Search results for 'Reliability' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Weng Hong Tang (2016). Reliability Theories of Justified Credence. Mind 125 (497):63-94.
    Reliabilists hold that a belief is doxastically justified if and only if it is caused by a reliable process. But since such a process is one that tends to produce a high ratio of true to false beliefs, reliabilism is on the face of it applicable to binary beliefs, but not to degrees of confidence or credences. For while beliefs admit of truth or falsity, the same cannot be said of credences in general. A natural question now arises: Can (...) theories of justified belief be extended or modified to account for justified credence? In this paper, I address this question. I begin by showing that, as it stands, reliabilism cannot account for justified credence. I then consider three ways in which the reliabilist may try to do so by extending or modifying her theory, but I argue that such attempts face certain problems. After that, I turn to a version of reliabilism that incorporates evidentialist elements and argue that it allows us to avoid the problems that the other theories face. If I am right, this gives reliabilists a reason, aside from those given recently by Comesaña and Goldman, to move towards such a kind of hybrid theory. (shrink)
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  2.  21
    Stefan Schubert (2012). Coherence Reasoning and Reliability: A Defense of the Shogenji Measure. Synthese 187 (2):305-319.
    A measure of coherence is said to be reliability conducive if and only if a higher degree of coherence (as measured) results in a higher likelihood that the witnesses are reliable. Recently, it has been proved that several coherence measures proposed in the literature are reliability conducive in a restricted scenario (Olsson and Schubert 2007, Synthese 157:297–308). My aim is to investigate which coherence measures turn out to be reliability conducive in the more general scenario where it (...)
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  3.  68
    Jeff Dunn (2015). Reliability for Degrees of Belief. Philosophical Studies 172 (7):1929-1952.
    We often evaluate belief-forming processes, agents, or entire belief states for reliability. This is normally done with the assumption that beliefs are all-or-nothing. How does such evaluation go when we’re considering beliefs that come in degrees? I consider a natural answer to this question that focuses on the degree of truth-possession had by a set of beliefs. I argue that this natural proposal is inadequate, but for an interesting reason. When we are dealing with all-or-nothing belief, high reliability (...)
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  4.  3
    Ilya M. Goldin, Rosa Lynn Pinkus & Kevin Ashley (2015). Validity and Reliability of an Instrument for Assessing Case Analyses in Bioengineering Ethics Education. Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (3):789-807.
    Assessment in ethics education faces a challenge. From the perspectives of teachers, students, and third-party evaluators like the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology and the National Institutes of Health, assessment of student performance is essential. Because of the complexity of ethical case analysis, however, it is difficult to formulate assessment criteria, and to recognize when students fulfill them. Improvement in students’ moral reasoning skills can serve as the focus of assessment. In previous work, Rosa Lynn Pinkus and Claire Gloeckner (...)
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  5.  34
    Michael Schippers (2014). Coherence, Striking Agreement, and Reliability. Synthese 191 (15):3661-3684.
    Striving for a probabilistic explication of coherence, scholars proposed a distinction between agreement and striking agreement. In this paper I argue that only the former should be considered a genuine concept of coherence. In a second step the relation between coherence and reliability is assessed. I show that it is possible to concur with common intuitions regarding the impact of coherence on reliability in various types of witness scenarios by means of an agreement measure of coherence. Highlighting the (...)
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  6.  23
    Axel Gelfert (2013). Coverage-Reliability, Epistemic Dependence, and the Problem of Rumor-Based Belief. Philosophia 41 (3):763-786.
    Rumors, for better or worse, are an important element of public discourse. The present paper focuses on rumors as an epistemic phenomenon rather than as a social or political problem. In particular, it investigates the relation between the mode of transmission and the reliability, if any, of rumors as a source of knowledge. It does so by comparing rumor with two forms of epistemic dependence that have recently received attention in the philosophical literature: our dependence on the testimony of (...)
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  7.  25
    Stefan Schubert (2012). Is Coherence Conducive to Reliability? Synthese 187 (2):607-621.
    A measure of coherence is said to be reliability conducive if and only if a higher degree of coherence (asmeasured) of a set of testimonies implies a higher probability that the witnesses are reliable. Recently, it has been proved that the Shogenji measure of coherence is reliability conducive in restricted scenarios (e.g., Olsson and Schubert, Synthese, 157:297–308, 2007). In this article, I investigate whether the Shogenji measure, or any other coherence measure, is reliability conducive in general. An (...)
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  8.  9
    Julia Lackmann, Jürgen Ernstberger & Michael Stich (2012). Market Reactions to Increased Reliability of Sustainability Information. Journal of Business Ethics 107 (2):111-128.
    This article investigates whether investors consider the reliability of companies’ sustainability information when determining the companies’ market value. Specifically, we examine market reactions (in terms of abnormal returns) to events that increase the reliability of companies’ sustainability information but do not provide markets with additional sustainability information. Controlling for competing effects, we regard companies’ additions to an internationally important sustainability index as such events and consider possible determinants for market reactions. Our results suggest that first, investors take into (...)
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  9.  5
    Hedwig Boudrez & Dirk De Bacquer (2012). A Dutch Version of the Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale: Factorial Structure, Reliability and Validity. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (4):799-806.
    Aims : The Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale (MRSS) is a widely accepted scale that measures psychological functions of smoking. The scale has been translated in Dutch and has been validated, in order to be used in clinical smoking cessation practice in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium. This study examined the factorial structure, reliability and validity of the scale in a sample of smokers, who are characterized by a high level of dependence and an explicit motivation to stop smoking. (...)
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  10. Samuel Schindler (2011). Bogen and Woodward's Data-Phenomena Distinction, Forms of Theory-Ladenness, and the Reliability of Data. Synthese 182 (1):39-55.
    Some twenty years ago, Bogen and Woodward challenged one of the fundamental assumptions of the received view, namely the theory-observation dichotomy and argued for the introduction of the further category of scientific phenomena. The latter, Bogen and Woodward stressed, are usually unobservable and inferred from what is indeed observable, namely scientific data. Crucially, Bogen and Woodward claimed that theories predict and explain phenomena, but not data. But then, of course, the thesis of theory-ladenness, which has it that our observations are (...)
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  11.  22
    Domenic V. Cicchetti (1997). Referees, Editors, and Publication Practices: Improving the Reliability and Usefulness of the Peer Review System. Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (1):51-62.
    The documented low levels of reliability of the peer review process present a serious challenge to editors who must often base their publication decisions on conflicting referee recommendations. The purpose of this article is to discuss this process and examine ways to produce a more reliable and useful peer review system.
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  12.  63
    Peter Murphy (2006). Reliability Connections Between Conceivability and Inconceivability. Dialectica 60 (2):195-205.
    Conceivability is an important source of our beliefs about what is possible; inconceivability is an important source of our beliefs about what is impossible. What are the connections between the reliability of these sources? If one is reliable, does it follow that the other is also reliable? The central contention of this paper is that suitably qualified the reliability of inconceivability implies the reliability of conceivability, but the reliability of conceivability fails to imply the reliability (...)
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  13.  10
    Anthony Peressini (2003). Proof, Reliability, and Mathematical Knowledge. Theoria 69 (3):211-232.
    With respect to the confirmation of mathematical propositions, proof possesses an epistemological authority unmatched by other means of confirmation. This paper is an investigation into why this is the case. I make use of an analysis drawn from an early reliability perspective on knowledge to help make sense of mathematical proofs singular epistemological status.
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  14. Timothy McGrew & Lydia McGrew (2012). The Reliability of Witnesses and Testimony to the Miraculous. In Jake Chandler Victoria S. Harrison (ed.), Probability in the Philosophy of Religion. Oxford
    The formal representation of the strength of witness testimony has been historically tied to a formula — proposed by Condorcet — that uses a factor representing the reliability of an individual witness. This approach encourages a false dilemma between hyper-scepticism about testimony, especially to extraordinary events such as miracles, and an overly sanguine estimate of reliability based on insufficiently detailed evidence. Because Condorcet’s formula does not have the resources for representing numerous epistemically relevant details in the unique situation (...)
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  15.  11
    Roberto Cordeschi (2013). Automatic Decision-Making and Reliability in Robotic Systems: Some Implications in the Case of Robot Weapons. AI and Society 28 (4):431-441.
    In this article, I shall examine some of the issues and questions involved in the technology of autonomous robots, a technology that has developed greatly and is advancing rapidly. I shall do so with reference to a particularly critical field: autonomous military robotic systems. In recent times, various issues concerning the ethical implications of these systems have been the object of increasing attention from roboticists, philosophers and legal experts. The purpose of this paper is not to deal with these issues, (...)
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  16.  9
    A. N. Golodnikov, P. S. Knopov & V. A. Pepelyaev (2004). Estimation of Reliability Parameters Under Incomplete Primary Information. Theory and Decision 57 (4):331-344.
    We consider the procedure for small-sample estimation of reliability parameters. The main shortcomings of the classical methods and the Bayesian approach are analyzed. Models that find robust Bayesian estimates are proposed. The sensitivity of the Bayesian estimates to the choice of the prior distribution functions is investigated using models that find upper and lower bounds. The proposed models reduce to optimization problems in the space of distribution functions.
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  17. Renée Allvin, Margareta Ehnfors, Narinder Rawal, Elisabeth Svensson & Ewa Idvall (2009). Development of a Questionnaire to Measure Patient‐Reported Postoperative Recovery: Content Validity and Intra‐Patient Reliability. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (3):411-419.
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  18. Jason Baehr (2006). Character, Reliability and Virtue Epistemology. Philosophical Quarterly 56 (223):193–212.
    Standard characterizations of virtue epistemology divide the field into two camps: virtue reliabilism and virtue responsibilism. Virtue reliabilists think of intellectual virtues as reliable cognitive faculties or abilities, while virtue responsibilists conceive of them as good intellectual character traits. I argue that responsibilist character virtues sometimes satisfy the conditions of a reliabilist conception of intellectual virtue, and that consequently virtue reliabilists, and reliabilists in general, must pay closer attention to matters of intellectual character. This leads to several new questions and (...)
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  19.  13
    Domenic V. Cicchetti (1991). The Reliability of Peer Review for Manuscript and Grant Submissions: A Cross-Disciplinary Investigation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (1):119-135.
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  20.  3
    Anna Leuschner (2015). Uncertainties, Plurality, and Robustness in Climate Research and Modeling: On the Reliability of Climate Prognoses. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 46 (2):367-381.
    The paper addresses the evaluation of climate models and gives an overview of epistemic uncertainties in climate modeling; the uncertainties concern the data situation as well as the causal behavior of the climate system. In order to achieve reasonable results nonetheless, multimodel ensemble studies are employed in which diverse models simulate the future climate under different emission scenarios. The models jointly deliver a robust range of climate prognoses due to a broad plurality of theories, techniques, and methods in climate research; (...)
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  21.  24
    Andreas Jarvstad & Ulrike Hahn (2011). Source Reliability and the Conjunction Fallacy. Cognitive Science 35 (4):682-711.
  22.  28
    Jason Baehr (2007). On the Reliability of Moral and Intellectual Virtues. Metaphilosophy 38 (4):456-470.
  23. Richard H. Feldman (1988). Rationality, Reliability, and Natural Selection. Philosophy of Science 55 (June):218-27.
    A tempting argument for human rationality goes like this: it is more conducive to survival to have true beliefs than false beliefs, so it is more conducive to survival to use reliable belief-forming strategies than unreliable ones. But reliable strategies are rational strategies, so there is a selective advantage to using rational strategies. Since we have evolved, we must use rational strategies. In this paper I argue that some criticisms of this argument offered by Stephen Stich fail because they rely (...)
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  24.  6
    M. David Egger & Neal E. Miller (1962). Secondary Reinforcement in Rats as a Function of Information Value and Reliability of the Stimulus. Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 (2):97.
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  25.  3
    Arzu Daskapan, Stefan Höfer, Neil Oldridge, Neslihan Alkan, Haldun Muderrisoglu & Emine Handan Tuzun (2008). The Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the MacNew Heart Disease Questionnaire in Patients with Angina. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (2):209-213.
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  26.  12
    Esther M. V. Grootenboer, Erik J. Giltay, Rosalind van der Lem, Tineke van Veen, Nic J. A. van der Wee & Frans G. Zitman (2012). Reliability and Validity of the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale in Clinical Outpatients with Depressive Disorders. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (2):502-507.
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  27.  29
    Ernest Sosa (2002). Reliability and the a Priori. In John Hawthorne & Tamar Gendler (eds.), Conceivability and Possibility. Oxford University Press 369--384.
  28.  4
    P. H. Gompertz, P. Irwin, R. Morris, D. Lowe MSc Cstat, Z. Rutledge, A. G. Rudd & M. G. Pearson (2001). Reliability and Validity of the Intercollegiate Stroke Audit Package. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 7 (1):1-11.
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  29.  1
    K. L. Haywood, J. Hargreaves, R. White & S. E. Lamb (2004). Reviewing Measures of Outcome: Reliability of Data Extraction. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 10 (2):329-337.
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  30.  15
    John Wingard Jr (2010). Reliability in Plantinga´s Account of Epistemic Warrant. Principia 6 (2):249-278.
    In das paper 1 ccmstder the rehabday condaton in Atm PlanungaS's proper functionabst account of eptstemtc warrant I begm by reviewing m some detail the features of the rehabdity condition as Planunga lias aruculated a From there, 1 consider what is needed to ground or secure the sort of rehability whzch Plantinga has m mind, and argue that what is needed is a significant causai condam which has generally been overlooked Then, after identifying eight verstons of the relevant sort of (...)
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  31.  10
    D. Gwyn Seymour, Anne E. Ball, Elizabeth M. Russell, William R. Primrose, Andrew M. Garratt & John R. Crawford (2001). Problems in Using Health Survey Questionnaires in Older Patients with Physical Disabilities. The Reliability and Validity of the SF‐36 and the Effect of Cognitive Impairment. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 7 (4):411-418.
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  32.  8
    Carlos Kh Wong, Cindy Lk Lam, Wai‐Lun Law, Jensen Tc Poon, Pierre Chan, Dora Lw Kwong & Janice Tsang (2012). Validity and Reliability Study on Traditional Chinese FACT‐C in Chinese Patients with Colorectal Neoplasm. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (6):1186-1195.
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  33.  8
    W. L. Jenkins (1939). Studies in Thermal Sensitivity: 9. The Reliability of Seriatim Cold-Mapping with Untrained Subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 24 (3):278.
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  34.  6
    Nathalie I. H. Wellens, Koen Milisen, Johan Flamaing & Philip Moons (2012). Methods to Assess the Reliability of the interRAI Acute Care: A Framework to Guide Clinimetric Testing. Part II. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (4):822-827.
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  35.  4
    Christopher Shlels, Allen Hutchlnson, Martin Eccles, Eric Gardiner & Lada Smoljanovlc (1996). Accuracy and Reliability of Assessment of Severity of Illness Before and After an Educational Intervention. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2 (4):265-271.
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  36.  2
    M. A. Tinker (1936). Reliability and Validity of Eye-Movement Measures of Reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology 19 (6):732.
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  37.  5
    Yolandi Brink & Quinette A. Louw (2012). Clinical Instruments: Reliability and Validity Critical Appraisal. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (6):1126-1132.
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  38.  4
    H. J. Eysenck (1941). The Validity and Reliability of Group Judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (5):427-434.
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  39.  3
    M. A. Tinker (1945). Reliability of Blinking Frequency Employed as a Measure of Readability. Journal of Experimental Psychology 35 (5):418.
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  40.  1
    L. H. Lanier (1927). Prediction of the Reliability of Mental Tests and Tests of Special Abilities. Journal of Experimental Psychology 10 (2):69.
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  41.  1
    F. A. Mote, G. E. Briggs & K. M. Michels (1954). The Reliability of Measurements of Human Dark Adaptation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 48 (1):69.
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  42.  2
    Rachel Voellinger, Patrick Taffé, Jacques Cornuz, Pierre Durieux & Bernard Burnand (2011). Discriminant Validity and Test–Retest Reliability of a Self‐Administered Internet‐Based Questionnaire Testing Doctors' Knowledge in Evidence‐Based Medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (3):471-477.
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  43.  2
    David C. Howell (1970). Free Association Reliability as a Function of Response Strength. Journal of Experimental Psychology 85 (3):431.
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  44.  2
    Lois Lawrence Elliott (1958). Reliability of Judgments of Figural Complexity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 56 (4):335.
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  45.  2
    B. B. Smith (1941). The Validity and Reliability of Group Judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (5):420-426.
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  46.  2
    J. Q. Holsopple (1922). Reliability of Scores in Steadiness Tests. Journal of Experimental Psychology 5 (3):203.
  47. Daniel Little (1995). On the Reliability of Economic Models Essays in the Philosophy of Economics.
     
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  48. Jack Lyons (2011). Circularity, Reliability, and the Cognitive Penetrability of Perception. Philosophical Issues 21 (1):289-311.
    Is perception cognitively penetrable, and what are the epistemological consequences if it is? I address the latter of these two questions, partly by reference to recent work by Athanassios Raftopoulos and Susanna Seigel. Against the usual, circularity, readings of cognitive penetrability, I argue that cognitive penetration can be epistemically virtuous, when---and only when---it increases the reliability of perception.
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  49.  73
    Wayne D. Riggs (2002). Reliability and the Value of Knowledge. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 64 (1):79-96.
    Reliabilism has come under recent attack for its alleged inability to account for the value we typically ascribe to knowledge. It is charged that a reliably-produced true belief has no more value than does the true belief alone. I reply to these charges on behalf of reliabilism; not because I think reliabilism is the correct theory of knowledge, but rather because being reliably-produced does add value of a sort to true beliefs. The added value stems from the fact that a (...)
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  50.  24
    Matthew Braddock (forthcoming). Evolutionary Debunking: Can Moral Realists Explain the Reliability of Our Moral Judgments? Philosophical Psychology:1-14.
    Evolutionary debunking arguments, notably Sharon Street’s Darwinian Dilemma (2006), allege that moral realists need to explain the reliability of our moral judgments, given their evolutionary sources. David Copp (2008) and David Enoch (2010) take up the challenge. I argue on empirical grounds that realists have not met the challenge and moreover cannot do so. The outcome is that there are empirically-motivated reasons for thinking moral realists cannot explain moral reliability, given our current empirical understanding.
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