Search results for 'Reinforcement' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Benjamin P. Gold, Michael J. Frank, Brigitte Bogert & Elvira Brattico (2013). Pleasurable Music Affects Reinforcement Learning According to the Listener. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 18.0
    Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of musical pleasure through (...)
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  2. Christian P. Janssen & Wayne D. Gray (2012). When, What, and How Much to Reward in Reinforcement Learning-Based Models of Cognition. Cognitive Science 36 (2):333-358.score: 18.0
    Reinforcement learning approaches to cognitive modeling represent task acquisition as learning to choose the sequence of steps that accomplishes the task while maximizing a reward. However, an apparently unrecognized problem for modelers is choosing when, what, and how much to reward; that is, when (the moment: end of trial, subtask, or some other interval of task performance), what (the objective function: e.g., performance time or performance accuracy), and how much (the magnitude: with binary, categorical, or continuous values). In this (...)
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  3. Vladislav D. Veksler, Christopher W. Myers & Kevin A. Gluck (2014). SAwSu: An Integrated Model of Associative and Reinforcement Learning. Cognitive Science 38 (1):580-598.score: 18.0
    Successfully explaining and replicating the complexity and generality of human and animal learning will require the integration of a variety of learning mechanisms. Here, we introduce a computational model which integrates associative learning (AL) and reinforcement learning (RL). We contrast the integrated model with standalone AL and RL models in three simulation studies. First, a synthetic grid-navigation task is employed to highlight performance advantages for the integrated model in an environment where the reward structure is both diverse and dynamic. (...)
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  4. Anya Skatova, Patricia Angie Chan & Nathaniel D. Daw (2013). Extraversion Differentiates Between Model-Based and Model-Free Strategies in a Reinforcement Learning Task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Prominent computational models describe a neural mechanism for learning from reward prediction errors, and it has been suggested that variations in this mechanism are reflected in personality factors such as trait extraversion. However, although trait extraversion has been linked to improved reward learning, it is not yet known whether this relationship is selective for the particular computational strategy associated with error-driven learning, known as model-free reinforcement learning, versus another strategy, model-based learning, which the brain is also known to employ. (...)
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  5. Yanping Liu, Erik D. Reichle & Ding‐Guo Gao (2013). Using Reinforcement Learning to Examine Dynamic Attention Allocation During Reading. Cognitive Science 37 (8):1507-1540.score: 15.0
    A fundamental question in reading research concerns whether attention is allocated strictly serially, supporting lexical processing of one word at a time, or in parallel, supporting concurrent lexical processing of two or more words (Reichle, Liversedge, Pollatsek, & Rayner, 2009). The origins of this debate are reviewed. We then report three simulations to address this question using artificial reading agents (Liu & Reichle, 2010; Reichle & Laurent, 2006) that learn to dynamically allocate attention to 1–4 words to “read” as efficiently (...)
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  6. Roger L. Mellgren & Dennis G. Dyck (1972). Partial Reinforcement Effect, Reverse Partial Reinforcement Effect, and Generalized Partial Reinforcement Effect Within Subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 92 (3):339.score: 15.0
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  7. Dennis G. Dyck, Roger L. Mellgren & Jeffrey A. Seybert (1973). Within-Subject Partial Reinforcement Effects: Differential Extinction Following Nondifferential Percentage of Reinforcement in Acquisition. Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (3):391.score: 15.0
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  8. Karen Galbraith, Michael E. Rashotte & Abram Amsel (1968). Within-Subjects Partial Reinforcement Effects Varying Percentage of Reward to the Partial Stimulus Between Groups. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (4):547.score: 15.0
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  9. Albert R. Marston & Frederick H. Kanfer (1963). Human Reinforcement: Experimenter and Subject Controlled. Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (1):91.score: 15.0
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  10. J. Dutch & L. B. Brown (1971). Continuous Trial Between- and Within-Subject Partial Reinforcement Effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (2):336.score: 15.0
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  11. Kent Henderson (1966). Within-Subjects Partial-Reinforcement Effects in Acquisition and in Later Discrimination Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (5):704.score: 15.0
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  12. Mavis Hetherington & Leonard E. Ross (1963). Effect of Sex of Subject, Sex of Experimenter, and Reinforcement Condition on Serial Verbal Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (6):572.score: 15.0
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  13. Lloyd G. Humphreys (1939). The Effect of Random Alternation of Reinforcement on the Acquisition and Extinction of Conditioned Eyelid Reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology 25 (2):141.score: 15.0
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  14. Michael E. Rashotte (1968). Resistance to Extinction of the Continuously Rewarded Response in Within-Subject Partial-Reinforcement Experiments. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (2p1):206.score: 15.0
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  15. Norman E. Spear & William B. Pavlik (1966). Percentage of Reinforcement and Reward Magnitude Effects in a T Maze: Between and Within Subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (4):521.score: 15.0
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  16. James A. Dinsmoor (1983). Observing and Conditioned Reinforcement. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (4):693.score: 15.0
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  17. Charles B. Ferster (1953). Sustained Behavior Under Delayed Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 45 (4):218.score: 15.0
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  18. Neal E. Miller (1948). Studies of Fear as an Acquirable Drive: I. Fear as Motivation and Fear-Reduction as Reinforcement in the Learning of New Responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (1):89.score: 15.0
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  19. Douglas Anger (1956). The Dependence of Interresponse Times Upon the Relative Reinforcement of Different Interresponse Times. Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (3):145.score: 15.0
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  20. Arnold H. Buss, Morton Weiner & Edith Buss (1954). Stimulus Generalization as a Function of Verbal Reinforcement Combination. Journal of Experimental Psychology 48 (6):433.score: 15.0
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  21. George Collier & Melvin H. Marx (1959). Changes in Performance as a Function of Shifts in the Magnitude of Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 57 (5):305.score: 15.0
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  22. Albert Erlebacher & E. James Archer (1961). Perseveration as a Function of Degree of Learning and Percentage of Reinforcement in Card Sorting. Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (5):510.score: 15.0
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  23. Jerome M. Feldman (1971). Added Cue Control as a Function of Reinforcement Predictability. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (2):318.score: 15.0
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  24. Charles B. Ferster (1954). Use of the Blackout in the Investigation of Temporal Discrimination in Fixed-Interval Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 47 (2):69.score: 15.0
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  25. George J. Friedman & John G. Carlson (1973). Effects of a Stimulus Correlated with Positive Reinforcement Upon Discrimination Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (3):281.score: 15.0
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  26. David A. Grant & Lowell M. Schipper (1952). The Acquisition and Extinction of Conditioned Eyelid Responses as a Function of the Percentage of Fixed-Ratio Random Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 43 (4):313.score: 15.0
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  27. G. Robert Grice (1948). The Relation of Secondary Reinforcement to Delayed Reward in Visual Discrimination Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (1):1.score: 15.0
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  28. Martin Harrow & Gilbert B. Friedman (1958). Comparing Reversal and Nonreversal Shifts in Concept Formation with Partial Reinforcement Controlled. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (6):592.score: 15.0
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  29. Thomas F. Hartman & David A. Grant (1960). Effect of Intermittent Reinforcement on Acquisition, Extinction, and Spontaneous Recovery of the Conditioned Eyelid Response. Journal of Experimental Psychology 60 (2):89.score: 15.0
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  30. Chizuko Izawa (1969). Comparison of Reinforcement and Test Trials in Paired-Associate Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (3):600.score: 15.0
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  31. Herbert M. Jenkins (1962). Resistance to Extinction When Partial Reinforcement is Followed by Regular Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 (5):441.score: 15.0
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  32. Thomas D. Kennedy (1971). Reinforcement Frequency, Task Characteristics, and Interval of Awareness Assessment as Factors in Verbal Conditioning Without Awareness. Journal of Experimental Psychology 88 (1):103.score: 15.0
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  33. Frank C. Leeming (1968). Response Rate as a Function of Magnitude and Schedule of Heat Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (1p1):74.score: 15.0
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  34. Donald J. Lewis (1952). Partial Reinforcement in a Gambling Situation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 43 (6):447.score: 15.0
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  35. Frank A. Logan (1952). The Role of Delay of Reinforcement in Determining Reaction Potential. Journal of Experimental Psychology 43 (6):393.score: 15.0
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  36. O. H. Mowrer & H. Jones (1945). Habit Strength as a Function of the Pattern of Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 35 (4):293.score: 15.0
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  37. William B. Pavlik & Peter L. Carlton (1965). A Reversed Partial-Reinforcement Effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (4):417.score: 15.0
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  38. Robert W. Schaeffer (1965). The Reinforcement Relation as a Function of Instrumental Response Base Rate. Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (4):419.score: 15.0
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  39. Ii Shelly, Maynard W. (1960). Effects of Increments of Reinforcement in Human Probability Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 59 (6):345.score: 15.0
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  40. Charles N. Uhl (1963). Two-Choice Probability Learning in the Rat as a Function of Incentive, Probability of Reinforcement, and Training Procedure. Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (5):443-449.score: 15.0
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  41. David Zeaman (1949). Response Latency as a Function of the Amount of Reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology 39 (4):466.score: 15.0
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  42. Robert Adamson (1959). Inhibitory Set in Problem Solving as Related to Reinforcement Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (4):280.score: 15.0
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  43. Ken-Ichi Amemori, Leif G. Gibb & Ann M. Graybiel (2011). Shifting Responsibly: The Importance of Striatal Modularity to Reinforcement Learning in Uncertain Environments. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 15.0
  44. Abram Amsel, Michael E. Rashotte & Karen Galbraith (1969). Can Generalization of the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect Be Reduced by Distinctiveness Pretraining? Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (2):401.score: 15.0
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  45. Abram Amsel, James J. Hug & C. Thomas Surridge (1968). Number of Food Pellets, Goal Approaches, and the Partial Reinforcement Effect After Minimal Acquisition. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (4):530.score: 15.0
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  46. Abram Amsel, C. Thomas Surridge & James J. Hug (1969). Number of Food Pellets and the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect After Extended Acquisition. Journal of Experimental Psychology 82 (3):578.score: 15.0
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  47. Harvard L. Armus (1959). Effect of Magnitude of Reinforcement on Acquisition and Extinction of a Running Response. Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (1):61.score: 15.0
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  48. R. C. Atkinson, W. H. Bogartz & R. N. Turner (1959). Supplementary Report: Discrimination Learning with Probabilistic Reinforcement Schedules. Journal of Experimental Psychology 57 (5):349.score: 15.0
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  49. Pietro Badia (1965). Effects of Drive, Reinforcement Schedule, and Change of Schedule on Performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (3):292.score: 15.0
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  50. R. K. Banks (1969). Role of the Instrumental Response in the Partial Reinforcement Effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (1):133.score: 15.0
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