Search results for 'Reinforcement' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  10
    Vladislav D. Veksler, Christopher W. Myers & Kevin A. Gluck (2014). SAwSu: An Integrated Model of Associative and Reinforcement Learning. Cognitive Science 38 (3):580-598.
    Successfully explaining and replicating the complexity and generality of human and animal learning will require the integration of a variety of learning mechanisms. Here, we introduce a computational model which integrates associative learning (AL) and reinforcement learning (RL). We contrast the integrated model with standalone AL and RL models in three simulation studies. First, a synthetic grid-navigation task is employed to highlight performance advantages for the integrated model in an environment where the reward structure is both diverse and dynamic. (...)
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  2.  17
    Christian P. Janssen & Wayne D. Gray (2012). When, What, and How Much to Reward in Reinforcement Learning-Based Models of Cognition. Cognitive Science 36 (2):333-358.
    Reinforcement learning approaches to cognitive modeling represent task acquisition as learning to choose the sequence of steps that accomplishes the task while maximizing a reward. However, an apparently unrecognized problem for modelers is choosing when, what, and how much to reward; that is, when (the moment: end of trial, subtask, or some other interval of task performance), what (the objective function: e.g., performance time or performance accuracy), and how much (the magnitude: with binary, categorical, or continuous values). In this (...)
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  3.  9
    Yunfeng Zhang, Jaehyon Paik & Peter Pirolli (2015). Reinforcement Learning and Counterfactual Reasoning Explain Adaptive Behavior in a Changing Environment. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):368-381.
    Animals routinely adapt to changes in the environment in order to survive. Though reinforcement learning may play a role in such adaptation, it is not clear that it is the only mechanism involved, as it is not well suited to producing rapid, relatively immediate changes in strategies in response to environmental changes. This research proposes that counterfactual reasoning might be an additional mechanism that facilitates change detection. An experiment is conducted in which a task state changes over time and (...)
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  4.  9
    Samuel J. Gershman & Yael Niv (2015). Novelty and Inductive Generalization in Human Reinforcement Learning. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (3):391-415.
    In reinforcement learning, a decision maker searching for the most rewarding option is often faced with the question: What is the value of an option that has never been tried before? One way to frame this question is as an inductive problem: How can I generalize my previous experience with one set of options to a novel option? We show how hierarchical Bayesian inference can be used to solve this problem, and we describe an equivalence between the Bayesian model (...)
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  5.  12
    James A. Dinsmoor (1983). Observing and Conditioned Reinforcement. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (4):693.
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  6.  3
    Allan R. Wagner (1961). Effects of Amount and Percentage of Reinforcement and Number of Acquisition Trials on Conditioning and Extinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (3):234.
  7.  15
    Neal E. Miller (1948). Studies of Fear as an Acquirable Drive: I. Fear as Motivation and Fear-Reduction as Reinforcement in the Learning of New Responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (1):89.
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  8.  16
    David A. Grant & Esta Berg (1948). A Behavioral Analysis of Degree of Reinforcement and Ease of Shifting to New Responses in a Weigl-Type Card-Sorting Problem. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (4):404.
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  9.  3
    Douglas Anger (1956). The Dependence of Interresponse Times Upon the Relative Reinforcement of Different Interresponse Times. Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (3):145.
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  10.  6
    O. H. Mowrer & H. Jones (1945). Habit Strength as a Function of the Pattern of Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 35 (4):293.
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  11. Stewart H. Hulse Jr (1958). Amount and Percentage of Reinforcement and Duration of Goal Confinement in Conditioning and Extinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology 56 (1):48.
  12.  6
    M. David Egger & Neal E. Miller (1962). Secondary Reinforcement in Rats as a Function of Information Value and Reliability of the Stimulus. Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 (2):97.
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  13.  39
    Yanping Liu, Erik D. Reichle & Ding‐Guo Gao (2013). Using Reinforcement Learning to Examine Dynamic Attention Allocation During Reading. Cognitive Science 37 (8):1507-1540.
    A fundamental question in reading research concerns whether attention is allocated strictly serially, supporting lexical processing of one word at a time, or in parallel, supporting concurrent lexical processing of two or more words (Reichle, Liversedge, Pollatsek, & Rayner, 2009). The origins of this debate are reviewed. We then report three simulations to address this question using artificial reading agents (Liu & Reichle, 2010; Reichle & Laurent, 2006) that learn to dynamically allocate attention to 1–4 words to “read” as efficiently (...)
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  14.  6
    Charles B. Ferster (1953). Sustained Behavior Under Delayed Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 45 (4):218.
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  15.  3
    David R. Thomas, David L. Berman & George E. Serednesky (1968). Information Value and Stimulus Configuring as Factors in Conditioned Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (2p1):181.
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  16. Arnold H. Buss (1956). Reversal and Nonreversal Shifts in Concept Formation with Partial Reinforcement Eliminated. Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (3):162.
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  17.  1
    C. T. Perin (1943). A Quantitative Investigation of the Delay-of-Reinforcement Gradient. Journal of Experimental Psychology 32 (1):37.
  18. David R. Powell Jr & Charles C. Perkins Jr (1957). Strength of Secondary Reinforcement as a Determiner of the Effects of Duration of Goal Response on Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 53 (2):106.
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  19.  2
    E. J. Capaldi (1974). Partial Reward Either Following or Preceding Consistent Reward: A Case of Reinforcement Level. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (6):954.
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  20.  7
    Peter R. Killeen (1994). Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):105.
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  21.  11
    G. Robert Grice (1948). The Relation of Secondary Reinforcement to Delayed Reward in Visual Discrimination Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (1):1.
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  22.  4
    George Collier & Melvin H. Marx (1959). Changes in Performance as a Function of Shifts in the Magnitude of Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 57 (5):305.
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  23.  5
    C. I. Hovland (1937). The Generalization of Conditioned Responses. IV. The Effects of Varying Amounts of Reinforcement Upon the Degree of Generalization of Conditioned Responses. [REVIEW] Journal of Experimental Psychology 21 (3):261.
  24.  8
    Roger L. Mellgren & Dennis G. Dyck (1972). Partial Reinforcement Effect, Reverse Partial Reinforcement Effect, and Generalized Partial Reinforcement Effect Within Subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 92 (3):339.
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  25.  5
    William B. Pavlik & Peter L. Carlton (1965). A Reversed Partial-Reinforcement Effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (4):417.
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  26. James E. Spivey (1967). Resistance to Extinction as a Function of Number of N-R Transitions and Percentage of Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (1):43.
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  27.  6
    Lloyd G. Humphreys (1939). The Effect of Random Alternation of Reinforcement on the Acquisition and Extinction of Conditioned Eyelid Reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology 25 (2):141.
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  28.  5
    Kent Henderson (1966). Within-Subjects Partial-Reinforcement Effects in Acquisition and in Later Discrimination Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (5):704.
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  29.  5
    Morton P. Friedman, Edward C. Carterette & Norman H. Anderson (1968). Long-Term Probability Learning with a Random Schedule of Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (3p1):442.
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  30.  4
    Arnold H. Buss (1950). A Study of Concept Formation as a Function of Reinforcement and Stimulus Generalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology 40 (4):494.
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  31.  5
    Gail Ditkoff & Ronald Ley (1974). Effects of Positive and Negative Force-Contingent Reinforcement on the Frustration Effect in Humans. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (5):818.
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  32.  6
    Winfred F. Hill, John W. Cotton, Norman E. Spear & Carl P. Duncan (1969). Retention of T-Maze Learning After Varying Intervals Following Partial and Continuous Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (3p1):584.
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  33.  6
    Seymour Rosenberg (1963). Behavior in a Continuous-Response Task with Noncontingent Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (2):168.
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  34.  6
    R. H. Day, T. S. Wong & Charles I. Brooks (1971). "Radial and Tangential Movement Directions as Determinants of the Haptic Illusion in an L Figure"/ "Frustration Considerations of the Small-Trials Partial Reinforcement Effect: Experience with Nonreward and Intertrial Reinforcement": Errata. Journal of Experimental Psychology 90 (2):344-344.
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  35.  6
    Dennis G. Dyck, Roger L. Mellgren & Jeffrey A. Seybert (1973). Within-Subject Partial Reinforcement Effects: Differential Extinction Following Nondifferential Percentage of Reinforcement in Acquisition. Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (3):391.
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  36.  4
    M. Ray Denny & Morton D. Dunham (1951). The Effect of Differential Non-Reinforcement of the Incorrect Response on the Learning of the Correct Response in the Simple T-Maze. Journal of Experimental Psychology 41 (5):382.
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  37.  2
    Norman Guttman (1959). Generalization Gradients Around Stimuli Associated with Different Reinforcement Schedules. Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (5):335.
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  38.  4
    Norman Guttman (1953). Operant Conditioning, Extinction, and Periodic Reinforcement in Relation to Concentration of Sucrose Used as Reinforcing Agent. Journal of Experimental Psychology 46 (4):213.
  39.  1
    David A. Stevens & Laurence D. Fechter (1968). Relative Strengths of Approach and Avoidance Tendencies in Discrimination Learning of Rats Trained Under Two Types of Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (3p1):489.
  40.  4
    David A. Grant & Lowell M. Schipper (1952). The Acquisition and Extinction of Conditioned Eyelid Responses as a Function of the Percentage of Fixed-Ratio Random Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 43 (4):313.
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  41.  7
    Karen Galbraith, Michael E. Rashotte & Abram Amsel (1968). Within-Subjects Partial Reinforcement Effects Varying Percentage of Reward to the Partial Stimulus Between Groups. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (4):547.
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  42.  7
    Albert R. Marston & Frederick H. Kanfer (1963). Human Reinforcement: Experimenter and Subject Controlled. Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (1):91.
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  43.  3
    A. Grant Young (1969). Resistance to Extinction as a Function of Partial Reinforcement and Bar Weighting: A Within-S Design. Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (2p1):363.
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  44.  5
    G. Robert Grice & Herbert M. Goldman (1955). Generalized Extinction and Secondary Reinforcement in Visual Discrimination Learning with Delayed Reward. Journal of Experimental Psychology 50 (3):197.
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  45.  5
    Thomas L. Bennett & Henry C. Ellis (1968). Tactual-Kinesthetic Feedback From Manipulation of Visual Forms and Nondifferential Reinforcement in Transfer of Perceptual Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (3p1):495.
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  46.  5
    Abram Amsel, C. Thomas Surridge & James J. Hug (1969). Number of Food Pellets and the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect After Extended Acquisition. Journal of Experimental Psychology 82 (3):578.
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  47.  4
    E. J. Capaldi & Dick Hart (1962). Influence of a Small Number of Partial Reinforcement Training Trials on Resistance to Extinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 (2):166.
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  48.  5
    Albert Marston (1967). Self-Reinforcement and External Reinforcement in Visual-Motor Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (1):93-98.
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  49.  5
    Ii Shelly, Maynard W. (1960). Effects of Increments of Reinforcement in Human Probability Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 59 (6):345.
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  50. Joseph A. Sgro & Solomon Weinstock (1963). Effects of Delay on Subsequent Running Under Immediate Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (3):260.
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