Search results for 'Reasoning History' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  9
    Furio Di Paola (1988). Human-Oriented and Machine-Oriented Reasoning: Remarks on Some Problems in the History of Automated Theorem Proving. [REVIEW] AI and Society 2 (2):121-131.
    Examples in the history of Automated Theorem Proving are given, in order to show that even a seemingly ‘mechanical’ activity, such as deductive inference drawing, involves special cultural features and tacit knowledge. Mechanisation of reasoning is thus regarded as a complex undertaking in ‘cultural pruning’ of human-oriented reasoning. Sociological counterparts of this passage from human- to machine-oriented reasoning are discussed, by focusing on problems of man-machine interaction in the area of computer-assisted proof processing.
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  2.  3
    James Elwick (2012). Layered History: Styles of Reasoning as Stratified Conditions of Possibility. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (4):619-627.
    This paper depicts Ian Hacking’s ‘styles of reasoning’ as conditions of possibility. After distinguishing between possibilities and causes, it articulates the implicit stratigraphical metaphor used to describe the relationship between different conditions of possibility, with ‘lower’ layers being necessary for ‘higher’ ones. It notes the use of this stratigraphical metaphor in the work of multiple scholars in history and in science studies. The paper suggests three ways in which this model can be useful: clarifying the definition and use (...)
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  3.  6
    Albert R. Jonsen & Stephen Toulmin (1991). The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning. Philosophy and Rhetoric 24 (1):76-80.
    In this engaging study, the authors put casuistry into its historical context, tracing the origin of moral reasoning in antiquity, its peak during the sixteenth and early seventeenth century, and its subsequent fall into disrepute from the mid-seventeenth century.
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  4.  15
    Alasdair C. MacIntyre (1990). The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning. Journal of the History of Philosophy 28 (4):634-635.
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  5. W. Harper (1989). Consilience and Natural Kind Reasoning (in Newton's Argument for Universal Gravitation) in An Intimate Relation. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 116:115-152.
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  6.  31
    Tina Chanter (2000). The Trouble We (Feminists) Have Reasoning with Our Mothers: Penelope Deutscher, Yielding Gender: Feminism, Deconstruction, and the History of Philosophy. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 33 (4):487-497.
  7.  6
    Jeremy Athy, Jeff Friedrich & Eileen Delany (2008). Replication and Pedagogy in the History of Psychology VI: Egon Brunswik on Perception and Explicit Reasoning. Science and Education 17 (5):537-546.
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  8.  10
    Richard A. Talaska (1997). Philosophical Reasoning in Ethics and the Use of the History of Philosophy. Teaching Philosophy 20 (2):121-141.
    Successful critical thinking in ethics does not proceed directly to an evaluation of ethical phenomena, but rather necessitates the evaluation of one’s own ethical paradigm for truth. This requires the making explicit of one’s own ethical paradigm, something best achieved through a process of comparing and contrasting it with alternative ethical paradigms. This paper presents a pedagogical strategy for making explicit a very basic set of assumptions: those of the Western, liberal, individualist tradition. The author argues that Glaucon’s position in (...)
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  9.  4
    Carl Elliott (1992). The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning. Philosophical Books 33 (4):242-243.
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  10.  9
    B. Hoose (1991). The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning. Journal of Medical Ethics 17 (4):221-221.
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  11.  8
    Kenneth W. Kemp (1989). Book Review:The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning. Albert R. Jonsen, Stephen Toulmin. [REVIEW] Ethics 99 (4):945-.
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  12.  7
    Reviewed by J. Rosser Matthews (2000). Alain Desrosières, the Politics of Large Numbers: A History of Statistical Reasoning. Ethics 110 (2).
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  13.  6
    J. Rosser Matthews (2000). Alain Desrosieres, The Politics of Large Numbers: A History of Statistical Reasoning:The Politics of Large Numbers: A History of Statistical Reasoning. Ethics 110 (2):416-418.
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  14.  3
    Karl Galinsky (2009). Reception and History of Scholarship (K.) Riley The Reception and Performance of Euripides' Herakles: Reasoning Madness. (Oxford Classical Monographs). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Pp. X + 398. £65. 9780199534487. [REVIEW] Journal of Hellenic Studies 129:263-.
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  15. Oskar Becker (1963). "Hinweise auf": D. M. Armstrong, Berkeley's theory of vision; R. Bäumlin, Staat, Recht und Geschichte; G. Bauer, Geschichtlichkeit; D. Baumgardt, Great Western Mystics; W. Bröcker, Formale, transzendentale und spekulative Logik; L. J. Cohen, The diversity of meaning; Einsichten ; J. G. Fichte, Grundlage des Naturrechts; W. Flach, Zur Prinzipienlehre der Anschauung; P. W. Hanke, Kunst und Geist; H. Heimsoeth, Studien zur Philosophiegeschichte; History of political philosophy, ed. Leo Strauss; H. Kantorowicz, Rechtswissenschaft und Soziologie; F. Kümmel, Über den Begriff der Zeit; Logik und Logikkalkül; G. Martin, Gesammelte Abhandlungen I; H. Meyer, Systematische Philosophie; Th. Meyer, Platons Apologie; G. H. Müller, Das philosophische Werk Franz Kröners; J. Passmore, Philosophical Reasoning; H. Rombach, Die Gegenwart der Philosophie; U. Rusker, Nietzsche in der Hispania; W. Schulz, Das Problem der absoluten Reflexion. [REVIEW] Philosophische Rundschau 11:305-311.
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  16. Manfred Eppe & Mehul Bhatt (2015). A History Based Approximate Epistemic Action Theory for Efficient Postdictive Reasoning. Journal of Applied Logic 13 (4):720-769.
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  17. Paul J. Nahin (2001). A History of the Circle: Mathematical Reasoning and the Physical UniverseErnest Zebrowski, Jr. Isis 92 (1):130-130.
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  18. D. Pears & E. Ullmann-Margalit (1986). Practical Reasoning in The Prism of Science. The Israel Colloquium: Studies in History, Philosophy, and Sociology of Science. Vol. 2. [REVIEW] Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 95:93-111.
     
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  19.  17
    Roger Florka (2001). Descartes's Metaphysical Reasoning. Routledge.
    This study argues that Descartes's conception of rationality presupposes that the order of reasoning essentially obeys his metaphysical categories. It takes to the next level the current trend in de-emphasizing his purported epistemology in favor of his unique metaphysics of cognition.
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  20.  42
    Nicolas J. Bullot & Rolf Reber (2013). The Artful Mind Meets Art History: Toward a Psycho-Historical Framework for the Science of Art Appreciation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (2):123-180.
    Research seeking a scientific foundation for the theory of art appreciation has raised controversies at the intersection of the social and cognitive sciences. Though equally relevant to a scientific inquiry into art appreciation, psychological and historical approaches to art developed independently and lack a common core of theoretical principles. Historicists argue that psychological and brain sciences ignore the fact that artworks are artifacts produced and appreciated in the context of unique historical situations and artistic intentions. After revealing flaws in the (...)
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  21.  47
    Vihren Bouzov (2016). 20th-Century Bulgarian Philosophy of Law: From Critical Acceptance of Kant’s Ideas to the Logic of Legal Reasoning. In Enrico Pattaro & C. Roversi (eds.), A Treatise of Legal Philosophy and General Jurisprudence. V.12 (1), Legal Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: The Civil Law World. 681-690.
    My analysis here is an attempt to bring out the main through-line in the development of Bulgarian philosophy of law today. A proper account of Bulgarian philosophy of law in the 20th century requires an attempt to find, on the one hand, a solution to epistemological and methodological problems in law and, on the other, a clear-cut influence of the Kantian critical tradition. Bulgarian philosophy of law follows a complicated path, ranging from acceptance and revision of Kantian philosophy to the (...)
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  22.  15
    Michael A. Peters (2007). Kinds of Thinking, Styles of Reasoning. Educational Philosophy and Theory 39 (4):350–363.
    There is no more central issue to education than thinking and reasoning. Certainly, such an emphasis chimes with the rationalist and cognitive deep structure of the Western educational tradition. The contemporary tendency reinforced by cognitive science is to treat thinking ahistorically and aculturally as though physiology, brain structure and human evolution are all there is to say about thinking that is worthwhile or educationally significant. The movement of critical thinking also tends to treat thinking ahistorically, focusing on universal processes (...)
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  23. Rick Kennedy (2004). A History of Reasonableness: Testimony and Authority in the Art of Thinking. University of Rochester Press.
    The classical tradition of testimony in topics -- Three medieval traditions : Augustine, Boethius, and Cassiodoras -- Two renaissance traditions : Ciceronian and Augustinian -- The long influence of the port-royal logic -- Appreciating Aristotle : Thomists, Scots, and Oxford noetics -- Testimony becomes experience : the rise of critical thinking.
     
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  24.  14
    Yvonne Wübben (2013). Writing Cases and Casuistic Reasoning in Karl Philipp Moritz' Journal of Empirical Psychology. Early Science and Medicine 18 (4-5):471-486.
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  25. David L. Tresan (2004). This New Science of Ours: A More or Less Systematic History of Consciousness and Transcendence Part I. Journal of Analytical Psychology 49 (2):193-216.
     
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  26.  91
    Anya Plutynski (2011). Four Problems of Abduction: A Brief History. Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 1 (2):227-248.
    Debates concerning the character, scope, and warrant of abductive inference have been active since Peirce first proposed that there was a third form of inference, distinct from induction and deduction. Abductive reasoning has been dubbed weak, incoherent, and even nonexistent. Part, at least, of the problem of articulating a clear sense of abductive inference is due to difficulty in interpreting Peirce. Part of the fault must lie with his critics, however. While this article will argue that Peirce indeed left (...)
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  27.  30
    Tim De Mey (2005). Remodeling the Past. Foundations of Science 10 (1):47-66.
    In some of the papers in which she develops and defends the mental modelview of thought experiments in physics, Nersessian expresses the belief that her account has implications for thought experiments in other domains as well. In this paper, I argue, firstly, that counterfactual reasoning has a legitimate place in historical inquiry, and secondly, that the mental model view can account for such "alternative histories". I proceed as follows. Firstly, I review the main accounts of thought experiments in physics (...)
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  28.  18
    Luca Sciortino (2016). On Ian Hacking’s Notion of Style of Reasoning. Erkenntnis:1-22.
    The analytical notion of ‘scientific style of reasoning’, introduced by Ian Hacking in the middle of the 1980s, has become widespread in the literature of the history and philosophy of science. However, scholars have rarely made explicit the philosophical assumptions and the research objectives underlying the notion of style: what are its philosophical roots? How does the notion of style fit into the area of research of historical epistemology? What does a comparison between Hacking’s project on styles of (...)
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  29.  84
    John Corcoran (2014). Review of Macbeth, D. Diagrammatic Reasoning in Frege's Begriffsschrift. Synthese 186 (2012), No. 1, 289–314. Mathematical Reviews MR 2935338. MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS 2014:2935338.
    A Mathematical Review by John Corcoran, SUNY/Buffalo -/- Macbeth, Danielle Diagrammatic reasoning in Frege's Begriffsschrift. Synthese 186 (2012), no. 1, 289–314. ABSTRACT This review begins with two quotations from the paper: its abstract and the first paragraph of the conclusion. The point of the quotations is to make clear by the “give-them-enough-rope” strategy how murky, incompetent, and badly written the paper is. I know I am asking a lot, but I have to ask you to read the quoted passages—aloud (...)
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  30.  41
    Peter Dear (2006). The Intelligibility of Nature: How Science Makes Sense of the World. University of Chicago Press.
    Throughout the history of the Western world, science has possessed an extraordinary amount of authority and prestige. And while its pedestal has been jostled by numerous evolutions and revolutions, science has always managed to maintain its stronghold as the knowing enterprise that explains how the natural world works: we treat such legendary scientists as Galileo, Newton, Darwin, and Einstein with admiration and reverence because they offer profound and sustaining insight into the meaning of the universe. In The Intelligibility of (...)
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  31.  56
    Neil Granitz & Dana Loewy (2007). Applying Ethical Theories: Interpreting and Responding to Student Plagiarism. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 72 (3):293 - 306.
    Given the tremendous proliferation of student plagiarism involving the Internet, the purpose of this study is to determine which theory of ethical reasoning students invoke when defending their transgressions: deontology, utilitarianism, rational self-interest, Machiavellianism, cultural relativism, or situational ethics. Understanding which theory of ethical reasoning students employ is critical, as preemptive steps can be taken by faculty to counteract this reasoning and prevent plagiarism. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that unethical behavior in school can lead to unethical (...)
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  32.  8
    Marc Depaepe (2007). Philosophy and History of Education: Time to Bridge the Gap? Educational Philosophy and Theory 39 (1):28–43.
    In this article, the relationship between philosophy and history of education is delved into. First, it is noted that both disciplines have diverged from each other over the last few decades to become relatively autonomous subsectors within the pedagogical sciences, each with its own discourses, its own expositional characteristics, its own channels of communication, and its own networks. From the perspective of the history of education, it seems as though more affiliation has been sought with the science of (...)
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  33.  7
    Robert J. O'Hara (2006). Essay-Review of Christian's 'Maps of Time: An Introduction to Big History'. [REVIEW] International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 20 (1): 117–120.
    This well-written volume is an introduction, not to world history, but to the special genre of "Big History," as the subtitle indicates. Christian and his fellow big historians, reacting against popular scepticism toward "master narratives," seek to create a new class of grand works that incorporate not only the history of human society, but also of the Earth, its life, and the universe as a whole. Specialists in any of the fields covered by the volume may find (...)
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  34. Iwao Hirose & Andrew Reisner (eds.) (2015). Weighing and Reasoning: Themes From the Philosophy of John Broome. Oxford University Press Uk.
    John Broome has made major contributions to, and radical innovations in, contemporary moral philosophy. His research combines the formal method of economics with the philosophical analysis. Broome's works stretch over formal axiology, decision theory, philosophy of economics, population axiology, the value of life, the ethics of climate change, the nature of rationality, and practical and theoretical reasoning. Weighing and Reasoning brings together fifteen original essays from leading philosophers who have been influenced by the work and thought of John (...)
     
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  35. Alan G. Gross (2010). Chaim Perelman. Southern Illinois University Press.
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  36.  44
    Jonathan St B. T. Evans (1998). Matching Bias in Conditional Reasoning: Do We Understand It After 25 Years? Thinking and Reasoning 4 (1):45 – 110.
    The phenomenon known as matching bias consists of a tendency to see cases as relevant in logical reasoning tasks when the lexical content of a case matches that of a propositional rule, normally a conditional, which applies to that case. Matching is demonstrated by use of the negations paradigm that is by using conditionals in which the presence and absence of negative components is systematically varied. The phenomenon was first published in 1972 and the present paper reviews the (...) of research and theorising on the problem in the subsequent 25 years. Theories of matching bias considered include those based on several broad frameworks including the heuristic-analytic theory, the mental models theory, the theory of optimal data selection, and relevance theory as well as the specific processing-negations account. The ability of these theories to account for a range of phenomena is considered, including the effects of linguistic form, realistic content, and explicit negation on the matching bias effect. Of particular importance are recent findings showing that the bias is observable on a wider range of linguistic forms than has generally been thought, and that it is almost entirely dependent on the use of implicit negation in the logical cases to which rules are applied. The reasons for the general suppression of matching when realistic content is used are, however, unclear and a need for further research is identified here. It is concluded that matching bias is a highly robust effect which is closely connected with the problem of understanding implicit negation. Most of the theories in the literature are unable to account for at least some of the major phenomena discovered in research on the bias. The accounts that fare best are those that posit local effects of negation, including the heuristic-analytic and processing negations theories. (shrink)
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  37.  23
    Johannes Bulhof (1999). What If? Modality and History. History and Theory 38 (2):145–168.
    Philosophers and historians have long been suspicious of modal and counterfactual claims. I argue, however, that historians often legitimately use modal and counterfactual claims for a variety of purposes. They help identify causes, and hence help explain events in history. They are used to defend judgments about people, and to highlight the importance of particular events. I defend these uses of modal claims against two arguments often used to criticize modal reasoning, using the philosophy of science to ground (...)
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  38.  14
    Anne Sealey (2011). The Strange Case of the Freudian Case History: The Role of Long Case Histories in the Development of Psychoanalysis. History of the Human Sciences 24 (1):36-50.
    Sigmund Freud’s five long case histories have been the focus of seemingly endless fascination and criticism. This article examines how the long case-history genre developed and its impact on the professionalization of psychoanalysis. It argues that the long case histories, using a distinctive form that highlighted the peculiarities of psychoanalytic theory, served as exemplars in the discipline. In doing so, the article extends John Forrester’s work on ‘thinking in cases’ to show the practical implications of that style of (...). The article illustrates how the form disappeared once the theoretical basis of the movement was set. The genre never became institutionalized, although the content of the five long case histories did, because of Freud’s accepted role as theoretician of psychoanalysis. (shrink)
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  39.  39
    H. Radder (1997). Philosophy and History of Science: Beyond the Kuhnian Paradigm. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 28 (4):633-655.
    At issue in this paper is the question of the appropriate relationship between the philosophy and history of science. The discussion starts with a brief sketch of Kuhn's approach, followed by an analysis of the so-called 'testing-theories-of-scientific-change programme'. This programme is an attempt at a more rigorous approach to the historical philosophy of science. Since my conclusion is that, by and large, this attempt has failed, I proceed to examine some more promising approaches. First, I deal with Hacking's recent (...)
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  40.  69
    Tim De Mey & Erik Weber (2003). Explanation and Thought Experiments in History. History and Theory 42 (1):28–38.
    Although interest in them is clearly growing, most professional historians do not accept thought experiments as appropriate tools. Advocates of the deliberate use of thought experiments in history argue that without counterfactuals, causal attributions in history do not make sense. Whereas such arguments play upon the meaning of causation in history, this article focuses on the reasoning processes by which historians arrive at causal explanations. First, we discuss the roles thought experiments play in arriving at explanations (...)
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  41.  2
    Tim De Mey & Erik Weber (2003). Explanation And Thought Experiments In History. History and Theory 42 (1):28-38.
    Although interest in them is clearly growing, most professional historians do not accept thought experiments as appropriate tools. Advocates of the deliberate use of thought experiments in history argue that without counterfactuals, causal attributions in history do not make sense. Whereas such arguments play upon the meaning of causation in history, this article focuses on the reasoning processes by which historians arrive at causal explanations. First, we discuss the roles thought experiments play in arriving at explanations (...)
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  42.  26
    Thomas Williams (1997). History and Philosophy of Logic 18 (1997): 55-59. Review of T.J. Holopainen, Dialectic & Theology in the Eleventh Century . Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1996. History and Philosophy of Logic 1997:55-59.
    A venerable story in the history of medieval philosophy has it that the eleventh century saw a debate between certain 'dialecticians', who exalted the role of reason and disdained theological authority, and 'anti-dialecticians', who carefully limited—or even rejected—the application of dialectical reasoning to Christian doctrine. A number of authors have called into question certain details of this story, but in..
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  43.  21
    Ralph Hertwig Valerie M. Chase (1998). Many Reasons or Just One: How Response Mode Affects Reasoning in the Conjunction Problem. Thinking and Reasoning 4 (4):319 – 352.
    Forty years of experimentation on class inclusion and its probabilistic relatives have led to inconsistent results and conclusions about human reasoning. Recent research on the conjunction "fallacy" recapitulates this history. In contrast to previous results, we found that a majority of participants adhere to class inclusion in the classic Linda problem. We outline a theoretical framework that attributes the contradictory results to differences in statistical sophistication and to differences in response mode-whether participants are asked for probability estimates or (...)
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  44.  7
    Donald Mccloskey (1991). History, Differential Equations, and the Problem of Narration. History and Theory 30 (1):21-36.
    There is a similarity between the most technical scientific reasoning and the most humanistic literary reasoning. While engineers and historians make use of both metaphors and stories, engineers specialize in metaphors, and historians in stories. Placing metaphor, or pure comparison, at one end of a scale and simply a listing of events, or pure story, at the other, it can be seen that what connects them is a theme. The theme providing the connecting link between poles for both (...)
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  45.  4
    Fritz Ringer (1989). Causal Analysis in Historical Reasoning. History and Theory 28 (2):154-172.
    Contemporary analytical philosophy has not provided historians with an adequate account of their causal reasoning. Attempts to apply the laws of scientific explanation to history have occasioned an artificial split between historical interpretation and historical explanation. The lawlike generalizations of the natural sciences are both perfectly universal and perfectly delimited, whereas the typical generalizations of the historian are imperfectly universal and imperfectly delimited. In historical analysis, a particular development is hypothetically posited as the ordinary course of events, or (...)
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  46.  8
    Vincent Spade Paul (1982). Three Theories of Obligationes: Burley, Kilvington and Swyneshed on Counterfactual Reasoning. History and Philosophy of Logic 3 (1):1-32.
    This paper defends the thesis that the mediaeval genre of logical treatises De obligatiombus contained a theoretical account of counterfacutal reasoning, perhaps the first such account in the history of philosophy. This interpretation helps to explain some of the theoretical disputes in the obligationes literature in the first half of the fourteenth century. Section 1 is introductory. Section 2 presents Walter Burley's theory, while section 3 argues for the counterfactual interpretation of obligationes and section 4 discusses difficulties with (...)
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  47.  15
    Sara Ahbel-Rappe (1999). Reading Neoplatonism: Non-Discursive Thinking in the Texts of Plotinus, Proclus, and Damascius. Cambridge University Press.
    Neoplatonism is a term used to designate the form of Platonic philosophy that developed in the Roman Empire from the third to the fifth century AD and that based itself on the corpus of Plato's dialogues. Sara Rappe's challenging and innovative study is the first book to analyse Neoplatonic texts themselves using contemporary philosophy of language. It covers the whole tradition of Neoplatonic writing from Plotinus through Proclus to Damascius. Addressing the strain of mysticism in these works from a fresh (...)
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  48. Peter Ochs (2002). Behind the Mechitsa: Reflections on The Rules of Textual Reasoning. Journal of Textual Reasoning 1 (1).
    After twelve years of productive work, the Society for Textual Reasoning has reason to reflect on the rules of reasoning it has nurtured and tested but has not yet adopted, self-consciously, as the rules of its textual reasoning . This essay illustrates some ways of reflecting on these rules. The first section of the essay presents a brief history of STR. The following section, the focal section of the essay, illustrates the rules of TR as displayed (...)
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  49.  10
    Cristina Moya, Robert Boyd & Joseph Henrich (2015). Reasoning About Cultural and Genetic Transmission: Developmental and Cross‐Cultural Evidence From Peru, Fiji, and the United States on How People Make Inferences About Trait Transmission. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (4):595-610.
    Using samples from three diverse populations, we test evolutionary hypotheses regarding how people reason about the inheritance of various traits. First, we provide a framework for differentiat-ing the outputs of mechanisms that evolved for reasoning about variation within and between biological taxa and culturally evolved ethnic categories from a broader set of beliefs and categories that are the outputs of structured learning mechanisms. Second, we describe the results of a modified “switched-at-birth” vignette study that we administered among children and (...)
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  50.  17
    Margaret Boden (2006). Mind as Machine: A History of Cognitive Science. OUP Oxford.
    The development of cognitive science is one of the most remarkable and fascinating intellectual achievements of the modern era. The quest to understand the mind is as old as recorded human thought; but the progress of modern science has offered new methods and techniques which have revolutionized this enquiry. Oxford University Press now presents a masterful history of cognitive science, told by one of its most eminent practitioners. -/- Cognitive science is the project of understanding the mind by modelling (...)
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