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  1. Morten Magelssen, Reidar Pedersen & Reidun Førde (forthcoming). Sources of Bias in Clinical Ethics Case Deliberation. Journal of Medical Ethics:2013-101604.
    A central task for clinical ethics consultants and committees (CEC) is providing analysis of, and advice on, prospective or retrospective clinical cases. However, several kinds of biases may threaten the integrity, relevance or quality of the CEC's deliberation. Bias should be identified and, if possible, reduced or counteracted. This paper provides a systematic classification of kinds of bias that may be present in a CEC's case deliberation. Six kinds of bias are discussed, with examples, as to their significance and risk (...)
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  2. Reidun Førde & Thor Willy Ruud Hansen (2014). Do Organizational and Clinical Ethics in a Hospital Setting Need Different Venues? HEC Forum 26 (2):147-158.
    The structure of ethics work in a hospital is complex. Professional ethics, research ethics and clinical ethics committees (CECs) are important parts of this structure, in addition to laws and national and institutional codes of ethics. In Norway all hospital trusts have a CEC, most of these discuss cases by means of a method which seeks to include relevant guidelines and laws into the discussion. In recent years many committees have received more cases which have concerned questions of principle. According (...)
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  3. Elisabeth Gjerberg, Marit Helene Hem, Reidun Førde & Reidar Pedersen (2013). How to Avoid and Prevent Coercion in Nursing Homes A Qualitative Study. Nursing Ethics 20 (6):632-644.
    In many Western countries, studies have demonstrated extensive use of coercion in nursing homes, especially towards patients suffering from dementia. This article examines what kinds of strategies or alternative interventions nursing staff in Norway used when patients resist care and treatment and what conditions the staff considered as necessary to succeed in avoiding the use of coercion. The data are based on interdisciplinary focus group interviews with nursing home staff. The study revealed that the nursing home staff usually spent a (...)
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  4. Reidun Førde (2012). How Can Empirical Ethics Improve Medical Practice? Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (4):517-526.
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  5. Kari Milch Agledahl, Reidun Førde & Åge Wifstad (2011). Choice is Not the Issue. The Misrepresentation of Healthcare in Bioethical Discourse. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (4):212-215.
    Next SectionThe principle of respect for autonomy has shaped much of the bioethics' discourse over the last 50 years, and is now most commonly used in the meaning of respecting autonomous choice. This is probably related to the influential concept of informed consent, which originated in research ethics and was soon also applied to the field of clinical medicine. But while available choices in medical research are well defined, this is rarely the case in healthcare. Consideration of ordinary medical practice (...)
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  6. Reidun Førde & Reidar Pedersen (2011). Clinical Ethics Committees in Norway: What Do They Do, and Does It Make a Difference? Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (3):389-395.
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  7. Elisabeth Gjerberg, Reidun Førde & Arild Bjørndal (2011). Staff and Family Relationships in End-of-Life Nursing Home Care. Nursing Ethics 18 (1):42-53.
    This article examines the involvement of residents and their relatives in end-of-life decisions and care in Norwegian nursing homes. It also explores challenges in these staff—family relationships. The article is based on a nationwide survey examining Norwegian nursing homes’ end-of-life care at ward level. Only a minority of the participant Norwegian nursing home wards ‘usually’ explore residents’ preferences for care and treatment at the end of their life, and few have written procedures on the involvement of family caregivers when their (...)
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  8. Siri Tønnessen, Per Nortvedt & Reidun Førde (2011). Rationing Home-Based Nursing Care: Professional Ethical Implications. Nursing Ethics 18 (3):386-396.
    The purpose of this study was to investigate nurses’ decisions about priorities in home-based nursing care. Qualitative research interviews were conducted with 17 nurses in home-based care. The interviews were analyzed and interpreted according to a hermeneutic methodology. Nurses describe clinical priorities in home-based care as rationing care to mind the gap between an extensive workload and staff shortages. By organizing home-based care according to tight time schedules, the nurses’ are able to provide care for as many patients as possible. (...)
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  9. Kari Milch Agledahl, Reidun Førde & Åge Wifstad (2010). Clinical Essentialising: A Qualitative Study of Doctors' Medical and Moral Practice. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (2):107-113.
    While certain substantial moral dilemmas in health care have been given much attention, like abortion, euthanasia or gene testing, doctors rarely reflect on the moral implications of their daily clinical work. Yet, with its aim to help patients and relieve suffering, medicine is replete with moral decisions. In this qualitative study we analyse how doctors handle the moral aspects of everyday clinical practice. About one hundred consultations were observed, and interviews conducted with fifteen clinical doctors from different practices. It turned (...)
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  10. Reidar Pedersen, Victoria Akre & Reidun Førde (2009). Barriers and Challenges in Clinical Ethics Consultations: The Experiences of Nine Clinical Ethics Committees. Bioethics 23 (8):460-469.
    Clinical ethics committees have recently been established in nearly all Norwegian hospital trusts. One important task for these committees is clinical ethics consultations. This qualitative study explores significant barriers confronting the ethics committees in providing such consultation services. The interviews with the committees indicate that there is a substantial need for clinical ethics support services and, in general, the committee members expressed a great deal of enthusiasm for the committee work. They also reported, however, that tendencies to evade moral disagreement, (...)
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  11. Reidun Førde & O. G. Aasland (2008). Moral Distress Among Norwegian Doctors. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (7):521-525.
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  12. Reidun Førde, Reidar Pedersen & Victoria Akre (2008). Clinicians' Evaluation of Clinical Ethics Consultations in Norway: A Qualitative Study. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (1):17-25.
    Clinical ethics committees have existed in Norway since 1996. By now all hospital trusts have one. An evaluation of these committees’ work was started in 2004. This paper presents results from an interview study of eight clinicians who evaluated six committees’ deliberations on 10 clinical cases. The study indicates that the clinicians found the clinical ethics consultations useful and worth while doing. However, a systematic approach to case consultations is vital. Procedures and mandate of the committees should be known to (...)
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  13. Kristin Halvorsen, Reidun Førde & Per Nortvedt (2008). Professional Challenges of Bedside Rationing in Intensive Care. Nursing Ethics 15 (6):715-728.
    As the pressure on available health care resources grows, an increasing moral challenge in intensive care is to secure a fair distribution of nursing care and medical treatment. The aim of this article is to explore how limited resources influence nursing care and medical treatment in intensive care, and to explore whether intensive care unit clinicians use national prioritization criteria in clinical deliberations. The study used a qualitative approach including participant observation and in-depth interviews with intensive care unit physicians and (...)
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  14. Berit Støre Brinchmann, Reidun Førde & Per Nortvedt (2002). What Matters to the Parents? A Qualitative Study of Parents' Experiences with Life-and-Death Decisions Concerning Their Premature Infants. Nursing Ethics 9 (4):388-404.
    The aim of this article is to generate knowledge about parents’ participation in life-and-death decisions concerning their very premature and/or critically ill infants in hospital neonatal units. The question is: what are parents’ attitudes towards their involvement in such decision making? A descriptive study design using in-depth interviews was chosen. During the period 1997-2000, 20 qualitative interviews with 35 parents of 26 children were carried out. Ten of the infants died; 16 were alive at the time of the interview. The (...)
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  15. Reidun Førde (1998). Competing Conceptions of Diagnostic Reasoning – is There a Way Out? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 19 (1):59-72.
    Diagnostic errors are more frequently a result of the clinician's failure to combine medical knowledge adequately than of data inaccuracy. Diagnostic reasoning studies are valuable to understand and improve diagnostic reasoning. However, most diagnostic reasoning studies are characterized by some limitations which make these studies seem more simple than diagnostic reasoning in real life situations actually is. These limitations are connected both to the failure to acknowledge components of knowledge used in clinical practice as well as to acknowledge the physician-patient (...)
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  16. Reidun Førde (1996). Inclusion of Psychosocial Conditions in Clinical Practice and the Problem of Medicalization. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 17 (2).
    It is generally accepted today that the biomedical model's exclusive focus on the patient's somatic condition is too narrow. The biomedical model, however, has additional shortcomings. In the first place, resources are left out of the diagnostic perspective. Secondly, the automatic interpretation of symptoms and deviations from normal as present or potential threats to the individual's health. In this paper it is claimed that these characteristics of the biomedical model can lead to medicalization. To elucidate these claims, an alternative approach (...)
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