Search results for 'Reasoning (Psychology' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  89
    Ulf Hlobil (2016). Chains of Inferences and the New Paradigm in the Psychology of Reasoning. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (1):1-16.
    The new paradigm in the psychology of reasoning draws on Bayesian formal frameworks, and some advocates of the new paradigm think of these formal frameworks as providing a computational-level theory of rational human inference. I argue that Bayesian theories should not be seen as providing a computational-level theory of rational human inference, where by “Bayesian theories” I mean theories that claim that all rational credal states are probabilistically coherent and that rational adjustments of degrees of belief in the light (...)
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  2.  13
    Niels Skovgaard Olsen (2014). Making Ranking Theory Useful for Psychology of Reasoning. Dissertation, University of Konstanz
    An organizing theme of the dissertation is the issue of how to make philosophical theories useful for scientific purposes. An argument for the contention is presented that it doesn’t suffice merely to theoretically motivate one’s theories, and make them compatible with existing data, but that philosophers having this aim should ideally contribute to identifying unique and hard to vary predictions of their theories. This methodological recommendation is applied to the ranking-theoretic approach to conditionals, which emphasizes the epistemic relevance and the (...)
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  3.  70
    Niki Pfeifer & Igor Douven (2013). Formal Epistemology and the New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning. Review of Philosophy and Psychology (2):1-23.
    This position paper advocates combining formal epistemology and the new paradigm psychology of reasoning in the studies of conditionals and reasoning with uncertainty. The new paradigm psychology of reasoning is characterized by the use of probability theory as a rationality framework instead of classical logic, used by more traditional approaches to the psychology of reasoning. This paper presents a new interdisciplinary research program which involves both formal and experimental work. To illustrate the program, the paper discusses (...)
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  4.  18
    David Godden (2015). Argumentation, Rationality, and Psychology of Reasoning. Informal Logic 35 (2):135-166.
    This paper explicates an account of argumentative rationality by articulating the common, basic idea of its nature, and then identifying a collection of assumptions inherent in it. Argumentative rationality is then contrasted with dual-process theories of reasoning and rationality prevalent in the psychology of reasoning. It is argued that argumentative rationality properly corresponds only with system-2 reasoning in dual-process theories. This result challenges the prescriptive force of argumentative norms derives if they derive at all from their descriptive (...)
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  5.  7
    Cristián Santibáñez Yáñez (2012). Mercier and Sperber's Argumentative Theory of Reasoning: From Psychology of Reasoning to Argumentation Studies. Informal Logic 32 (1):132-159.
    Mercier and Sperber (2011a, 2011b; Mercier, 2011a, 2011b, 2011c, and 2011d) have presented a stimulating and provocative new theory of reasoning: the argumentative theory of reasoning. They maintain that argumentation is a meta-representational module. In their evolutionary view of argumentation, the function of this module would be to regulate the flow of information between interlocutors through persuasiveness on the side of the communicator and epistemic vigilance on the side of the audience. The aim of this paper is to (...)
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  6.  14
    Yvonne Wübben (2013). Writing Cases and Casuistic Reasoning in Karl Philipp Moritz' Journal of Empirical Psychology. Early Science and Medicine 18 (4-5):471-486.
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  7.  97
    Robert C. Richardson (1996). The Prospects for an Evolutionary Psychology: Human Language and Human Reasoning. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 6 (4):541-557.
    Evolutionary psychology purports to explain human capacities as adaptations to an ancestral environment. A complete explanation of human language or human reasoning as adaptations depends on assessing an historical claim, that these capacities evolved under the pressure of natural selection and are prevalent because they provided systematic advantages to our ancestors. An outline of the character of the information needed in order to offer complete adaptation explanations is drawn from Robert Brandon (1990), and explanations offered for the evolution of (...)
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  8.  63
    Jonathan St B. T. Evans (2012). Questions and Challenges for the New Psychology of Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning 18 (1):5 - 31.
    In common with a number of other authors I believe that there has been a paradigm shift in the psychology of reasoning, specifically the area traditionally labelled as the study of deduction. The deduction paradigm was founded in a philosophical tradition that assumed logicality as the basis for rational thought, and provided binary propositional logic as the agreed normative framework. By contrast, many contemporary authors assume that people have degrees of uncertainty in both premises and conclusions, and reject binary (...)
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  9.  10
    Jean-François Bonnefon, Vittorio Girotto & Paolo Legrenzi (2012). The Psychology of Reasoning About Preferences and Unconsequential Decisions. Synthese 185 (S1):27-41.
    People can reason about the preferences of other agents, and predict their behavior based on these preferences. Surprisingly, the psychology of reasoning has long neglected this fact, and focused instead on disinterested inferences, of which preferences are neither an input nor an output. This exclusive focus is untenable, though, as there is mounting evidence that reasoners take into account the preferences of others, at the expense of logic when logic and preferences point to different conclusions. This article summarizes the (...)
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  10.  18
    Jos Hornikx & Ulrike Hahn (2012). Reasoning and Argumentation: Towards an Integrated Psychology of Argumentation. Thinking and Reasoning 18 (3):225 - 243.
    Although argumentation plays an essential role in our lives, there is no integrated area of research on the psychology of argumentation. Instead research on argumentation is conducted in a number of separate research communities that are spread across disciplines and have only limited interaction. With a view to bridging these different strands, we first distinguish between three meanings of the word ?argument?: argument as a reason, argument as a structured sequence of reasons and claims, and argument as a social exchange. (...)
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  11.  65
    Hanno Sauer (2011). Social Intuitionism and the Psychology of Moral Reasoning. Philosophy Compass 6 (10):708-721.
    Rationalism about the psychology of moral judgment holds, among other things, that the justifying moral reasons we have for our judgments are also the causally effective reasons for why we make those judgments. This can be called the ‘effectiveness’-thesis regarding moral reasoning. The theory that best exemplifies the thesis is the traditional conscious reasoning-paradigm. Current empirical moral psychology, however, poses a serious challenge to this thesis: it argues that in fact, emotional reactions are necessary and sufficient to account (...)
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  12.  14
    Jonathan St Bt Evans & Shira Elqayam (2011). Towards a Descriptivist Psychology of Reasoning and Decision Making. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (5):275-290.
    Our target article identified normativism as the view that rationality should be evaluated against unconditional normative standards. We believe this to be entrenched in the psychological study of reasoning and decision making and argued that it is damaging to this empirical area of study, calling instead for a descriptivist psychology of reasoning and decision making. The views of 29 commentators (from philosophy and cognitive science as well as psychology) were mixed, including some staunch defences of normativism, but also (...)
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  13.  11
    Shira Elqayam & David Over (2012). Probabilities, Beliefs, and Dual Processing: The Paradigm Shift in the Psychology of Reasoning. Mind and Society 11 (1):27-40.
    In recent years, the psychology of reasoning has been undergoing a paradigm shift, with general Bayesian, probabilistic approaches replacing the older, much more restricted binary logic paradigm. At the same time, dual processing theories have been gaining influence. We argue that these developments should be integrated and moreover that such integration is already underway. The new reasoning paradigm should be grounded in dual processing for its algorithmic level of analysis just as it uses Bayesian theory for its computational (...)
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  14.  9
    Jean-François Bonnefon (2013). Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology. Argument and Computation 4 (1):1 - 3.
    (2013). Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology. Argument & Computation: Vol. 4, Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology, pp. 1-3. doi: 10.1080/19462166.2013.767559.
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  15.  14
    Joachim I. Krueger (2007). The Flight From Reasoning in Psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):32-33.
    Psychological science can benefit from a theoretical unification with other social sciences. Social psychology in particular has gone through cycles of repression, denying itself the opportunity to see the calculating element in human interaction. A closer alignment with theories of evolution and theories of interpersonal (and intergroup) games would bring strategic reasoning back into the focus of research. (Published Online April 27 2007).
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  16. Jonathan St B. T. Evans (1982). The Psychology of Deductive Reasoning. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  17. Joshua Knobe & Gabriel Mendlow (2004). The Good, the Bad and the Blameworthy: Understanding the Role of Evaluative Reasoning in Folk Psychology. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 24 (2):252-258.
    People ordinarily make sense of their own behavior and that of others by invoking concepts like belief, desire, and intention. Philosophers refer to this network of concepts and related principles as 'folk psychology.' The prevailing view of folk psychology among philosophers of mind and psychologists is that it is a proto-scientific theory whose function is to explain and predict behavior.
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  18.  7
    N. E. Wetherick (1989). Psychology and Syllogistic Reasoning. Philosophical Psychology 2 (1):111 – 124.
    A theory of syllogistic reasoning is proposed, derived from the medieval doctrine of 'distribution of terms'. This doctrine may or may not furnish an adequate ground for the logic of the syllogism but does appear to illuminate the psychological processes involved. Syllogistic thinking is shown to have its origins in the approach and avoidance behaviour of pre-verbal organisms and, in verbal (human) organisms, to bridge the gap between the intuitive grasp shown by most of us of the validity of (...)
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  19. Lance J. Rips (1994). The Psychology of Proof Deductive Reasoning in Human Thinking. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  20.  31
    Niki Pfeifer (2013). The New Psychology of Reasoning: A Mental Probability Logical Perspective. Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):329-345.
  21.  18
    David E. Over (2011). New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning 15 (4):431-438.
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  22.  7
    Nick Perham & Mike Oaksford (2005). Deontic Reasoning With Emotional Content: Evolutionary Psychology or Decision Theory? Cognitive Science 29 (5):681-718.
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  23.  1
    Nick Chater & Mike Oaksford (2001). Human Rationality and the Psychology of Reasoning: Where Do We Go From Here? British Journal of Psychology 92 (1):193-216.
    British psychologists have been at the forefront of research into human reasoning for 40 years. This article describes some past research milestones within this tradition before outlining the major theoretical positions developed in the UK. Most British reasoning researchers have contributed to one or more of these positions. We identify a common theme that is emerging in all these approaches, that is, the problem of explaining how prior general knowledge affects reasoning. In our concluding comments we outline (...)
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  24.  8
    Norman E. Wetherick (1993). Psychology and Syllogistic Reasoning: Further Considerations. Philosophical Psychology 6 (4):423 – 440.
    Following an earlier paper (Wetherick, 1989), the analysis of syllogistic reasoning via the medieval doctrine of “distribution of terms” is pursued and completed. The doctrine was not originally presented as an explanation of syllogistic reasoning but turns out to furnish one. It is shown that: It is impossible to assert two propositions having a distributed middle term in common without, at the same time, tacitly asserting the valid conclusion, if any. When the middle term is distributed but no (...)
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  25.  37
    Stephen P. Stich & Richard E. Nisbett (1980). Justification and the Psychology of Human Reasoning. Philosophy of Science 47 (2):188-202.
    This essay grows out of the conviction that recent work by psychologists studying human reasoning has important implications for a broad range of philosophical issues. To illustrate our thesis we focus on Nelson Goodman's elegant and influential attempt to "dissolve" the problem of induction. In the first section of the paper we sketch Goodman's account of what it is for a rule of inference to be justified. We then marshal empirical evidence indicating that, on Goodman's account of justification, patently (...)
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  26.  10
    Shira Elqayam & David E. Over (2013). New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning: An Introduction to the Special Issue Edited by Elqayam, Bonnefon, and Over. Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):249-265.
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  27. P. C. Wason & P. N. Johnson (1974). Psychology of Reasoning: Structure and Content. Philosophy and Rhetoric 7 (3):193-197.
     
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  28.  84
    Anthony P. Atkinson & M. Wheeler (2003). Evolutionary Psychology's Grain Problem and the Cognitive Neuroscience of Reasoning. In David E. Over (ed.), Evolution and the Psychology of Thinking: The Debate. Psychology Press 61--99.
  29.  17
    Paolo Cherubini & PN Johnson-Laird (2004). Does Everyone Love Everyone? The Psychology of Iterative Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning 10 (1):31 – 53.
    When a quantified premise such as: Everyone loves anyone who loves someone, occurs with a premise such as: Anne loves Beth, it follows immediately that everyone loves Anne. It also follows that Carol loves Diane, where these two individuals are in the domain of discourse. According to the theory of mental models, this inference requires the quantified premise to be used again to update a model of specific individuals. The paper reports four experiments examining such iterative inferences. Experiment 1 confirmed (...)
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  30.  2
    R. E. Nisbett (1993). Reasoning, Abstraction, and the Prejudices of ZOth-Century Psychology. In Richard E. Nisbett (ed.), Rules for Reasoning. L. Erlbaum Associates
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  31.  3
    James Woodward, Normative Theory and Descriptive Psychology in Understanding Causal Reasoning: The Role of Interventions and Invariance.
    This paper, like its companion explores some ways in which, on the one hand, normative theorizing about causation and causal reasoning and, on the other, empirical psychological investigations into causal cognition can be mutually illuminating. The topics considered include the connection between causal claims and claims about the outcomes of interventions and the various ways that invariance claims figure in causal judgment.
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  32.  6
    Jean-François Bonnefon (2013). New Ambitions for a New Paradigm: Putting the Psychology of Reasoning at the Service of Humanity. Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):381-398.
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  33.  12
    Harald Walach (2007). Folk Psychology and the Psychological Background of Scientific Reasoning. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 14 (3):pp. 209-212.
  34.  15
    David Pietraszewski & Tamsin C. German (2013). Coalitional Psychology on the Playground: Reasoning About Indirect Social Consequences in Preschoolers and Adults. Cognition 126 (3):352-363.
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  35.  20
    Philipp Koralus & Salvador Mascarenhas (2013). The Erotetic Theory of Reasoning: Bridges Between Formal Semantics and the Psychology of Deductive Inference. Philosophical Perspectives 27 (1):312-365.
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  36.  11
    David Danks (2009). The Psychology of Causal Perception and Reasoning. In Helen Beebee, Christopher Hitchcock & Peter Menzies (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Causation. OUP Oxford
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  37.  80
    Scott MacDonald (1991). Ultimate Ends in Practical Reasoning: Aquinas's Aristotelian Moral Psychology and Anscombe's Fallacy. Philosophical Review 100 (1):31-66.
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  38. Walter Schroyens (2010). Logic and/in Psychology: The Paradoxes of Material Implication and Psychologism in the Cognitive Science of Human Reasoning. In Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater (eds.), Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thinking. OUP Oxford
     
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  39.  21
    Rachel Singpurwalla (2006). Reasoning with the Irrational: Moral Psychology in the Protagoras. Ancient Philosophy 26 (2):243-258.
  40.  9
    Joseph Carson & Eugenio Rignano (1924). The Psychology of Reasoning. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 21 (25):690-695.
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  41.  2
    Mike Oaksford & Mike Malloch (1993). Computational and Biological Constraints in the Psychology of Reasoning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (3):468.
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  42.  11
    John A. Barnden (1995). Simulative Reasoning, Common-Sense Psychology and Artificial Intelligence. In Martin Davies & Tony Stone (eds.), Mental Simulation: Evaluations and Applications. Blackwell 247--273.
  43. Phyllis Rooney (2001). Gender and Moral Reasoning Revisited: Reengaging Feminist Psychology. In Peggy DesAutels & JoAnne Waugh (eds.), Feminists Doing Ethics. Rowman & Littlefield Pub Inc 153--166.
     
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  44.  16
    Saras D. Sarasvathy (2004). Founding Moral Reasoning on Evolutionary Psychology. The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 2004:135-144.
    In this paper I develop a critique of the strong adaptationist view inherent in the work of Leda Cosmides and John Tooby, as presentedat the Ruffin Lectures series in 2002. My critique proceeds in two stages. In the first stage, I advance arguments as to why I find the particular adaptation story that the authors advance for their experimental results unpersuasive even when I fully accept the value of their experimental results. In the second stage, I grant them their adaptation (...)
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  45.  6
    Jeremy Athy, Jeff Friedrich & Eileen Delany (2008). Replication and Pedagogy in the History of Psychology VI: Egon Brunswik on Perception and Explicit Reasoning. Science and Education 17 (5):537-546.
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  46.  2
    Don Parker & Peter Greener (2008). Ethics Research: Moral Psychology and its Promise of Benefits for Moral Reasoning in the Military. In C. A. J. Coady & Igor Primoratz (eds.), Military Ethics. Ashgate Pub. Co. 25.
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  47. Eugenio Rignano & Winifred A. Holl (1924). The Psychology of Reasoning. Philosophical Review 33 (4):412-414.
    First Published in 1999. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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  48. Alfred Binet & Adam Gowans White (1900). The Psychology of Reasoning, Based on Experimental Researches in Hypnotism. Philosophical Review 9 (1):111-111.
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  49. Alfred Binet (1900). The Psychology of Reasoning. The Monist 10:149.
     
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  50. Alfred Binet & Adam Gowans Whyte (1899). The Psychology of Reasoning, Tr. By A.G. Whyte.
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