation. However, the reach of integral formation is questioned because academic formation presented meaningful deficiencies. In conclusion, even though formation experiences in vulnerable contexts are appreciated –and contextualization of learning is deemed meaningful–, participants agree in the necessity of developing strong competences to face educational and apostolic practices. (shrink)
El contexto del Concilio Vaticano II vivió un aspecto fundamental que es necesario valorar: el clima de libertad, de apertura y alegría traído por el Concilio, sin coacciones, ni imposiciones sobre numerosos aspectos de la vivencia de la fe, ni moralismos, ni casuísticas sobrepasadas. Además de reflexiones teológicas para abrir nuevos caminos, el Concilio trajo un nuevo clima para la Iglesia. En América Latina, que sufría dictaduras asesinas, la Iglesia del Concilio era luz que sustentaba la evangelización y la lucha (...) por la justicia. Ahora, como en el periodo que precedió al Concilio, las señales de los tiempos perciben que algo tiene que ocurrir. Como entonces, es preciso superar la perplejidad y el temor, abriéndose a una gran esperanza. La búsqueda sigue, con la paciencia activa que soporta las “demoras de Dios”, aguantando sorpresas y contradicciones sin abatirse. Es un tiempo apropiado para vivir con intensidad la recomendación del Apóstol de ser “alegres en la esperanza, firmes en la tribulación, constantes en la oración” (Rm 12,12). - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n24p1361. (shrink)
Recent attempts at preventing the social exclusion of vulnerable children in England have been driven by notions of resilience which centre primarily on changing children so that they may be better able to cope with adversity. Drawing on the concepts of Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), we suggest that the idea of resilience should be expanded to include developing a capacity to act on and reshape the social conditions of one’s development. We use evidence from two studies of practices in (...) recent re-configurations of children’s services in England to examine whether practitioners are seeing resilience in these terms. We present examples of work which embody these views but suggest that they are not easily incorporated into practices where expertise is centred on care and clear communication. The care and communication model of practice reflects the emphases given to evolutionary notions of child development while a CHAT view of resilience reflects Vygotsky’s concerns with a dialectic between individuals and the social situations of their development. (shrink)
The article examines the features of formation of the episcopacy as a form of rationalization of the Christian tradition. Author relates the changeover from the apostolicity to episcopacy in the Christian Church with the changeover from oral history to a systematic memory, and social-organizational form of rationalization proposed by C. Geertz. In addition, social-organizational form of rationalization of religious traditions corresponds to institutionalization. In the course of rationalization is a change of legitimating criteria of the authority of religious hierarchy from (...) the charismatic factor (unique religious experience) to the social (staying in legitimated institute and religious education). The peak of the rationalization of the Christian tradition, the author considers the period of Apostolic Fathers, which became the stage of changeover from the authority of the prophetic and charismatic hierarchy to the authority of institutionalized priestly hierarchy. (shrink)
“Poder sem solidariedade” tem como objetivo abordar um texto emblemático do Novo Testamento, isto é, Marcos 10,32-45 com as ferramentas teóricas da teologia bíblica e da teoria foucaultiana a respeito do poder. A metodologia utilizada é de ordem bibliográfica, a partir do diálogo com textos específicos que exploram o texto de Marcos, a sociedade mediterrânea do primeiro século e textos específicos de Foucault sobre o poder. Percebe-se conclusivamente que ao mesmo tempo em que os discípulos de Jesus procuram reproduzir as (...) relações de poder, Jesus propõe um contra-discurso a fim de vislumbrar o poder como solidariedade a favor da comunidade. A intervenção de Jesus introduzirá um discurso de renúncia à aspiração ao poder assim como uma opção fundamental pelo serviço e pela solidariedade. Diante de dois modelos de concepção e prática do poder veremos uma proposta de inversão dos valores que vigoravam em uma sociedade marcada visceralmente pelas ambições. O jogo do poder também estava presente na comunidade de Jesus e seus discípulos procuravam reproduzir aquilo que já era comum ao tecido social. Palavras-chave : Poder. Autoridade. Cristianismo. Sociedade. Domínio.“Powers without solidarity” aims to address an emblematic text of the New Testament - Mark 10.32-45 - by using the theoretical tools of biblical theology and Foucault's theory about power. The methodology used is bibliographic out of a dialogue with specific texts that explore the text of Mark, the first-century Mediterranean society and specific texts by Foucault on power. It can be conclusively seen that while the disciples of Jesus seek to reproduce power relations, Jesus proposes a counter-discourse in order to view the power as solidarity in benefit of his community. Jesus´ intervention will introduce a speech that disclaims the aspiration to power and offers a fundamental option for service and solidarity. Given these two models of conception and practice of power, we can see a proposal that reverses the values that prevailed in a society viscerally marked by ambition. The power game was also present in Jesus´ community and his disciples tried to reproduce what was already common to the social culture. Keywords : Power. Authority. Christianity. Society. Domain. (shrink)