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Raymond S. Nickerson [12]Raymond Nickerson [1]
  1. Raymond S. Nickerson, Susan F. Butler, Nathaniel Delaney-Busch & Michael Carlin (forthcoming). Keep or Trade? Effects of Pay-Off Range on Decisions with the Two-Envelopes Problem. Thinking and Reasoning.
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  2. Raymond S. Nickerson (2011). Norms, Goals, and the Study of Thinking. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (5):261-262.
    Elqayam & Evans (E&E) argue that the major objective of research on human thinking should be the development of descriptive theories, and they challenge normativism the belief that people ought to conform to a normative standard” (target article, sect. 1, para. 10). I contend that although their argument for the importance of developing descriptive theories is compelling, normative theories are also important, not only for improving thinking but for investigating and understanding it as well.
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  3. Raymond S. Nickerson & Susan F. Butler (2011). Keep or Trade? An Experimental Study of the Exchange Paradox. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (4):365-394.
    The “exchange paradox”—also referred to in the literature by a variety of other names, notably the “two-envelopes problem”—is notoriously difficult, and experts are not all agreed as to its resolution. Some of the various expressions of the problem are open to more than one interpretation; some are stated in such a way that assumptions are required in order to fill in missing information that is essential to any resolution. In three experiments several versions of the problem were used, in each (...)
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  4. Raymond S. Nickerson & Susan F. Butler (2008). Efficiency in Data Gathering: Set Size Effects in the Selection Task. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (1):60 – 82.
    Two experiments were conducted with variants of Wason's (1966) selection task. The common focus was the effect of differences in the sizes of the sets represented by P and not-Q in assertions of the form _If P then Q_ (conditional) or _All P are Q_ (categorical). Results support the conclusion that such set size differences affect the strategies people adopt when asked to determine, efficiently, the truth or falsity of such assertions, but they do not entirely negate the tendency to (...)
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  5. Raymond S. Nickerson & Ruma Falk (2006). The Exchange Paradox: Probabilistic and Cognitive Analysis of a Psychological Conundrum. Thinking and Reasoning 12 (2):181 – 213.
    The term “exchange paradox” refers to a situation in which it appears to be advantageous for each of two holders of an envelope containing some amount of money to always exchange his or her envelope for that of the other individual, which they know contains either half or twice their own amount. We review several versions of the problem and show that resolving the paradox depends on the specifics of the situation, which must be disambiguated, and on the player's beliefs. (...)
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  6. Raymond Nickerson (2005). Bertrand's Chord, Buffon's Needle, and the Concept of Randomness. Thinking and Reasoning 11 (1):67 – 96.
    Two old problems in probability theory involving the concept of randomness are considered. Data obtained with one of them--Bertrand's chord problem--demonstrate the equivocality of this term in the absence of a definition or explication of assumptions underlying its use. They also support two propositions about probabilistic thinking: (1) upon obtaining an answer to a question of probability, people tend to see it as the answer, overlooking tacit assumptions on which it may be based, and tend not to consider the possibility (...)
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  7. Raymond S. Nickerson (1996). Hempel's Paradox and Wason's Selection Task: Logical and Psychological Puzzles of Confirmation. Thinking and Reasoning 2 (1):1 – 31.
    Hempel's paradox of the ravens has to do with the question of what constitutes confirmation from a logical point of view; Wason's selection task has been used extensively to investigate how people go about attempting to confirm or disconfirm conditional claims. This paper presents an argument that the paradox is resolved, and that people's typical performance in the selection task can be explained, by consideration of what constitutes an effective strategy for seeking evidence of the tenability of universal or conditional (...)
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  8. Raymond S. Nickerson (1986). Reflections on Reasoning. L. Erlbaum Associates.
    Introduction This book is about reasoning. It is not a textbook in the conventional sense. Nor does it provide a prescription for how to reason effectively. ...
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  9. Raymond S. Nickerson (1973). Frequency, Recency, and Repetition Effects on Same and Different Response Times. Journal of Experimental Psychology 101 (2):330.
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  10. Raymond S. Nickerson & David W. Burnham (1969). Response Times with Nonaging Foreperiods. Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (3p1):452.
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  11. Raymond S. Nickerson (1967). Categorization Time with Categories Defined by Disjunctions and Conjunctions of Stimulus Attributes. Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (2):211.
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  12. Raymond S. Nickerson (1967). Psychological Refractory Phase and the Functional Significance of Signals. Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (2):303.
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  13. Raymond S. Nickerson (1966). Response Times with a Memory-Dependent Decision Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (5):761.
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