Search results for 'Reasoning History' (try it on Scholar)

1000+ found
Sort by:
  1. Furio Di Paola (1988). Human-Oriented and Machine-Oriented Reasoning: Remarks on Some Problems in the History of Automated Theorem Proving. [REVIEW] AI and Society 2 (2):121-131.score: 54.0
    Examples in the history of Automated Theorem Proving are given, in order to show that even a seemingly ‘mechanical’ activity, such as deductive inference drawing, involves special cultural features and tacit knowledge. Mechanisation of reasoning is thus regarded as a complex undertaking in ‘cultural pruning’ of human-oriented reasoning. Sociological counterparts of this passage from human- to machine-oriented reasoning are discussed, by focusing on problems of man-machine interaction in the area of computer-assisted proof processing.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Roger Florka (2001). Descartes's Metaphysical Reasoning. Routledge.score: 42.0
    This study argues that Descartes's conception of rationality presupposes that the order of reasoning essentially obeys his metaphysical categories. It takes to the next level the current trend in de-emphasizing his purported epistemology in favor of his unique metaphysics of cognition.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Rick Kennedy (2004). A History of Reasonableness: Testimony and Authority in the Art of Thinking. University of Rochester Press.score: 42.0
    The classical tradition of testimony in topics -- Three medieval traditions : Augustine, Boethius, and Cassiodoras -- Two renaissance traditions : Ciceronian and Augustinian -- The long influence of the port-royal logic -- Appreciating Aristotle : Thomists, Scots, and Oxford noetics -- Testimony becomes experience : the rise of critical thinking.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Alasdair C. MacIntyre (1990). The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 28 (4):634-635.score: 39.0
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. James Elwick (2012). Layered History: Styles of Reasoning as Stratified Conditions of Possibility. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (4):619-627.score: 39.0
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Tim De Mey (2005). Remodeling the Past. Foundations of Science 10 (1):47-66.score: 36.0
    In some of the papers in which she develops and defends the mental modelview of thought experiments in physics, Nersessian expresses the belief that her account has implications for thought experiments in other domains as well. In this paper, I argue, firstly, that counterfactual reasoning has a legitimate place in historical inquiry, and secondly, that the mental model view can account for such "alternative histories". I proceed as follows. Firstly, I review the main accounts of thought experiments in physics (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Tina Chanter (2000). The Trouble We (Feminists) Have Reasoning with Our Mothers: Penelope Deutscher, Yielding Gender: Feminism, Deconstruction, and the History of Philosophy. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 33 (4):487-497.score: 36.0
  8. Reviewed by J. Rosser Matthews (2000). Alain Desrosières, the Politics of Large Numbers: A History of Statistical Reasoning. Ethics 110 (2).score: 36.0
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. B. Hoose (1991). The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning. Journal of Medical Ethics 17 (4):221-221.score: 36.0
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. J. Rosser Matthews (2000). Alain Desrosieres, The Politics of Large Numbers: A History of Statistical Reasoning:The Politics of Large Numbers: A History of Statistical Reasoning. Ethics 110 (2):416-418.score: 36.0
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Kenneth W. Kemp (1989). Book Review:The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning. Albert R. Jonsen, Stephen Toulmin. [REVIEW] Ethics 99 (4):945-.score: 36.0
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. M. Lane Bruner (2006). Rationality, Reason and the History of Thought. Argumentation 20 (2):185-208.score: 36.0
    Philosophers over the course of the last century, including Edmund Husserl, Chaim Perelman, and Jacques Derrida, have attempted to unravel the tangled relationship between the rational and the reasonable in order to understand how the history of thought progresses. Critical political theorists, including Michel Foucault and Ernesto Laclau have also investigated this issue from a range of perspectives, especially as it relates to the relationship between ideational limits and their transgression and the universal and the particular. This essay compares (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Karl Galinsky (2009). Reception and History of Scholarship (K.) Riley The Reception and Performance of Euripides' Herakles: Reasoning Madness. (Oxford Classical Monographs). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Pp. X + 398. £65. 9780199534487. [REVIEW] Journal of Hellenic Studies 129:263-.score: 36.0
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Richard A. Talaska (1997). Philosophical Reasoning in Ethics and the Use of the History of Philosophy. Teaching Philosophy 20 (2):121-141.score: 36.0
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Jeremy Athy, Jeff Friedrich & Eileen Delany (2008). Replication and Pedagogy in the History of Psychology VI: Egon Brunswik on Perception and Explicit Reasoning. Science and Education 17 (5):537-546.score: 36.0
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Carl Elliott (1992). The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning. Philosophical Books 33 (4):242-243.score: 36.0
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. W. Harper (1989). Consilience and Natural Kind Reasoning (in Newton's Argument for Universal Gravitation) in An Intimate Relation. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 116:115-152.score: 36.0
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. D. Pears & E. Ullmann-Margalit (1986). Practical Reasoning in The Prism of Science. The Israel Colloquium: Studies in History, Philosophy, and Sociology of Science. Vol. 2. [REVIEW] Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 95:93-111.score: 36.0
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Peter Dear (2006). The Intelligibility of Nature: How Science Makes Sense of the World. University of Chicago Press.score: 33.0
    Throughout the history of the Western world, science has possessed an extraordinary amount of authority and prestige. And while its pedestal has been jostled by numerous evolutions and revolutions, science has always managed to maintain its stronghold as the knowing enterprise that explains how the natural world works: we treat such legendary scientists as Galileo, Newton, Darwin, and Einstein with admiration and reverence because they offer profound and sustaining insight into the meaning of the universe. In The Intelligibility of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Neil Granitz & Dana Loewy (2007). Applying Ethical Theories: Interpreting and Responding to Student Plagiarism. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 72 (3):293 - 306.score: 33.0
    Given the tremendous proliferation of student plagiarism involving the Internet, the purpose of this study is to determine which theory of ethical reasoning students invoke when defending their transgressions: deontology, utilitarianism, rational self-interest, Machiavellianism, cultural relativism, or situational ethics. Understanding which theory of ethical reasoning students employ is critical, as preemptive steps can be taken by faculty to counteract this reasoning and prevent plagiarism. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that unethical behavior in school can lead to unethical (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Michael A. Peters (2007). Kinds of Thinking, Styles of Reasoning. Educational Philosophy and Theory 39 (4):350–363.score: 33.0
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Yvonne Wübben (2013). Writing Cases and Casuistic Reasoning in Karl Philipp Moritz' Journal of Empirical Psychology. Early Science and Medicine 18 (4-5):471-486.score: 33.0
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Nicolas J. Bullot & Rolf Reber (2013). The Artful Mind Meets Art History: Toward a Psycho-Historical Framework for the Science of Art Appreciation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (2):123-180.score: 33.0
    Research seeking a scientific foundation for the theory of art appreciation has raised controversies at the intersection of the social and cognitive sciences. Though equally relevant to a scientific inquiry into art appreciation, psychological and historical approaches to art developed independently and lack a common core of theoretical principles. Historicists argue that psychological and brain sciences ignore the fact that artworks are artifacts produced and appreciated in the context of unique historical situations and artistic intentions. After revealing flaws in the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Maya J. Goldenberg, Kirstin Borgerson, Vikki Entwistle & Elselijn Kingma (2012). Reason and Value: Making Reasoning Fit for Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):929-937.score: 33.0
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. David L. Tresan (2004). This New Science of Ours: A More or Less Systematic History of Consciousness and Transcendence Part I. Journal of Analytical Psychology 49 (2):193-216.score: 33.0
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Leonard Krieger (1989). Time's Reasons: Philosophies of History Old and New. University of Chicago Press.score: 30.0
    This original work caps years of thought by Leonard Krieger about the crisis of the discipline of history. His mission is to restore history's autonomy while attacking the sources of its erosion in various "new histories," which borrow their principles and methods from disciplines outside of history. Krieger justifies the discipline through an analysis of the foundations on which various generations of historians have tried to establish the coherence of their subject matter and of the convergence of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Sara Ahbel-Rappe (1999). Reading Neoplatonism: Non-Discursive Thinking in the Texts of Plotinus, Proclus, and Damascius. Cambridge University Press.score: 30.0
    Neoplatonism is a term used to designate the form of Platonic philosophy that developed in the Roman Empire from the third to the fifth century AD and that based itself on the corpus of Plato's dialogues. Sara Rappe's challenging and innovative study is the first book to analyse Neoplatonic texts themselves using contemporary philosophy of language. It covers the whole tradition of Neoplatonic writing from Plotinus through Proclus to Damascius. Addressing the strain of mysticism in these works from a fresh (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Alan G. Gross (2010). Chaim Perelman. Southern Illinois University Press.score: 30.0
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Philip Windsor (ed.) (1990). Reason and History: Or Only a History of Reason. Leicester University Press.score: 30.0
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Anya Plutynski (2011). Four Problems of Abduction: A Brief History. HOPOS 1 (2):227-248.score: 27.0
    Debates concerning the character, scope, and warrant of abductive inference have been active since Peirce first proposed that there was a third form of inference, distinct from induction and deduction. Abductive reasoning has been dubbed weak, incoherent, and even nonexistent. Part, at least, of the problem of articulating a clear sense of abductive inference is due to difficulty in interpreting Peirce. Part of the fault must lie with his critics, however. While this article will argue that Peirce indeed left (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Constantine Sandis (2006). The Explanation of Action in History. Essays in Philosophy 7 (2):12.score: 27.0
    This paper focuses on two conflations which frequently appear within the philosophy of history and other fields concerned with action explanation. The first of these, which I call the Conflating View of Reasons, states that the reasons for which we perform actions are reasons why (those events which are) our actions occur. The second, more general conflation, which I call the Conflating View of Action Explanation, states that whatever explains why an agent performed a certain action explains why (that (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. D. Timothy Goering (2013). Concepts, History and the Game of Giving and Asking for Reasons: A Defense of Conceptual History. Journal of the Philosophy of History 7 (3):426-452.score: 27.0
  33. Richard James Blackburn (1990). The Vampire of Reason: An Essay in the Philosophy of History. Verso.score: 27.0
    Introduction The philosophy of history has come to be virtually expropriated by Marxism, contributing to the general disesteem in which the subject is now ...
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Anthony Gottlieb (2000). The Dream of Reason: A History of Western Philosophy From the Greeks to the Renaissance. W.W. Norton.score: 27.0
    Already a classic in its first year of publication, this landmark study of Western thought takes a fresh look at the writings of the great thinkers of classic philosophy and questions many pieces of conventional wisdom. The book invites comparison with Bertrand Russell's monumental History of Western Philosophy, "but Gottlieb's book is less idiosyncratic and based on more recent scholarship" (Colin McGinn, Los Angeles Times). A New York Times Notable Book, a Los Angeles Times Best Book, and a Times (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1975). Lectures on the Philosophy of World History: Introduction, Reason in History. Cambridge University Press.score: 27.0
    An English translation of Hegel's introduction to his lectures on the philosophy of history, based directly on the standard German edition by Johannes Hoffmeister, first published in 1955. The previous English translation, by J. Sibree, first appeared in 1857 and was based on the defective German edition of Karl Hegel, to which Hoffmeister's edition added a large amount of new material previously unknown to English readers, derived from earlier editors. In the introduction to his lectures, Hegel lays down the (...)
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. John Kemp (1964). Reason, Action, and Morality. New York, Humanities Press.score: 27.0
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Andrew Dobson (1993). Jean-Paul Sartre and the Politics of Reason: A Theory of History. Cambridge University Press.score: 25.0
    Andrew Dobson charts Sartre's transformation from novelist and apolitical philosopher of existentialism, before the Second World War, to a committed defender of Marxism and Marxist method after it. Examining Sartre's post-war work in detail, he shows how the biographies of Baudelaire, Genet and Flaubert, often considered tangential to his main oeuvres, are in fact central to this defence of Marxism, and should therefore be read as acts of political commitment. Andrew Dobson's study is new in its use of posthumous sources, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Jacob Neusner (1997). The Intellectual Foundations of Christian and Jewish Discourse: The Philosophy of Religious Argument. Routledge.score: 25.0
    The Intellectual Foundations of Christian and Jewish Discourse is a unique and controversial analysis of the genesis and evolution of Judeo-Christian intellectual thought. Jacob Neusner and Bruce Chilton argue that the Judaic and Christian heirs of Scripture adopted, and adapted to their own purposes, Greek philosophical modes of thought, argument and science. Intellectual Foundations of Christian and Jewish Discourse explores how the earliest intellectuals of Christianity and Judaism shaped a tradition of articulated conflict and reasoned argument in the search for (...)
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Jonathan St B. T. Evans (1998). Matching Bias in Conditional Reasoning: Do We Understand It After 25 Years? Thinking and Reasoning 4 (1):45 – 110.score: 24.0
    The phenomenon known as matching bias consists of a tendency to see cases as relevant in logical reasoning tasks when the lexical content of a case matches that of a propositional rule, normally a conditional, which applies to that case. Matching is demonstrated by use of the negations paradigm that is by using conditionals in which the presence and absence of negative components is systematically varied. The phenomenon was first published in 1972 and the present paper reviews the (...) of research and theorising on the problem in the subsequent 25 years. Theories of matching bias considered include those based on several broad frameworks including the heuristic-analytic theory, the mental models theory, the theory of optimal data selection, and relevance theory as well as the specific processing-negations account. The ability of these theories to account for a range of phenomena is considered, including the effects of linguistic form, realistic content, and explicit negation on the matching bias effect. Of particular importance are recent findings showing that the bias is observable on a wider range of linguistic forms than has generally been thought, and that it is almost entirely dependent on the use of implicit negation in the logical cases to which rules are applied. The reasons for the general suppression of matching when realistic content is used are, however, unclear and a need for further research is identified here. It is concluded that matching bias is a highly robust effect which is closely connected with the problem of understanding implicit negation. Most of the theories in the literature are unable to account for at least some of the major phenomena discovered in research on the bias. The accounts that fare best are those that posit local effects of negation, including the heuristic-analytic and processing negations theories. (shrink)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Simon Evnine (1993). Hume, Conjectural History, and the Uniformity of Human Nature. Journal of the History of Philosophy 31 (4):589-606.score: 24.0
    In this paper I argue that, in at least two cases - his discussions of the temporal precedence o f polytheism over monotheism and of the origins of civil society - we see Hume consigning to historical development certain aspects of reason which, as a comparison with Locke will show, have sometimes been held to be uniform. In the first of these cases Hume has recourse to claims about the general historical development of human thought. In the second case, the (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. H. Radder (1997). Philosophy and History of Science: Beyond the Kuhnian Paradigm. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 28 (4):633-655.score: 24.0
    At issue in this paper is the question of the appropriate relationship between the philosophy and history of science. The discussion starts with a brief sketch of Kuhn's approach, followed by an analysis of the so-called 'testing-theories-of-scientific-change programme'. This programme is an attempt at a more rigorous approach to the historical philosophy of science. Since my conclusion is that, by and large, this attempt has failed, I proceed to examine some more promising approaches. First, I deal with Hacking's recent (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. John H. Zammito (2008). Kant's "Naturalistic" History of Mankind? Some Reservations. Journal of the Philosophy of History 2 (1):29-62.score: 24.0
    Among many important claims, Allen Wood in Kant's Ethical ought proposes that Kant's philosophy of history can be grasped as a "naturalist" approach, grounding human nature in biology. I suggest some reservations. First, I question Kant's conception of biology as (a still emergent) science. Second, I question Kant's extension of his notion of "natural predisposition" to reason and freedom. Third, I question the naturalism of Kant's philosophy of history by suggesting the excessive role providence must play in Kant's (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Eric Schliesser (2012). Four Species of Reflexivity and History of Economics in Economic Policy Science. Journal of the Philosophy of History 5 (3):425-445.score: 24.0
    Abstract This paper argues that history of economics has a fruitful, underappreciated role to play in the development of economics, especially when understood as a policy science. This goes against the grain of the last half century during which economics, which has undergone a formal revolution, has distanced itself from its `literary' past and practices precisely with the aim to be a more successful policy science. The paper motivates the thesis by identifying and distinguishing four kinds of reflexivity in (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Anne Sealey (2011). The Strange Case of the Freudian Case History: The Role of Long Case Histories in the Development of Psychoanalysis. History of the Human Sciences 24 (1):36-50.score: 24.0
    Sigmund Freud’s five long case histories have been the focus of seemingly endless fascination and criticism. This article examines how the long case-history genre developed and its impact on the professionalization of psychoanalysis. It argues that the long case histories, using a distinctive form that highlighted the peculiarities of psychoanalytic theory, served as exemplars in the discipline. In doing so, the article extends John Forrester’s work on ‘thinking in cases’ to show the practical implications of that style of (...). The article illustrates how the form disappeared once the theoretical basis of the movement was set. The genre never became institutionalized, although the content of the five long case histories did, because of Freud’s accepted role as theoretician of psychoanalysis. (shrink)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. J. M. Kuukkanen (2009). Towards a Philosophy of the History of Thought? Journal of the Philosophy of History 3 (1):25-54.score: 24.0
    There are a large number of disciplines that are interested in the theoretical aspects of the history of thought. Their perspectives and subjects may vary, but fundamentally they have a common research interest: the history of human thinking and its products. Despite this, they are studied in relative isolation. I argue that having different subjects as specific objects of research, such as political or scientific thinking, is not a valid justification for the separation. I propose the formation of (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Ralph Hertwig Valerie M. Chase (1998). Many Reasons or Just One: How Response Mode Affects Reasoning in the Conjunction Problem. Thinking and Reasoning 4 (4):319 – 352.score: 24.0
    Forty years of experimentation on class inclusion and its probabilistic relatives have led to inconsistent results and conclusions about human reasoning. Recent research on the conjunction "fallacy" recapitulates this history. In contrast to previous results, we found that a majority of participants adhere to class inclusion in the classic Linda problem. We outline a theoretical framework that attributes the contradictory results to differences in statistical sophistication and to differences in response mode-whether participants are asked for probability estimates or (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Jouni-Matti Kuukkanen (2009). Towards a Philosophy of the History of Thought? Journal of the Philosophy of History 3 (1):25-54.score: 24.0
    There are a large number of disciplines that are interested in the theoretical aspects of the history of thought. Their perspectives and subjects may vary, but fundamentally they have a common research interest: the history of human thinking and its products. Despite this, they are studied in relative isolation. I argue that having different subjects as specific objects of research, such as political or scientific thinking, is not a valid justification for the separation. I propose the formation of (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Vincent Spade Paul (1982). Three Theories Ofobligationes:Burley, Kilvington and Swyneshed on Counterfactual Reasoning. History and Philosophy of Logic 3 (1):1-32.score: 24.0
    This paper defends the thesis that the mediaeval genre of logical treatises De obligatiombus contained a theoretical account of counterfacutal reasoning, perhaps the first such account in the history of philosophy. This interpretation helps to explain some of the theoretical disputes in the obligationes literature in the first half of the fourteenth century. Section 1 is introductory. Section 2 presents Walter Burley's theory, while section 3 argues for the counterfactual interpretation of obligationes and section 4 discusses difficulties with (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. M. Eulàlia Gassó Miracle (2008). The Significance of Temminck's Work on Biogeography: Early Nineteenth Century Natural History in Leiden, the Netherlands. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 41 (4):677 - 716.score: 24.0
    C. J. Temminck, director of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie (now the National Museum of Natural History in Leiden) and a renowned ornithologist, gained his contemporary's respect thanks to the description of many new species and to his detailed monographs on birds. He also published a small number of works on biogeography describing the fauna of the Dutch colonies in South East Asia and Japan. These works are remarkable for two reasons. First, in them Temminck accurately described the species (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 1000