Search results for 'Reinforcement' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  19
    Christian P. Janssen & Wayne D. Gray (2012). When, What, and How Much to Reward in Reinforcement Learning-Based Models of Cognition. Cognitive Science 36 (2):333-358.
    Reinforcement learning approaches to cognitive modeling represent task acquisition as learning to choose the sequence of steps that accomplishes the task while maximizing a reward. However, an apparently unrecognized problem for modelers is choosing when, what, and how much to reward; that is, when (the moment: end of trial, subtask, or some other interval of task performance), what (the objective function: e.g., performance time or performance accuracy), and how much (the magnitude: with binary, categorical, or continuous values). In this (...)
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  2.  10
    Vladislav D. Veksler, Christopher W. Myers & Kevin A. Gluck (2014). SAwSu: An Integrated Model of Associative and Reinforcement Learning. Cognitive Science 38 (3):580-598.
    Successfully explaining and replicating the complexity and generality of human and animal learning will require the integration of a variety of learning mechanisms. Here, we introduce a computational model which integrates associative learning (AL) and reinforcement learning (RL). We contrast the integrated model with standalone AL and RL models in three simulation studies. First, a synthetic grid-navigation task is employed to highlight performance advantages for the integrated model in an environment where the reward structure is both diverse and dynamic. (...)
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  3.  25
    Yunfeng Zhang, Jaehyon Paik & Peter Pirolli (2015). Reinforcement Learning and Counterfactual Reasoning Explain Adaptive Behavior in a Changing Environment. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):368-381.
    Animals routinely adapt to changes in the environment in order to survive. Though reinforcement learning may play a role in such adaptation, it is not clear that it is the only mechanism involved, as it is not well suited to producing rapid, relatively immediate changes in strategies in response to environmental changes. This research proposes that counterfactual reasoning might be an additional mechanism that facilitates change detection. An experiment is conducted in which a task state changes over time and (...)
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  4.  26
    Samuel J. Gershman & Yael Niv (2015). Novelty and Inductive Generalization in Human Reinforcement Learning. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (3):391-415.
    In reinforcement learning, a decision maker searching for the most rewarding option is often faced with the question: What is the value of an option that has never been tried before? One way to frame this question is as an inductive problem: How can I generalize my previous experience with one set of options to a novel option? We show how hierarchical Bayesian inference can be used to solve this problem, and we describe an equivalence between the Bayesian model (...)
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  5.  13
    James A. Dinsmoor (1983). Observing and Conditioned Reinforcement. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (4):693.
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  6.  4
    Allan R. Wagner (1961). Effects of Amount and Percentage of Reinforcement and Number of Acquisition Trials on Conditioning and Extinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (3):234.
  7.  4
    Douglas Anger (1956). The Dependence of Interresponse Times Upon the Relative Reinforcement of Different Interresponse Times. Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (3):145.
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  8.  16
    Neal E. Miller (1948). Studies of Fear as an Acquirable Drive: I. Fear as Motivation and Fear-Reduction as Reinforcement in the Learning of New Responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (1):89.
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  9.  1
    Stewart H. Hulse Jr (1958). Amount and Percentage of Reinforcement and Duration of Goal Confinement in Conditioning and Extinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology 56 (1):48.
  10.  8
    O. H. Mowrer & H. Jones (1945). Habit Strength as a Function of the Pattern of Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 35 (4):293.
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  11.  7
    M. David Egger & Neal E. Miller (1962). Secondary Reinforcement in Rats as a Function of Information Value and Reliability of the Stimulus. Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 (2):97.
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  12.  1
    Arnold H. Buss (1956). Reversal and Nonreversal Shifts in Concept Formation with Partial Reinforcement Eliminated. Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (3):162.
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  13.  4
    David R. Thomas, David L. Berman & George E. Serednesky (1968). Information Value and Stimulus Configuring as Factors in Conditioned Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (2p1):181.
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  14.  7
    Charles B. Ferster (1953). Sustained Behavior Under Delayed Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 45 (4):218.
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  15.  27
    David A. Grant & Esta Berg (1948). A Behavioral Analysis of Degree of Reinforcement and Ease of Shifting to New Responses in a Weigl-Type Card-Sorting Problem. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (4):404.
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  16.  1
    David R. Powell Jr & Charles C. Perkins Jr (1957). Strength of Secondary Reinforcement as a Determiner of the Effects of Duration of Goal Response on Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 53 (2):106.
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  17.  3
    C. T. Perin (1943). A Quantitative Investigation of the Delay-of-Reinforcement Gradient. Journal of Experimental Psychology 32 (1):37.
  18.  3
    E. J. Capaldi (1974). Partial Reward Either Following or Preceding Consistent Reward: A Case of Reinforcement Level. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (6):954.
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  19.  8
    Peter R. Killeen (1994). Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):105.
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  20.  1
    James E. Spivey (1967). Resistance to Extinction as a Function of Number of N-R Transitions and Percentage of Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (1):43.
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  21.  42
    Yanping Liu, Erik D. Reichle & Ding‐Guo Gao (2013). Using Reinforcement Learning to Examine Dynamic Attention Allocation During Reading. Cognitive Science 37 (8):1507-1540.
    A fundamental question in reading research concerns whether attention is allocated strictly serially, supporting lexical processing of one word at a time, or in parallel, supporting concurrent lexical processing of two or more words (Reichle, Liversedge, Pollatsek, & Rayner, 2009). The origins of this debate are reviewed. We then report three simulations to address this question using artificial reading agents (Liu & Reichle, 2010; Reichle & Laurent, 2006) that learn to dynamically allocate attention to 1–4 words to “read” as efficiently (...)
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  22.  5
    George Collier & Melvin H. Marx (1959). Changes in Performance as a Function of Shifts in the Magnitude of Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 57 (5):305.
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  23.  13
    G. Robert Grice (1948). The Relation of Secondary Reinforcement to Delayed Reward in Visual Discrimination Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (1):1.
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  24.  6
    William B. Pavlik & Peter L. Carlton (1965). A Reversed Partial-Reinforcement Effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (4):417.
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  25.  9
    Roger L. Mellgren & Dennis G. Dyck (1972). Partial Reinforcement Effect, Reverse Partial Reinforcement Effect, and Generalized Partial Reinforcement Effect Within Subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 92 (3):339.
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  26.  1
    Joseph A. Sgro & Solomon Weinstock (1963). Effects of Delay on Subsequent Running Under Immediate Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (3):260.
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  27.  7
    Norman Guttman (1959). Generalization Gradients Around Stimuli Associated with Different Reinforcement Schedules. Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (5):335.
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  28.  2
    David A. Stevens & Laurence D. Fechter (1968). Relative Strengths of Approach and Avoidance Tendencies in Discrimination Learning of Rats Trained Under Two Types of Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (3p1):489.
  29.  3
    David Zeaman (1949). Response Latency as a Function of the Amount of Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 39 (4):466.
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  30.  6
    Kent Henderson (1966). Within-Subjects Partial-Reinforcement Effects in Acquisition and in Later Discrimination Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (5):704.
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  31.  2
    Norman Stein & Richard Landis (1973). Mediating Role of Human Collateral Behavior During a Spaced-Responding Schedule of Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (1):28.
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  32.  6
    Leonard E. Ross (1959). The Decremental Effects of Partial Reinforcement During Acquisition of the Conditioned Eyelid Response. Journal of Experimental Psychology 57 (2):74.
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  33.  4
    Harry Fowler & Milton A. Trapold (1962). Escape Performance as a Function of Delay of Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 63 (5):464.
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  34.  1
    Robert F. Weiss, Jenny L. Boyer, James T. Colwick & Dennis J. Moran (1971). A Delay of Reinforcement Gradient and Correlated Reinforcement in the Instrumental Conditioning of Conversational Behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology 90 (1):33.
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  35.  8
    C. I. Hovland (1937). The Generalization of Conditioned Responses. IV. The Effects of Varying Amounts of Reinforcement Upon the Degree of Generalization of Conditioned Responses. [REVIEW] Journal of Experimental Psychology 21 (3):261.
  36.  7
    Lloyd G. Humphreys (1939). The Effect of Random Alternation of Reinforcement on the Acquisition and Extinction of Conditioned Eyelid Reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology 25 (2):141.
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  37.  5
    George Collier, Frederick A. Knarr & Melvin H. Marx (1961). Some Relations Between the Intensive Properties of the Consummatory Response and Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (5):484.
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  38.  12
    Robert Adamson (1959). Inhibitory Set in Problem Solving as Related to Reinforcement Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (4):280.
  39.  4
    A. Grant Young (1969). Resistance to Extinction as a Function of Partial Reinforcement and Bar Weighting: A Within-S Design. Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (2p1):363.
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  40.  3
    Charles F. Flaherty & John W. Davenport (1972). Successive Brightness Discrimination in Rats Following Regular Versus Random Intermittent Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (1):1.
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  41.  3
    Virginia F. Sheffield (1949). Extinction as a Function of Partial Reinforcement and Distribution of Practice. Journal of Experimental Psychology 39 (4):511.
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  42.  5
    Norman Guttman (1953). Operant Conditioning, Extinction, and Periodic Reinforcement in Relation to Concentration of Sucrose Used as Reinforcing Agent. Journal of Experimental Psychology 46 (4):213.
  43.  3
    Patrick Suppes & Raymond W. Frankmann (1961). Test of Stimulus Sampling Theory for a Continuum of Responses with Unimodal Noncontingent Determinate Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 61 (2):122.
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  44.  5
    David A. Grant & Lowell M. Schipper (1952). The Acquisition and Extinction of Conditioned Eyelid Responses as a Function of the Percentage of Fixed-Ratio Random Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 43 (4):313.
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  45.  7
    E. J. Capaldi & Larry R. Stanley (1963). Temporal Properties of Reinforcement Aftereffects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (2):169.
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  46.  6
    Gail Ditkoff & Ronald Ley (1974). Effects of Positive and Negative Force-Contingent Reinforcement on the Frustration Effect in Humans. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (5):818.
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  47.  4
    Martin Harrow & Gilbert B. Friedman (1958). Comparing Reversal and Nonreversal Shifts in Concept Formation with Partial Reinforcement Controlled. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (6):592.
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  48.  2
    Kenneth P. Goodrich (1959). Performance in Different Segments of an Instrumental Response Chain as a Function of Reinforcement Schedule. Journal of Experimental Psychology 57 (1):57.
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  49.  4
    Alvin R. Mahrer (1956). The Role of Expectancy in Delayed Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (2):101.
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  50.  7
    Dennis G. Dyck, Roger L. Mellgren & Jeffrey A. Seybert (1973). Within-Subject Partial Reinforcement Effects: Differential Extinction Following Nondifferential Percentage of Reinforcement in Acquisition. Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (3):391.
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