Search results for 'Reflection' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Melissa McBay Merritt (2009). Reflection, Enlightenment, and the Significance of Spontaneity in Kant. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 17 (5):981-1010.score: 18.0
    Existing interpretations of Kant’s appeal to the spontaneity of the mind focus almost exclusively on the discussion of pure apperception in the Transcendental Deduction. The risk of such a strategy lies in the considerable degree of abstraction at which the argument of the Deduction is carried out: existing interpretations fail to reconnect adequately with any ground-level perspective on our cognitive lives. This paper works in the opposite direction. Drawing on Kant’s suggestion that the most basic picture we can have of (...)
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  2. Jennifer Nagel (2014). Intuition, Reflection, and the Command of Knowledge. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 88 (1):219-241.score: 18.0
    Action is not always guided by conscious deliberation; in many circumstances, we act intuitively rather than reflectively. Tamar Gendler (2014) contends that because intuitively guided action can lead us away from our reflective commitments, it limits the power of knowledge to guide action. While I agree that intuition can diverge from reflection, I argue that this divergence does not constitute a restriction on the power of knowledge. After explaining my view of the contrast between intuitive and reflective thinking, this (...)
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  3. Anne-Marie Christensen (2011). 'A Glorious Sun and a Bad Person'. Wittgenstein, Ethical Reflection and the Other. Philosophia 39 (2):207-223.score: 18.0
    Most commentators working on Wittgenstein’s remarks on ethics note that he rejects the very possibility of traditional normative ethics, that is, a philosophically justified normative guide for right conduct. In this article, Wittgenstein’s view of ethical reflection as presented in his notebooks from 1936 to 1938 is investigated, and the question of whether it involves ethical guidance is addressed. In Wittgenstein’s remarks, we can identify three requirements inherent in ethical reflection. The first two is revealed in the realisation (...)
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  4. Catriona Mackenzie (2002). Critical Reflection, Self-Knowledge, and the Emotions. Philosophical Explorations 5 (3):186-206.score: 18.0
    Drawing on recent cognitive theories of the emotions, this article develops an account of critical reflection as requiring emotional flexibility and involving the ability to envisage alternative reasons for action. The focus on the role of emotions in critical reflection, and in agents' resistance to reflection, suggests the need to move beyond an introspective to a more social and relational conception of the process of reflection. It also casts new light on the intractable problem of explaining (...)
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  5. Karsten Jensen, Ellen-Marie Forsberg, Christian Gamborg, Kate Millar & Peter Sandøe (2011). Facilitating Ethical Reflection Among Scientists Using the Ethical Matrix. Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (3):425-445.score: 18.0
    Several studies have indicated that scientists are likely to have an outlook on both facts and values that are different to that of lay people in important ways. This is one significant reason it is currently believed that in order for scientists to exercise a reliable ethical reflection about their research it is necessary for them to engage in dialogue with other stakeholders. This paper reports on an exercise to encourage a group of scientists to reflect on ethical issues (...)
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  6. Simon J. Evnine (2007). Personhood and Future Belief: Two Arguments for Something Like Reflection. Erkenntnis 67 (1):91 - 110.score: 18.0
    This paper offers two new arguments for a version of Reflection, the principle that says, roughly, that if one knew now what one would believe in the future, one ought to believe it now. The most prominent existing argument for the principle is the coherence-based Dutch Strategy argument advanced by Bas van Fraassen (and others). My two arguments are quite different. The first is a truth-based argument. On the basis of two substantive premises, that people’s beliefs generally get better (...)
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  7. Peter Sandøe (2011). Facilitating Ethical Reflection Among Scientists Using the Ethical Matrix. Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (3):425-445.score: 18.0
    Several studies have indicated that scientists are likely to have an outlook on both facts and values that are different to that of lay people in important ways. This is one significant reason it is currently believed that in order for scientists to exercise a reliable ethical reflection about their research it is necessary for them to engage in dialogue with other stakeholders. This paper reports on an exercise to encourage a group of scientists to reflect on ethical issues (...)
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  8. Brian Kierland, Bradley Monton & Samuel Ruhmkorff (2008). Avoiding Certain Frustration, Reflection, and the Cable Guy Paradox. Philosophical Studies 138 (3):317 - 333.score: 18.0
    We discuss the cable guy paradox, both as an object of interest in its own right and as something which can be used to illuminate certain issues in the theories of rational choice and belief. We argue that a crucial principle—The Avoid Certain Frustration (ACF) principle—which is used in stating the paradox is false, thus resolving the paradox. We also explain how the paradox gives us new insight into issues related to the Reflection principle. Our general thesis is that (...)
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  9. Adam Elga (2013). The Puzzle of the Unmarked Clock and the New Rational Reflection Principle. Philosophical Studies 164 (1):127-139.score: 18.0
    The “puzzle of the unmarked clock” derives from a conflict between the following: (1) a plausible principle of epistemic modesty, and (2) “Rational Reflection”, a principle saying how one’s beliefs about what it is rational to believe constrain the rest of one’s beliefs. An independently motivated improvement to Rational Reflection preserves its spirit while resolving the conflict.
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  10. Paul Cruysberghs, Johan Taels & Karl Verstrynge (eds.) (2003). Immediacy and Reflection in Kierkegaard's Thought. Leuven University Press.score: 18.0
    Kierkegaard and the Role of Reflection in Second Immediacy Merold WESTPHAL 159 Demons and the Demonic: Kierkegaard and Heidegger on Anxiety and Sexual ...
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  11. Paul McIntosh (2010). Action Research and Reflective Practice: Creative and Visual Methods to Facilitate Reflection and Learning. Routledge.score: 18.0
    The tension in evidence-based practice and reflective practice -- The relationship between reflection and action research -- An overview of theories of consciousness and unconsciousness -- What do we mean by creativity? -- Using metaphor and symbolism as analysis -- Infinite possibilities of knowing and transformation -- Concluding thoughts; the linkages to action research and critical creativity.
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  12. Jane Sumner (2010). Reflection and Moral Maturity in a Nurse's Caring Practice: A Critical Perspective. Nursing Philosophy 11 (3):159-169.score: 18.0
    The likelihood of nurse reflection is examined from the theoretical perspectives of Habermas' Theory of Communicative Action and Moral Action and Sumner's Moral Construct of Caring in Nursing as Communicative Action, through a critical social theory lens. The argument is made that until the nurse reaches the developmental level of post-conventional moral maturity and/or Benner's Stage 5: expert, he or she is not capable of being inwardly directed reflective on self. The three developmental levels of moral maturity and Benner's (...)
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  13. Stephanie Beardman (2013). A Non-Factualist Defense of the Reflection Principle. Synthese 190 (15):2981-2999.score: 18.0
    Are there plausible synchronic constraints on how a subject thinks of herself extended over time? At first glance, Bas van Fraassen’s principle of Reflection seems to prescribe the sort of epistemic authority one’s future self should be taken by one to have over one’s current epistemic states. (The gist of this principle is that I should now believe what I’m convinced I will believe tomorrow.) There has been a general consensus that, as a principle concerning epistemic authority, Reflection (...)
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  14. Jan Bengtsson (2003). Possibilities and Limits of Self-Reflection in the Teaching Profession. Studies in Philosophy and Education 22 (3/4):295-316.score: 18.0
    Reflection seems today to be highest fashion ineducation, especially in discussions aboutteacher education and the teaching profession.This has created the paradoxical situation that reflection is often used in an unreflectedmanner. Furthermore, this discovery ofreflection is not supported by earlierresearch. In philosophy, however, reflectionhas always played a central role.
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  15. David Denton (2011). Reflection and Learning: Characteristics, Obstacles, and Implications. Educational Philosophy and Theory 43 (8):838-852.score: 18.0
    Reflection represents an important form of human thought; from ancient to modern times, the human capacity for reflective thinking has held the imagination of various philosophers and educational theorists. Despite this interest, researchers define reflection in different ways. One of the purposes of this article is to explore the activity of reflection by examining characteristics and contextual factors associated with it. For this purpose, various philosophical and theoretical sources are considered including Socrates, Rousseau, and Bruner, among others. (...)
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  16. Ilho Park (2012). Rescuing Reflection. Philosophy of Science 79 (4):473-489.score: 18.0
    In this article, I suggest an argument that seems to show a conflict between the reflection principle and conditionalization. In particular, I show that when the reflection principle is formulated in a standard way, the principle conflicts with Jeffrey conditionalization. And it is argued that the source of the conflict resides in an ambiguity of the standard formulation. Furthermore, I attempt to rescue the principle using Bayes factors. That is, I suggest a new formulation of the principle so (...)
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  17. Hanne Jacobs (2013). Phenomenology as a Way of Life? Husserl on Phenomenological Reflection and Self-Transformation. Continental Philosophy Review 46 (3):349-369.score: 18.0
    In this article I consider whether and how Husserl’s transcendental phenomenological method can initiate a phenomenological way of life. The impetus for this investigation originates in a set of manuscripts written in 1926 (published in Zur phänomenologischen Reduktion) where Husserl suggests that the consistent commitment to and performance of phenomenological reflection can change one’s life to the point where a simple return to the life lived before this reflection is no longer possible. Husserl identifies this point of no (...)
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  18. Peter Schroeder-Heister (2007). Generalized Definitional Reflection and the Inversion Principle. Logica Universalis 1 (2):355-376.score: 18.0
    . The term inversion principle goes back to Lorenzen who coined it in the early 1950s. It was later used by Prawitz and others to describe the symmetric relationship between introduction and elimination inferences in natural deduction, sometimes also called harmony. In dealing with the invertibility of rules of an arbitrary atomic production system, Lorenzen’s inversion principle has a much wider range than Prawitz’s adaptation to natural deduction. It is closely related to definitional reflection, which is a principle for (...)
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  19. Melissa Zinkin (2012). Kant and the Pleasure of “Mere Reflection”. Inquiry 55 (5):433-453.score: 18.0
    Abstract In the Critique of the Power of Judgment, Kant refers to the pleasure that we feel when judging that an object is beautiful as the pleasure of ?mere reflection?. Yet Kant never makes explicit what exactly is the relationship between the activity of ?mere reflection? and the feeling of pleasure. I discuss several contemporary accounts of the pleasure of taste and argue that none of them is fully accurate, since, in each case, they leave open the possibility (...)
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  20. Michael Behnam & Andreas Rasche (2009). 'Are Strategists From Mars and Ethicists From Venus?' – Strategizing as Ethical Reflection. Journal of Business Ethics 84 (1):79 - 88.score: 18.0
    Early strategy scholars have pointed to the importance of reflecting on moral issues within the scope of strategic management. Although strategy content and context have been discussed in relation to ethical reflection, the third aspect, strategy process, has found only little or no attention with regard to ethics. We argue that by emphasizing the process perspective one can understand the related character of strategic management and ethical reflection. We discuss this relatedness along formal, functional, and procedural similarities. Whereas (...)
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  21. Adrian Ratkic (2013). Images of Reflection: On the Meanings of the Word Reflection in Different Learning Contexts. [REVIEW] AI and Society 28 (3):339-349.score: 18.0
    Reflection is today a watchword in many learning contexts. Experience is said to be transformed to knowledge when we reflect on it, university students are expected to acquire the ability to reflect critically, and we want practitioners to be reflective practitioners in order to improve their professional practice. If we consider what people mean when they talk about reflection in practice, we will discover that they often mean different things. Moreover, their conceptions of reflection are guided by (...)
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  22. Simon J. Evnine (2005). Containing Multitudes: Reflection, Expertise and Persons as Groups. Episteme 2 (1):57-64.score: 18.0
    The thesis of the paper is that persons are similar to a kind of group: multiple-expert epistemic unities (MEUs). MEUs are groups in which there are multiple experts on whom other members of the group model their opinion. An example would be a group of children playing Telephone. Any child nearer the source is an 'expert' for any child further away. I argue that, with certain important qualifications, it is both rational and necessary for persons to treat their future selves (...)
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  23. Janez Krek (forthcoming). Two Principles of Early Moral Education: A Condition for the Law, Reflection and Autonomy. Studies in Philosophy and Education:1-21.score: 18.0
    We establish the thesis that in moral education, particularly in the first years of the child’s development, unreflexive acts or unreflexiveness in certain behaviours of adults is a condition for the development of the personality structure and virtues that enable autonomous ethical reflection and a relation to the Other. With the notion of unreflexiveness we refer to resolvedness in the response of adults when it is necessary to establish a limit, or cut, in the child’s demand for pleasure, as (...)
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  24. Wenjing Cai (2013). Reflection and Text: Revisiting the Relation Between Pre-Reflective and Reflective Experience. [REVIEW] Human Studies 36 (3):339-355.score: 18.0
    The paper presents the prevailing understanding of pre-reflective and reflective experience as a “data-description model”. According to this model, pre-reflective experience is the original datum, the meaning of which is fully determined in the very beginning, whereas reflection is a secondary layer that purports to recover faithfully the meaning of the pre-reflective. The paper spells out the difficulty of this model by looking into the scepticism on reflection. Despite its contribution to explicating the basic level of human consciousness, (...)
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  25. Manel Baucells & Antonio Villasís (2010). Stability of Risk Preferences and the Reflection Effect of Prospect Theory. Theory and Decision 68 (1-2):193-211.score: 18.0
    Are risk preferences stable over time? To address this question we elicit risk preferences from the same pool of subjects at two different moments in time. To interpret the results, we use a Fechner stochastic choice model in which the revealed preference of individuals is governed by some underlying preference, together with a random error. We take cumulative prospect theory as the underlying preference model (Kahneman and Tversky, Econometrica 47:263–292, 1979; Tversky and Kahneman, Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 5:297–323, 1992). (...)
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  26. Ilan Gu-Ze'ev, Jan Masschelein & Nigel Blake (2001). Reflectivity, Reflection, and Counter-Education. Studies in Philosophy and Education 20 (2):93-106.score: 18.0
    This article sets forward a new concept of reflection, to be contrasted with more usual reading of the concept for which we use the term `reflectivity'. The contrast is related to a distinction between normalizing education and counter-education. We claim that within the framework of normalizing education there is no room for reflection, but only for reflectivity. In contrast to reflectivity, reflection manifests a struggle of the subject against the effects of power which govern the constitution of (...)
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  27. Thomas Jech & Jiří Witzany (1994). Full Reflection at a Measurable Cardinal. Journal of Symbolic Logic 59 (2):615-630.score: 18.0
    A stationary subset S of a regular uncountable cardinal κ reflects fully at regular cardinals if for every stationary set $T \subseteq \kappa$ of higher order consisting of regular cardinals there exists an α ∈ T such that S ∩ α is a stationary subset of α. Full Reflection states that every stationary set reflects fully at regular cardinals. We will prove that under a slightly weaker assumption than κ having the Mitchell order κ++ it is consistent that Full (...)
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  28. Hiroshi Sakai (2008). Semistationary and Stationary Reflection. Journal of Symbolic Logic 73 (1):181-192.score: 18.0
    We study the relationship between the semistationary reflection principle and stationary reflection principles. We show that for all regular cardinals Λ ≥ ω₂ the semistationary reflection principle in the space [Λ](1) implies that every stationary subset of $E_{\omega}^{\lambda}\coloneq \{\alpha \in \lambda \,|\,{\rm cf}(\alpha)=\omega \}$ reflects. We also show that for all cardinals Λ ≥ ω₃ the semistationary reflection principle in [Λ](1) does not imply the stationary reflection principle in [Λ](1).
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  29. Marianne Benard & Tjard de Cock Buning (2013). Exploring the Potential of Dutch Pig Farmers and Urban-Citizens to Learn Through Frame Reflection. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (5):1015-1036.score: 18.0
    The Dutch pig husbandry has become a topic of public debate. One underlying cause is that pig farmers and urban-citizens have different perspectives and underlying norms, values and truths on pig husbandry and animal welfare. One way of dealing with such conflicts involves a learning process in which a shared vision is developed. A prerequisite for this process is that both parties become aware of their own fixed patterns of thoughts, actions, and blind spots. Therefore, we conducted five homogeneous focus (...)
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  30. James Cummings & Dorshka Wylie (2010). More on Full Reflection Below {Aleph_omega}. Archive for Mathematical Logic 49 (6):659-671.score: 18.0
    Jech and Shelah in J Symb Log, 55, 822–830 (1990) studied full reflection below ${\aleph_\omega}$ , and produced a model in which the extent of full reflection is maximal in a certain sense. We produce a model in which full reflection is maximised in a different direction.
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  31. Hilary Kornblith (2012). On Reflection. Oup Oxford.score: 18.0
    Hilary Kornblith presents a new account of mental reflection, and its importance for knowledge, reasoning, freedom, and normativity. He argues that reflection cannot solve the philosophical problems it has traditionally been thought to, and offers a more realistic, demystified view of its nature which draws on dual process approaches to cognition.
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  32. Jane Krishnadas (2007). Identities in Reconstruction: From Rights of Recognition to Reflection in Post-Disaster Reconstruction Processes. [REVIEW] Feminist Legal Studies 15 (2):137-165.score: 18.0
    This article examines the role of rights in both governing and shaping women’s relationship with the reconstruction process and their position in the reconstructed society. Through four years of empirical research in the post-earthquake reconstruction process in Maharashtra, India, this article focuses upon how women’s rights in social reconstruction are contingent upon processes of recognition. From the United Nations to local women’s organising, the article considers how women’s rights to “determine the pattern of their lives and the future of society” (...)
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  33. Kaye Shumack (2010). The Conversational Self: Structured Reflection Using Journal Writings. Journal of Research Practice 6 (2):Article M17.score: 18.0
    This article presents an approach for structured reflection by a designer through journal writing. The journal writing situates the agency of the designer, using a range of internal conversations as a way to expand horizons and perspectives. Through a structured approach using journal entries, experiences of the design process are introduced as reflective internal talkback. In the approach that is described, decision points and perspectives are negotiated and potentially contested through a series of voices of self as I, Me, (...)
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  34. Jiří Witzany (1995). Possible Behaviours of the Reflection Ordering of Stationary Sets. Journal of Symbolic Logic 60 (2):534-547.score: 18.0
    If S, T are stationary subsets of a regular uncountable cardinal κ, we say that S reflects fully in $T, S , if for almost all α ∈ T (except a nonstationary set) S ∩ α is stationary in α. This relation is known to be a well-founded partial ordering. We say that a given poset P is realized by the reflection ordering if there is a maximal antichain $\langle X_p; p \in P\rangle$ of stationary subsets of $\operatorname{Reg}(\kappa)$ so (...)
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  35. William Ransome (2009). Moral Reflection. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 18.0
    This exploration of virtue ethics offers an original theory in moral philosophy, identifying a 'moral reflection' as a virtue that has not yet been considered properly by philosophers. The author argues that taking our moral lives seriously must involve some reflection on our moral past.
     
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  36. Michael J. Shaffer (2014). Reflection, Conditionalization and Indeterminacy About the Future. The Reasoner 8:65-66.score: 18.0
    This paper shows that any view of future contingent claims that treats such claims as having indeterminate truth values or as simply being false implies probabilistic irrationality. This is because such views of the future imply violations of reflection, special reflection and conditionalization.
     
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  37. Claudia Blöser, Aron Schöpf & Marcus Willaschek (2010). Autonomy, Experience, and Reflection. On a Neglected Aspect of Personal Autonomy. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (3):239 - 253.score: 16.0
    The aim of this paper is to suggest that a necessary condition of autonomy has not been sufficiently recognized in the literature: the capacity to critically reflect on one’s practical attitudes (desires, preferences, values, etc.) in the light of new experiences . It will be argued that most prominent accounts of autonomy—ahistorical as well as history-sensitive—have either altogether failed to recognize this condition or at least failed to give an explicit account of it.
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  38. Peter Roberts (2008). Bridging Literary and Philosophical Genres: Judgement, Reflection and Education in Camus'the Fall. Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (7):873-887.score: 16.0
    Both literature and philosophy, as genres of writing, can enable us to address important ontological, epistemological and ethical questions. One author who makes it possible for readers to bridge these two genres is Albert Camus. Nowhere is this more evident than in Camus' short novel, The Fall. The Fall, through the character and words of Jean-Baptiste Clamence, prompts readers to reflect deeply on themselves, their motivations and commitments, and their relations with others. This paper discusses the origin and structure of (...)
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  39. Douglas Hedley (2012). Forms of Reflection, Imagination, and the Love of Wisdom. Metaphilosophy 43 (1-2):112-124.score: 16.0
    This article reflects upon the relationship between philosophy and theology. It further considers the persisting relevance of the specifically Hellenic inheritance of philosophy as contemplation and the Delphic exhortation, “Know thyself!” It concludes with reflections upon the role of imagination in relation to the philosophical idea of God as the supreme and transcendent causal principle of the physical cosmos.
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  40. Zhongjiang Wang (2011). Ultimate Concern, Reflection of Civilization, and the Idea of “Man” in Yin Haiguang. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (4):565-584.score: 16.0
    Yin Haiguang’s investigation and pursuit of the idea of “Man” reflect not merely a limited historical or parochial academic interest, but indeed address an ultimate concern of humanity which transcends any spatio-temporal limitations. In criticizing “modern man” for its faceless and non-self-identical figure, Yin Haiguang brings the conditions, purposes and noble values of humanity to light. His work has extraordinary significance for the highest aims of humanity and civilization.
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  41. John Cowan (2006). On Becoming an Innovative University Teacher: Reflection in Action. Society for Research Into Higher Education & Open University Press.score: 16.0
    "This is one of the most interesting texts I have read for many years ... It is authoritative and clearly written. It provides a rich set of examples of teaching, and a reflective discourse." Professor George Brown "...succeeds in inspiring the reader by making the process of reflective learning interesting and thought provoking ... has a narrative drive which makes it a book too good to put down." Dr Mary Thorpe "...a delightful and unusual reflective journey...the whole book is driven (...)
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  42. Beverly Kracher & Robert P. Marble (2008). The Significance of Gender in Predicting the Cognitive Moral Development of Business Practitioners Using the Sociomoral Reflection Objective Measure. Journal of Business Ethics 78 (4):503 - 526.score: 16.0
    This study constitutes a contribution to the discussion about moral reasoning in business. Kohlberg’s (1971, in Cognitive Development and Epistemology (Academic Press, New York), 1976, in Moral Development and Behavior: Theory and Research and Social Issues (Holt, Rienhart and Winston, New York)) cognitive moral development (CMD) theory is one explanation of moral reasoning. One unresolved debate on the topic of CMD is the charge that Kohlbergian-type CMD theory is gender biased. This research puts forth the proposal that the issue may (...)
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  43. Todd Eisworth (2012). Simultaneous Reflection and Impossible Ideals. Journal of Symbolic Logic 77 (4):1325-1338.score: 16.0
    We prove that if ${\mu ^ + } \to \left[ {{\mu ^ + }} \right]_\mu ^2 + $ holds for a singular cardinal μ, then any collection of fewer than cf(μ) stationary subsets of μ⁺ must reflect simultaneously.
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  44. Joshua D. Greene (2012). Reflection and Reasoning in Moral Judgment. Cognitive Science 36 (1):163-177.score: 15.0
  45. Innocent Asouzu (2004). The Method and Principles of Complementary Reflection in and Beyond African Philosophy. University of Calabar Press.score: 15.0
    Preface In his book, African Philosophy, Theophilius Okere, after arguing that the way to African philosophy is the path of hermeneutics of culture, ...
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  46. Bridget Clarke (2010). William Ransome, Moral Reflection. [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 60 (239):434-436.score: 15.0
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  47. Lesley Kuhn (2008). Complexity and Educational Research: A Critical Reflection. Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (1):177–189.score: 15.0
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  48. Daniel K. Cho (2009). Adorno on Education or, Can Critical Self-Reflection Prevent the Next Auschwitz? Historical Materialism 17 (1):74-97.score: 15.0
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  49. James Calderhead & Peter Gates (eds.) (1993). Conceptualizing Reflection in Teacher Development. London ;Falmer Press.score: 15.0
  50. Mattie Tops, Maarten A. S. Boksem & Sander Koole (forthcoming). Internally-Directed Cognition and Self-Reflection: An Integrative Perspective Derived From Reactive Versus Predictive Control Systems Theory. Frontiers in Psychology.score: 15.0
    Non-goal-directed mental states, such as mind wandering, constitute a large part of our mental experience, even though cognitive science has traditionally focussed on a wide variety of goal-directed mental states, such as focused attention, mindfulness and rumination. While goal-directed and non-goal-directed mental states seem unrelated, both types of mental states may arise from dynamic shifts between predictive and reactive control systems (PARCS) in the brain. These shifts between reactive and predictive control are part of processes that enable the intake of (...)
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