Search results for 'Reality' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Ultimate Reality (2013). Can We Acquire Knowledge of Ultimate Reality? In Jeanine Diller & Asa Kasher (eds.), Models of God and Alternative Ultimate Realities. Springer. 81.score: 190.0
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  2. Michael V. Antony (forthcoming). Can We Acquire Knowledge of Ultimate Reality? In Jeanine Diller & Asa Kasher (eds.), Models of God and Other Ultimate Realities. Springer.score: 25.0
    Can humans acquire knowledge of ultimate reality, even significant or comprehensive knowledge? I argue that for all we know we can, and that is so whether ultimate reality is divine or non-divine. My strategy involves arguing that we are ignorant, in the sense of lacking public or shared knowledge, about which possibilities, if any, obtain for humans to acquire knowledge of ultimate reality. This follows from a deep feature of our epistemic situation—that our current psychology strongly constrains (...)
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  3. Arman Hovhannisyan, God and Reality.score: 24.0
    Metaphysics has done everything to involve God in the world of being. However, in case of considering Reality as being and nothingness, naturally, the metaphysical approach toward the idea of God is losing its grounds. If Reality is being and nothingness, so the idea of God, too, should concern nothingness as well as being.
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  4. Arman Hovhannisyan (2011). Ex Nihilo Nihil Fit?, or Prolegomena to Philosophy of Reality. Amazon, Createspace.score: 24.0
    The work below is the resume of my forthcoming book which I hope to complete in a year or two. As a matter of fact, this is the synthesis of five previous papers of mine, An Endeavor of New Concept of Being and Non-Being, Non-Being and Nothingness, Reality as Being and Nothingness, Presence in Reality, and God and Reality, or to be more correct, the integrity of them, as only in this connection do they acquire their genuine (...)
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  5. Arman Hovhannisyan (2012). Reality as Being and Nothingness. Amazon.score: 24.0
    The article below is the summary of two earlier works of mine, An Endeavor of New Concept of Being and Non-Being and Non-Being and Nothingness. Only being and nothingness in their unity characterize the environment in which the human being is finding itself, and any non-metaphysical philosophy must consider such an understanding of Reality as the utmost category which is above being, Universe, etc.
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  6. Paul Horwich (2010). Truth-Meaning-Reality. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    What is truth? -- Varieties of deflationism -- A defense of minimalism -- The value of truth -- A minimalist critique of Tarski -- Kripke's paradox of meaning -- Regularities, rules, meanings, truth conditions, and epistemic norms -- Semantics : what's truth got to do with it? -- The motive power of evaluative concepts -- Ungrounded reason -- The nature of paradox -- A world without 'isms' -- The quest for reality -- Being and truth -- Provenance of chapters.
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  7. Richard Double (1991). The Non-Reality of Free Will. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    The traditional disputants in the free will discussion--the libertarian, soft determinist, and hard determinist--agree that free will is a coherent concept, while disagreeing on how the concept might be satisfied and whether it can, in fact, be satisfied. In this innovative analysis, Richard Double offers a bold new argument, rejecting all of the traditional theories and proposing that the concept of free will cannot be satisfied, no matter what the nature of reality. Arguing that there is unavoidable conflict within (...)
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  8. Jonathan Cohen (2003). Barry Stroud, the Quest for Reality: Subjectivism and the Metaphysics of Colour. Noûs 37 (3):537-554.score: 24.0
    In The Quest for Reality: Subjectivism and the Metaphysics of Colour [Stroud, 2000], Barry Stroud carries out an ambitious attack on various forms of irrealism and subjectivism about color. The views he targets - those that would deny a place in objective reality to the colors - have a venerable history in philosophy. Versions of them have been defended by Galileo, Descartes, Boyle, Locke, and Hume; more recently, forms of these positions have been articulated by Williams, Smart, Mackie, (...)
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  9. Finn Collin (1997). Social Reality. Routledge.score: 24.0
    Social reality is a key problem in the philosophy of social science. Outlining the major historical and contemporary issues raised by the social reality and social facts, this book has something to offer both philosophers and social scientists. To the former is shows how the well-worn topic of realism versus anti-realism assumes new and interestingly varied forms when social reality is substituted for physical reality. For the social scientist, the book offers conceptual clarification of key issues (...)
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  10. Jakob Hohwy & Raben Rosenberg (2005). Unusual Experiences, Reality Testing and Delusions of Alien Control. Mind and Language 20 (2):141-162.score: 24.0
    Some monothematic types of delusions may arise because subjects have unusual experiences. The role of this experiential component in the pathogenesis of delusion is still not understood. Focussing on delusions of alien control, we outline a model for reality testing competence on unusual experiences. We propose that nascent delusions arise when there are local failures of reality testing performance, and that monothematic delusions arise as normal responses to these. In the course of this we address questions concerning the (...)
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  11. Gilles Brassard & André Allan Méthot (2010). Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Correct? Foundations of Physics 40 (4):463-468.score: 24.0
    In an earlier paper written in loving memory of Asher Peres, we gave a critical analysis of the celebrated 1935 paper in which Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) challenged the completeness of quantum mechanics. There, we had pointed out logical shortcomings in the EPR paper. Now, we raise additional questions concerning their suggested program to find a theory that would “provide a complete description of the physical reality”. In particular, we investigate the extent to which the EPR argumentation could (...)
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  12. Jorge J. E. Gracia (2009). Categories and Levels of Reality. Axiomathes 19 (2):179-191.score: 24.0
    The discussion of the relation of levels of reality to categories is important because categories have often been interpreted as constituting levels of reality. This article explores whether this view is correct, and argues it is not. Categories as such should not be understood to constitute levels of reality, although particular categories may. The article begins with a discussion of levels of reality and then turns to specific questions about categories and how they are related to (...)
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  13. Andreas Martin Lisewski (2006). The Concept of Strong and Weak Virtual Reality. Minds and Machines 16 (2):201-219.score: 24.0
    We approach the virtual reality phenomenon by studying its relationship to set theory. This approach offers a characterization of virtual reality in set theoretic terms, and we investigate the case where this is done using the wellfoundedness property. Our hypothesis is that non-wellfounded sets (so-called hypersets) give rise to a different quality of virtual reality than do familiar wellfounded sets. To elaborate this hypothesis, we describe virtual reality through Sommerhoff’s categories of first- and second-order self-awareness; introduced (...)
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  14. Barry G. Stroud (2000). The Quest for Reality: Subjectivism and the Metaphysics of Colour. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    We say "the grass is green" or "lemons are yellow" to state what everyone knows. But are the things we see around us really colored, or do they only look that way because of the effects of light rays on our eyes and brains? Is color somehow "unreal" or "subjective" and dependent on our human perceptions and the conditions under which we see things? Distinguished scholar Barry Stroud investigates these and related questions in The Quest for Reality. In this (...)
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  15. Angela Sestito (2013). Simultaneous Elements of Reality for Incompatible Properties by Exploiting Locality. Foundations of Physics 43 (2):271-283.score: 24.0
    We propose an ideal experiment enabling the simultaneous assignment of the objective values, 0 or 1, of two incompatible properties of a system made up of two separated, non-interacting spin particles when a strict interpretation of the criterion of reality of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen is adopted. We compare this experiment with the physical situation involving two-value observables of a system of two correlated spin-1/2 particles envisaged by Bohm; in particular, we show its inadequacy in the dual assignment at (...)
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  16. Charles D. Laughlin & C. Jason Throop (2009). Husserlian Meditations and Anthropological Reflections: Toward a Cultural Neurophenomenology of Experience and Reality. Anthropology of Consciousness 20 (2):130-170.score: 24.0
    Most of us would agree that the world of our experience is different than the extramental reality of which we are a part. Indeed, the evidence pertaining to cultural cosmologies around the globe suggests that virtually all peoples recognize this distinction—hence the focus upon the "hidden" forces behind everyday events. That said, the struggle to comprehend the relationship between our consciousness and reality, even the reality of ourselves, has led to controversy and debate for centuries in Western (...)
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  17. Kevin Reuter (2011). Distinguishing the Appearance From the Reality of Pain. Journal of Consciousness Studies 18 (9-10):94-109.score: 24.0
    It is often held that it is conceptually impossible to distinguish between a pain and a pain experience. In this article I present an argument which concludes that people make this distinction. I have done a web-based statistical analysis which is at the core of this argument. It shows that the intensity of pain has a decisive effect on whether people say that they 'feel a pain'(lower intensities) or 'have a pain' (greater intensities). This 'intensity effect'can be best explained by (...)
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  18. Keith Wilson (2013). Perception and Reality. New Philosopher 1 (2):104-107.score: 24.0
    Taken at face value, the picture of reality suggested by modern science seems radically opposed to the world as we perceive it through our senses. Indeed, it is not uncommon to hear scientists and others claim that much of our perceptual experience is a kind of pervasive illusion rather than a faithful presentation of various aspects of reality. On this view, familiar properties such as colours and solidity, to take just two examples, do not belong to external objects, (...)
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  19. Bill Brewer (2004). Stroud's Quest for Reality. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 68 (2):408-414.score: 24.0
    Barry Stroud begins his investigation into the metaphysics of colour with a discussion of the elusiveness of the genuinely philosophical quest for reality. He insists upon a distinction between two ways in which the idea of a correspondence between perceptions or beliefs and the facts may be understood: first, as equivalent to the plain truth of the perceptions/beliefs in question; second, as conveying the metaphysical reality of the corresponding features of the world. I begin by voicing some suspicion (...)
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  20. Lothar Schäfer, Diogo Valadas Ponte & Sisir Roy (2009). Quantum Reality and Ethos: A Thought Experiment Regarding the Foundation of Ethics in Cosmic Order. Zygon 44 (2):265-287.score: 24.0
    The authors undertake a thought experiment the purpose of which is to explore possibilities for understanding moral principles in analogy with cosmic order. The experiment is based on three proposals, which are described in detail: an ontological, a neurological, and a moral proposal. The ontological proposal accepts from the phenomena of quantum physics that there is a nonempirical domain of physical reality that consists not of material things but of what is philosophically conceptualized as a realm of nonmaterial forms. (...)
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  21. Stig Stenholm (2011). The Quest for Reality: Bohr and Wittgenstein, Two Complementary Views. Oxford University Press, Usa.score: 24.0
    Machine generated contents note: -- 1. Prelude: The modern stance -- 2. Twilight of the gods -- 3. The view from Copenhagen -- 4. Epistemological interlude -- 5. Wittgenstein enters the scene -- 6. Shaky foundations -- 7. Physics interface -- 8. Philosophical consequences -- 9. Metaphysics and reality -- 10. Concluding epilogue.
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  22. Stan Gudder (2013). Search for Quantum Reality. Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (3):525-533.score: 24.0
    We summarize a recent search for quantum reality. The full anhomomorphic logic of coevents for an event set is introduced. The quantum integral over an event with respect to a coevent is defined. Reality filters such as preclusivity and regularity of coevents are considered. A quantum measure that can be represented as a quantum integral with respect to a coevent is said to 1-generate that coevent. This gives a stronger filter that may produce a unique coevent called the (...)
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  23. Paul J. Ford (2001). A Further Analysis of the Ethics of Representation in Virtual Reality: Multi-User Environments. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 3 (2):113-121.score: 24.0
    This is a follow-up article toPhilip Brey's ``The ethics of representation andaction in Virtual Reality'' (published in thisjournal in January 1999). Brey's call for moreanalysis of ethical issues of virtual reality(VR) is continued by further analyzing issuesin a specialized domain of VR – namelymulti-user environments. Several elements ofBrey's article are critiqued in order to givemore context and a framework for discussion.Issues surrounding representations ofcharacters in multi-user virtual realities aresurveyed in order to focus attention on theimportance of additional discussion (...)
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  24. Paul Busch & Gregg Jaeger (2010). Unsharp Quantum Reality. Foundations of Physics 40 (9-10):1341-1367.score: 24.0
    The positive operator (valued) measures (POMs) allow one to generalize the notion of observable beyond the traditional one based on projection valued measures (PVMs). Here, we argue that this generalized conception of observable enables a consistent notion of unsharp reality and with it an adequate concept of joint properties. A sharp or unsharp property manifests itself as an element of sharp or unsharp reality by its tendency to become actual or to actualize a specific measurement outcome. This actualization (...)
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  25. Gaetano Chiurazzi (2011). Truth Is More Than Reality. Gadamers Transformational Concept of Truth. Research in Phenomenology 41 (1):60-71.score: 24.0
    In this paper I try to establish a relation between some fundamental concepts of Gadamerian philosophy—namely, the concepts of play, of transmutation into form, and of increase in being—and the concept of truth. The concept of play allows one to conceive the extra-methodical character of truth as an objectivity radically different from that of science: the objectivity of what happens and is thus unrepeatable, absolutely independent of any methodical mastery; the concept of transmutation into form is a theorization of the (...)
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  26. Boris DeWiel (2013). An Incomplete Definition of Reality. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 9 (1):50-72.score: 24.0
    A reality may be defined incompletely as a perpetuating pattern of relations. This definition denies the name of reality to an utter and totalistic patternlessness, like a primal patternless stuff, because a patternless all-ness would be indistinguishable from a patternless nothingness. If reality began from a chaos or patternless stuff, it became a reality only when it became patterned. If there are orders of reality with perpetuating relations between them, as in Cartesian interactive substance dualism, (...)
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  27. Takashi Yagisawa (2012). Unrestricted Quantification and Reality: Reply to Kim. [REVIEW] Acta Analytica 27 (1):77-79.score: 24.0
    In my book, Worlds and Individuals, Possible and Otherwise , I use the novel idea of modal tense to respond to a number of arguments against modal realism. Peter van Inwagen’s million-carat-diamond objection is one of them. It targets the version of modal realism by David Lewis and exploits the fact that Lewis accepts absolutely unrestricted quantification. The crux of my response is to use modal tense to neutralize absolutely unrestricted quantification. Seahwa Kim says that even when equipped with modal (...)
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  28. P. D. Magnus (2000). Reality, Sex, and Cyberspace. MacHack.score: 24.0
    Typical discussions of virtual reality (VR) fixate on technology for providing sensory stimulation of a certain kind. They thus fail to understand reality as the place wherein we live and work, misunderstanding it instead as merely a sort of presentation. The first half of the paper examines popular conceptions of VR. The most common conception is a shallow one according to which VR is a matter of simulating appearances. Yet there is, even in popular depictions, a second, more (...)
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  29. Nicholas Rescher (2010). Reality and its Appearance. Continuum.score: 24.0
    Reality vs. appearance -- How truth thought "agrees" with reality -- Cognitive access to reality -- Problems of fallibilism -- Scientific realism -- The rationale of realism.
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  30. Graham Oddie (2005/2009). Value, Reality, and Desire. Clarendon Press.score: 24.0
    Value, Reality, and Desire is an extended argument for a robust realism about value. The robust realist affirms the following distinctive theses. There are genuine claims about value which are true or false--there are facts about value. These value-facts are mind-independent - they are not reducible to desires or other mental states, or indeed to any non-mental facts of a non-evaluative kind. And these genuine, mind-independent, irreducible value-facts are causally efficacious. Values, quite literally, affect us. These are not particularly (...)
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  31. Louis Marchildon (2008). On Relativistic Elements of Reality. Foundations of Physics 38 (9):804-817.score: 24.0
    Several arguments have been proposed some years ago, attempting to prove the impossibility of defining Lorentz-invariant elements of reality. I find that a sufficient condition for the existence of elements of reality, introduced in these proofs, seems to be used also as a necessary condition. I argue that Lorentz-invariant elements of reality can be defined but, as Vaidman pointed out, they won’t satisfy the so-called product rule. In so doing I obtain algebraic constraints on elements of (...) associated with a maximal set of commuting Hermitian operators. (shrink)
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  32. Roberto Poli (2007). Three Obstructions: Forms of Causation, Chronotopoids, and Levels of Reality. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 17 (1):1-18.score: 24.0
    The thesis is defended that the theories of causation, time and space, and levels of reality are mutually interrelated in such a way that the difficulties internal to theories of causation and to theories of space and time can be understood better, and perhaps dealt with, in the categorial context furnished by the theory of the levels of reality. The structural condition for this development to be possible is that the first two theories be opportunely generalized.
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  33. Dr David Guez (2010). From Cognition to Consciousness: A Discussion About Learning, Reality Representation and Decision Making. Biological Theory 5 (2):136-141.score: 24.0
    The scientific understanding of cognition and consciousness is currently hampered by the lack of rigorous and universally accepted definitions that permit comparative studies. This paper proposes new functional and un- ambiguous definitions for cognition and consciousness in order to provide clearly defined boundaries within which general theories of cognition and consciousness may be developed. The proposed definitions are built upon the construction and manipulation of reality representation, decision making and learning and are scoped in terms of an underlying logical (...)
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  34. Roger Trigg (1980). Reality at Risk: A Defence of Realism in Philosophy and the Sciences. Barnes & Noble Books.score: 24.0
    THE OBJECTIVITY OF REALITY Reality and Mind We cannot talk or think about reality without talking or thinking about it. This is a truism which seems almost ...
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  35. Guido J. M. Verstraeten & Willem W. Verstraeten (2013). The Threefold Emergence of Time Unravels Physics'Reality. Pensée 75 (12):136-142.score: 24.0
    Time as the key to a theory of everything became recently a renewed topic in scientific literature. Social constructivism applied to physics abandons the inevitable essentials of nature. It adopts uncertainty in the scope of the existential activity of scientific research. We have enlightened the deep role of social constructivism of the predetermined Newtonian time and space notions in natural sciences. Despite its incompatibility with determinism governing the Newtonian mechanics, randomness and entropy are inevitable when negative localized energy is transformed (...)
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  36. Iwo Białynicki-Birula (2004). Modeling Reality: How Computers Mirror Life. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    The bookModeling Reality covers a wide range of fascinating subjects, accessible to anyone who wants to learn about the use of computer modeling to solve a diverse range of problems, but who does not possess a specialized training in mathematics or computer science. The material presented is pitched at the level of high-school graduates, even though it covers some advanced topics (cellular automata, Shannon's measure of information, deterministic chaos, fractals, game theory, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and Turing machines). These (...)
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  37. Jerry Davidson Wheatley (2001). The Nature of Consciousness, the Structure of Reality. Research Scientific Press.score: 24.0
    This book describes how understanding the structure of reality leads to the Theory of Everything Equation. The equation unifies the forces of nature and enables the merging of relativity with quantum theory. The book explains the big bang theory and everything else.
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  38. Andrew Jerome Dell’Olio (2007). Response to Wesley J. Wildman's “Behind, Between, and Beyond Anthropomorphic Models of Ultimate Reality”. Philosophia 35 (3-4):427-432.score: 24.0
    This is a response to Wesley J. Wildman’s “Behind, Between, and Beyond Anthropomorphic Models of Ultimate Reality.” While I agree with much of what Wildman writes, I raise questions concerning standards for evaluating models of ultimate reality and the plausibility of ranking such models. This paper was delivered during the APA Pacific 2007 Mini-Conference on Models of God.
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  39. Nicholas Jardine (1991). The Scenes of Inquiry: On the Reality of Questions in the Sciences. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    This book advocates a radical shift of concern in philosophical, historical, and sociological studies of the sciences, and explores the consequences of such a shift. The historically-oriented first part of the work deals with the ways in which ranges of questions become real and cease to be real for communities of inquirers. The more philosophically-oriented second part of the work introduces the notion of absolute reality of questions, and addresses doubt about the claims of the sciences to have accumulated (...)
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  40. Ulrik Becker Nissen (2011). Letting Reality Become Real: On Mystery and Reality in Dietrich Bonhoeffer's Ethics. Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (2):321-343.score: 24.0
    In Dietrich Bonhoeffer's Ethics the notion of reality plays a central role. The present article focuses on the ethical implications of the Chalcedonian Christology underlying this concept. This approach is tied to the debate on the relationship between the universal and specific identity of Christian social ethics in public discourse. In the opening section the article outlines the pertinence of this debate with regard to Bonhoeffer's Christological ethic. In the following section the article analyzes Bonhoeffer's concept of reality (...)
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  41. Wesley J. Wildman (2007). Behind, Between, and Beyond Anthropomorphic Models of Ultimate Reality. Philosophia 35 (3-4):407-425.score: 24.0
    The plurality of models of ultimate reality is a central problem for religious philosophy. This essay sketches what is involved in mounting comparative inquiries across the plurality of models. In order to illustrate what advance would look like in such a comparative inquiry, an argument is presented to show that highly anthropomorphic models of ultimate reality are inferior to a number of competitors. This paper was delivered as a keynote address during the APA Pacific 2007 Mini-Conference on Models (...)
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  42. Hermann Deuser & Dennis Beach (1995). Hume's Pragmaticist Argument for the Reality of God. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 9 (1):1 - 13.score: 24.0
    The author examines Hume's Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion to discover a variant of the usual teleological argument that abandons reliance on analogical reasoning. This second version, never refuted in the Dialogues, is termed "pragmaticist" in Peirce's sense. It relies on an abductive hypothesis that claims not logical proof but the power of instinctual conviction. The Dialogues' espousal of sound common sense may then be viewed as an imperfectly articulated precursor of Peirce's pragmaticist argument for the reality rather than the (...)
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  43. Shimon Edelman (2011). Regarding Reality: Some Consequences of Two Incapacities. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    By what empirical means can a person determine whether he or she is presently awake or dreaming? Subjecting the experienced reality to a statistical test for bizarreness requires a set of baseline measurements. In a dream or in a simulation, those would be vulnerable to tampering by the same processes that give rise to the experienced reality, making the outcome of a reality test impossible to trust. Moreover, cryptographic defenses against tampering cannot be relied upon, because of (...)
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  44. Sandra Braman (2007). When Nightingales Break the Law: Silence and the Construction of Reality. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 9 (4):281-295.score: 24.0
    Strikingly, theorizing about digital technologies has led us to recognize many habitual subjects of research as figures against fields that are also worthy of study. Communication, for example, becomes visible only against the field of silence. Silence is critically important for the construction of reality – and the social construction of reality has a complement, the also necessary contemplative construction of reality. Silence is so sensitive and fragile that an inability to achieve it, or to get rid (...)
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  45. Richard Dawkins (2011). The Magic of Reality: How We Know What's Really True. Free Press.score: 24.0
    Magic takes many forms. Supernatural magic is what our ancestors used in order to explain the world before they developed the scientific method. The ancient Egyptians explained the night by suggesting the goddess Nut swallowed the sun. The Vikings believed a rainbow was the gods’ bridge to earth. The Japanese used to explain earthquakes by conjuring a gigantic catfish that carried the world on its back—earthquakes occurred each time it flipped its tail. These are magical, extraordinary tales. But there is (...)
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  46. Bernard Haisch (2014). Is the Universe a Vast, Consciousness-Created Virtual Reality Simulation? Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 10 (1):48-60.score: 24.0
    Two luminaries of 20th century astrophysics were Sir James Jeans and Sir Arthur Eddington. Both took seriously the view that there is more to reality than the physical universe and more to consciousness than simply brain activity. In his Science and the Unseen World (1929) Eddington speculated about a spiritual world and that "conscious is not wholly, nor even primarily a device for receiving sense impressions." Jeans also speculated on the existence of a universal mind and a non-mechanical (...), writing in his The Mysterious Universe (1932) "the universe begins to look more like a great thought than like a great machine." In his book QED Feynman discusses the situation of photons being partially transmitted and partially reflected by a sheet of glass: reflection amounting to four percent. In other words one out of every 25 photons will be reflected on average, and this holds true even for a "one at a time" flux. The four percent cannot be explained by statistical differences of the photons (they are identical) nor by random variations in the glass. Something is "telling" every 25th photon on average that it should be reflected back instead of being transmitted. Other quantum experiments lead to similar paradoxes. To explain how a single photon in the two-slit experiment can "know" whether there is one slit or two, Hawking and Mlodonow write: In the double-slit experiment Feynman's ideas mean the particles take paths that thread through the first slit, back out though the second slit, and then through the first again; paths that visit the restaurant that serves that great curried shrimp, and then circle Jupiter a few times before heading home; even paths that go across the universe and back. This, in Feynman's view, explains how the particle acquires the information about which slits are openŠ. It is hard to imagine a more absurd physical explanation. We can think of no way to hardwire the behavior of photons in the glass reflection or the two-slit experiments into a physical law. On the other hand, writing a software algorithm that would yield the desired result is really simple. A digital reality whose laws are software is an idea that has started to gain traction in large part thanks to an influential paper in Philosophical Quarterly by Oxford professor Nick Bostrom. Writing in the New York Times John Tierney had this to say: Until I talked to Nick Bostrom, a philosopher at Oxford University it never occurred to me that our universe might be somebody else's hobby. But now it seems quite possible. In fact, if you accept a pretty reasonable assumption of Dr. Bostrom's, it is almost a mathematical certainty that we are living in someone else's computer simulation. An alternate view (and more optimistic view) is that there exists a great consciousness whose mind is the hardware, and whose thoughts are the software creating a virtual universe in which we as beings of consciousness live. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}. (shrink)
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  47. Kenneth P. Hillner (1985). Psychological Reality. Sole Distributors for the U.S.A. And Canada, Elsevier Science Pub. Co..score: 24.0
    This volume presents one possible conceptual analysis of the task of constructing a model of psychological reality, so that psychology's pluralistic state can ...
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  48. Jon Cogburn & Mark Silcox (forthcoming). Against Brain-in-a-Vatism: On the Value of Virtual Reality. Philosophy and Technology:1-19.score: 24.0
    The term “virtual reality” was first coined by Antonin Artaud to describe a value-adding characteristic of certain types of theatrical performances. The expression has more recently come to refer to a broad range of incipient digital technologies that many current philosophers regard as a serious threat to human autonomy and well-being. Their concerns, which are formulated most succinctly in “brain in a vat”-type thought experiments and in Robert Nozick's famous “experience machine” argument, reflect a fundamental misunderstanding of the way (...)
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  49. George Towner (2011). The Reality of Knowledge: The Ways in Which Life Constructs Reality so It Can Be Known. University Press of America.score: 24.0
    The Reality of Knowledge completes a trilogy begun with The Architecture of Knowledge (1980) and Processes of Knowledge (2001). It presents a holistic analysis of knowledge and the reality that is known. The book shows how living things, including humans, construct reality in specific ways that maximize their ability to know it. Different species construct different areas of reality, but they all use the same methods: objectification, categorization, and generalization. Support for this analysis comes from examining (...)
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  50. Klaus Mainzer (1999). Computational Models and Virtual Reality. New Perspectives of Research in Chemistry. Hyle 5 (2):135 - 144.score: 24.0
    Molecular models are typical topics of chemical research depending on the technical standards of observation, computation, and representation. Mathematically, molecular structures have been represented by means of graph theory, topology, differential equations, and numerical procedures. With the increasing capabilities of computer networks, computational models and computer-assisted visualization become an essential part of chemical research. Object-oriented programming languages create a virtual reality of chemical structures opening new avenues of exploration and collaboration in chemistry. From an epistemic point of view, virtual (...)
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