Search results for 'Research Government policy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Michael Devaney (2004). Government Subsidized Academic Research: Economic and Ethical Conflicts. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 2 (3):273-285.score: 333.0
    Justification for public funding of academic research is based on the linear model of technological advance first proposed by Francis Bacon. The model hypothesizes that government subsidized science generates new technology which creates new wealth. Mainstream economics supports Bacons model by arguing that academic research is a public good. The Bayh–Dole Act allows universities to privatize federally funded research and development (R&D) which is in direct conflict with the public good argument. Diminishing returns to university R&D, (...)
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  2. Sybil Francis (1999). Developing a Federal Policy on Research Misconduct. Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (2):261-272.score: 333.0
    Since April 1996, the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), in collaboration with the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) in the Executive Office of the President, has been leading the development of a government-wide Federal policy for research misconduct. The author is a Senior Policy Analyst in the Office of Science and Technology Policy and a participant in this process. This paper places the NSTC/OSTP effort in historical context, outlines the process by (...)
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  3. David Cruise Malloy & James Agarwal (2010). Ethical Climate in Government and Nonprofit Sectors: Public Policy Implications for Service Delivery. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 94 (1):3 - 2.score: 279.0
    An important factor that leads governments to engage in public service contracts with nonprofit organizations is the belief that they share similar ethical and value orientations that will allow governments to reduce monitoring costs. However the notion of the existence of similarities in ethical climate has not been systematically examined. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ethical climate in government and nonprofit sectors and to determine the extent to which similarities (and differences) exist in ethical climate (...)
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  4. James Agarwal, David Cruise Malloy & Ken Rasmussen (2010). Erratum To: Ethical Climate in Government and Nonprofit Sectors: Public Policy Implications for Service Delivery. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 94 (1):3 - 2.score: 279.0
    An important factor that leads governments to engage in public service contracts with nonprofit organizations is the belief that they share similar ethical and value orientations that will allow governments to reduce monitoring costs. However the notion of the existence of similarities in ethical climate has not been systematically examined. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ethical climate in government and nonprofit sectors and to determine the extent to which similarities (and differences) exist in ethical climate (...)
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  5. Helmut Krauch (2006). Beginning Science Policy Research in Europe: The Studiengruppe für Systemforschung, 1957–1973. [REVIEW] Minerva 44 (2):131-142.score: 267.0
    I am pleased to offer this translation of a lecture by Helmut Krauch, both because he is an old friend, whom I have known for more than forty years, and because it fills a gap in the history of science policy research. As this lecture makes clear, the Studiengruppe, led by Krauch, was the first in Europe to measure the share of nuclear and military research in total R&D expenditure and to make systematic technology assessments to guide (...)
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  6. Mats Benner & Sverker Sörlin (2007). Shaping Strategic Research: Power, Resources, and Interests in Swedish Research Policy. [REVIEW] Minerva 45 (1):31-48.score: 267.0
    'Strategic research’ has become a goal of government policy throughout the industrial world. This paper follows the emergence of new approaches to the funding of 'strategic research’ in Sweden, by examining three research foundations created in the late 1990s, and considers their ambitions, limitations, and achievements.
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  7. William B. Lacy, Laura R. Lacy & Lawrence Busch (1988). Agricultural Biotechnology Research: Practices, Consequences, and Policy Recommendations. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 5 (3):3-14.score: 261.0
    This paper reviews current trends in the development of agricultural biotechnology, including (1) the recent and potential biotechnology products and processes in the plant, animal and food sciences, and (2) the enormous increase in Federal and State government and industrial investments in biotechnology research. Next we analyze the impacts and possible consequences of agricultural biotechnology for public and private agricultural research and for the structure and nature of the food system in this country and around the world. (...)
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  8. Ellen Allewijn (2010). Do Mothers Have the Right to Bring Up Their Own Children? How Facts Do Not Determine (Dutch) Government Policy. Ethics and Education 5 (2):147-157.score: 246.0
    The Dutch government has a double moral message for Dutch parents. On the one hand, they expect mothers to work more hours outside the home; on the other hand, they expect parents to perform better in their parental tasks. New research shows again that in spite of all stimulation measures, Dutch women with children prefer their part-time jobs, and parents prefer not to leave their children to the responsibility of day care all week. To what extent is the (...)
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  9. A. Buchanan & M. C. Kelley (2013). Biodefence and the Production of Knowledge: Rethinking the Problem. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (4):195-204.score: 243.0
    Next SectionBiodefence, broadly understood as efforts to prevent or mitigate the damage of a bioterrorist attack, raises a number of ethical issues, from the allocation of scarce biomedical research and public health funds, to the use of coercion in quarantine and other containment measures in the event of an outbreak. In response to the US bioterrorist attacks following September 11, significant US policy decisions were made to spur scientific enquiry in the name of biodefence. These decisions led to (...)
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  10. Françoise Baylis & Matthew Herder (2009). Policy Design for Human Embryo Research in Canada: A History (Part 1 of 2). [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (1):109-122.score: 239.0
    This article is the first in a two-part review of policy design for human embryo research in Canada. In this article we explain how this area of research is circumscribed by law promulgated by the federal Parliament (the Assisted Human Reproduction Act ) and by guidelines issued by the Tri-Agencies (the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans and Updated Guidelines for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Research ). In so doing, we provide (...)
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  11. Effie Amanatidou, Paul Cunningham, Abdullah Gök & Ioanna Garefi (forthcoming). Using Evaluation Research as a Means for Policy Analysis in a 'New' Mission-Oriented Policy Context. Minerva:1-20.score: 239.0
    Grand challenges stress the importance of multi-disciplinary research, a multi-actor approach in examining the current state of affairs and exploring possible solutions, multi-level governance and policy coordination across geographical boundaries and policy areas, and a policy environment for enabling change both in science and technology and in society. The special nature of grand challenges poses certain needs in evaluation practice: (a) the need for learning at the operational, policy and, especially, system level; and (b) the (...)
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  12. Søren Holm & Lisa Bortolotti (2007). Large Scale Surveys for Policy Formation and Research–a Study in Inconsistency. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (3):205-220.score: 234.0
    In this paper we analyse the degree to which a distinction between social science and public health research and other non-research activities can account for differences between a number of large scale social surveys performed at the national and European level. The differences we will focus on are differences in how participation is elicited and how data are used for government, research and other purposes. We will argue that the research / non-research distinction does (...)
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  13. Laura Jeanine Morris Stark (2012). Behind Closed Doors: Irbs and the Making of Ethical Research. The University of Chicago Press.score: 234.0
    IRBs in action -- Everyone's an expert? Warrants for expertise -- Local precedents -- Documents and deliberations: an anticipatory perspective -- Setting IRBs in motion in Cold War America -- An ethics of place -- The many forms of consent -- Deflecting responsibility -- Conclusion: the making of ethical research.
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  14. Elisa Eiseman (2003). The National Bioethics Advisory Commission: Contributing to Public Policy. Rand.score: 228.0
    Details goverment, private, and international response to the policy recommendations of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission.
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  15. C. Roy-Toole (2009). The 'New Governance Arrangements for Research Ethics Committees': Policy-Shift and Equivocation on Matters of Illegal Research. Research Ethics 5 (4):160-161.score: 222.0
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  16. Rogene A. Buchholz & Sandra B. Rosenthal (2004). Stakeholder Theory and Public Policy: How Governments Matter. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 51 (2):143-153.score: 213.0
    The Social Issues in Management Division has had a long history of research into various aspects of governmental influences on business. Recent years, however, have seen stakeholder theory sort of sweep the field, and under a stakeholder theory of capitalism, governments will matter less then they have in the past as stakeholder principles are implemented throughout the corporate world. This article will examine the nature of this claim by discussing problems with the implementation of stakeholder theory and examining the (...)
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  17. Dhawal Mehta, Jatin Pancholi & Paurav Shukla (2004). Action Research in Policy Making: A Case in the Dairy Industry in Gujarat, India. [REVIEW] AI and Society 18 (4):344-363.score: 212.0
    Action research has been extensively used world-wide for decision making related to policy due to its nature of involving the researcher and decision maker in the process. Following independence in India, one of the major revolutions was brought about in the dairy sector with regard to complete management systems. Most innovations and changes occurred in the line function while the staff function was more often neglected in the overall change. The authors undertook an action research study focusing (...)
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  18. A. R. Holder (1993). Medical Insurance Payments and Patients Involved in Research. Irb 16 (1-2):19-22.score: 207.0
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  19. James J. Dooley & Helen M. Kerch (2000). Evolving Research Misconduct Policies and Their Significance for Physical Scientists. Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (1):109-121.score: 205.0
    Scientific misconduct includes the fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism (FFP) of concepts, data or ideas; some institutions in the United States have expanded this concept to include “other serious deviations (OSD) from accepted research practice.” It is the absence of this OSD clause that distinguishes scientific misconduct policies of the past from the “research misconduct” policies that should be the basis of future federal policy in this area. This paper introduces a standard for judging whether an action should (...)
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  20. David B. Resnick (1999). Privatized Biomedical Research, Public Fears, and the Hazards of Government Regulation: Lessons From Stem Cell Research. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 7 (3):273-287.score: 200.0
    This paper discusses the hazards of regulating controversial biomedical research in light of the emergence of powerful, multi-national biotechnology corporations. Prohibitions on the use of government funds can simply force controversial research into the private sphere, and unilateral or multilateral research bans can simply encourage multi-national companies to conduct research in countries that lack restrictive laws. Thus, a net effect of government regulation is that research migrates from the public to the private sphere. (...)
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  21. James Dietz & Juan Rogers (2012). Meanings and Policy Implications of “Transformative Research”: Frontiers, Hot Science, Evolution, and Investment Risk. [REVIEW] Minerva 50 (1):21-44.score: 200.0
    In recent times there has been a surge in interest on policy instruments to stimulate scientific and engineering research that is of greater consequence, advancing our knowledge in leaps rather than steps and is therefore more “creative” or, in the language of recent reports, “transformative.” Associated with the language of “transformative research” there appears to be much enthusiasm and conviction that the future of research is tied to it. However, there is very little clarity as to (...)
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  22. Bruno S. Frey & Jana Gallus (2013). Subjective Well-Being and Policy. Topoi 32 (2):207-212.score: 198.0
    This paper analyses whether the aggregation of individual happiness scores to a National Happiness Index can still be trusted once governments have proclaimed their main objective to be the pursuit—or even maximization—of this National Happiness Index. The answer to this investigation is clear-cut: as soon as the National Happiness Index has become a policy goal, it can no longer be trusted to reflect people’s true happiness. Rather, the Index will be systematically distorted due to the incentive for citizens to (...)
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  23. Wolfgang Uwe Eckart (ed.) (2006). Man, Medicine, and the State: The Human Body as an Object of Government Sponsored Medical Research in the 20th Century. Steiner.score: 198.0
    Mit Beitragen von: Wolfgang U. Eckart, Christian Bonah, Wolfgang U. Eckart / Andreas Reuland, Alexander Neumann, Peter Steinkamp, Volker Roelcke, Anne ...
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  24. Taran Thune (2010). The Training of “Triple Helix Workers”? Doctoral Students in University–Industry–Government Collaborations. Minerva 48 (4):463-483.score: 198.0
    Changes in knowledge production, increasing interaction between government, universities and industry, and changes in labor markets for doctoral degree holders are forces that have spurred a debate about the organization of doctoral education and the competencies graduates need to master to work as scientists and researchers in a triple helix research context. Recent policy also has supported a redefinition of researcher training with increasing focus on broader skills and relevance for careers outside the university sector. Consequently, it (...)
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  25. Peter Woelert (2013). The 'Economy of Memory': Publications, Citations, and the Paradox of Effective Research Governance. Minerva 51 (3):341-362.score: 198.0
    More recent advancements in digital technologies have significantly alleviated the dissemination of new scientific ideas as well as the storing, searching and retrieval of large amounts of published research findings. While not denying the benefits of this novel ‘economy of memory,’ this paper endeavors to shed light on the ways in which the use of digital technologies may be linked to a distortion of the system of formal publications that facilitates the effective dissemination and collaborative building of scientific knowledge. (...)
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  26. D. Hawks (ed.) (1993). What Are the Proper Limits for Government Intervention in Our Lifestyles?: A Symposium Jointly Convened by the National Centre for Research Into the Prevention of Drug Abuse and the Kingswood Centre for Applied Ethics. Curtin University of Technology.score: 198.0
  27. Walter Humes & Tom Bryce (2001). Scholarship, Research and the Evidential Basis of Policy Development in Education. British Journal of Educational Studies 49 (3):329 - 352.score: 196.0
    The starting point for this paper is the ongoing debate about the relation between research and policy in education. Recent developments in England and Scotland are reviewed in the context of political and academic arguments about the nature and function of research activity. The defensiveness of the research community in the face of professional and political attacks is examined critically. A case study of the Higher Still programme is used to illustrate the complexity of the relationships (...)
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  28. Françoise Baylis & Matthew Herder (2009). Policy Design for Human Embryo Research in Canada: An Analysis (Part 2 of 2). [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (3):351-365.score: 192.0
    This article is the second in a two-part review of policy design for human embryo research in Canada. In the first article in 6(1) of the JBI , we explain how this area of research is circumscribed by law promulgated by the federal Parliament and by guidelines adopted by the Tri-Agencies, and we provide a chronological description of relevant policy initiatives and outcomes related to these two policy instruments, with particular attention to the repeated efforts (...)
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  29. Paul DiMaggio & Michael Useem (forthcoming). Cultural Property and Public Policy: Emerging Tensions in Government Support for the Arts. Social Research.score: 189.0
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  30. Richard Blanco Peck (2006). Los Enfoques Metodológicos y la Administración Pública Moderna. Cinta de Moebio 27:34-42.score: 183.0
    This essay proposes the use of scientific investigation for Latin American and Caribbean public managers so they can reach their 21st century goals. The article’s thesis relies in the usage of social science research techniques and methodologies in the public management solving process of a 21st cen..
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  31. Luciano Kay (2012). Opportunities and Challenges in the Use of Innovation Prizes as a Government Policy Instrument. Minerva 50 (2):191-196.score: 180.0
    Inducement prizes have been long used to stimulate individuals and groups to accomplish diverse goals. Lately, governments have become more and more interested in these prizes and sought to include this kind of incentives within the set of policy tools available to promote science, technology, and innovation. To date, however, there has been little empirically-based scientific knowledge on how to design, manage, and evaluate innovation prizes. This note discusses aspects of the prize phenomenon and the opportunities and challenges related (...)
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  32. Steen Vallentin (2013). Governmentalities of CSR: Danish Government Policy as a Reflection of Political Difference. Journal of Business Ethics:1-15.score: 180.0
    This paper investigates the roles that Danish government has played in the development of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Denmark has emerged as a first mover among the Scandinavian countries when it comes to CSR. We argue that government has played a pivotal role in making this happen, and that this reflects strong traditions of regulation, corporatism and active state involvement. However, there is no unitary “Danish model of CSR” being promoted by government. Although Danish society is often (...)
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  33. Thomas A. Hemphill & Francine Cullari (2009). Corporate Governance Practices: A Proposed Policy Incentive Regime to Facilitate Internal Investigations and Self-Reporting of Criminal Activities. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 87 (1):333 - 351.score: 177.0
    Since the mid-1980s, internal corporate investigations have become commonplace in the U. S., with an upsurge occurring as a result of the corporate scandals of 2001-02 involving Adelphi Communications Corporation, Enron, Merck & Company, Riggs Bank, and other companies accused of financial malfeasance. After an introduction, this article first presents the U. S. public policy framework (as implemented through the U. S. Sentencing Commission, the U. S. Department of Justice, and the Securities and Exchange Commission) encouraging the use of (...)
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  34. Zubin Master & G. K. D. Crozier (2012). The Ethics of Moral Compromise for Stem Cell Research Policy. Health Care Analysis 20 (1):50-65.score: 174.0
    In the US, stem cell research is at a moral impasse—many see this research as ethically mandated due to its potential for ameliorating major diseases, while others see this research as ethically impermissible because it typically involves the destruction of embryos and use of ova from women. Because their creation does not require embryos or ova, induced pluripotent stem cells offer the most promising path for addressing the main ethical objections to stem cell research; however, this (...)
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  35. Norma Morris (2000). Science Policy in Action: Policy and the Researcher. [REVIEW] Minerva 38 (4):425-451.score: 173.0
    Government policies for science, usually incorporatingeconomic and social aims, are increasingly influencing the contentand management of university research. This essay discusses theinfluence of selected science policies on individual researchersand group leaders. Within the limitations of a case study, itargues that policies that steer the content of research have agreater influence on research behaviour, than do policies relatedto overall research management. Increasing pressures for compliancewith mission-objectives point to the need for closer discussionbetween those who make (...) decisions, and the wider researchcommunity. (shrink)
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  36. Joachim Schummer, The Global Institutionalization of Nanotechnology Research: A Bibliometric Approach to the Assessment of Science Policy.score: 171.0
    Based on bibliometric methods, this paper describes the global institutionalization of nanotechnology research from the mid-1980s to 2006. Owing to an extremely strong dynamics, the institutionalization of nanotechnology is likely to surpass those of major disciplines in only a few years. A breakdown of the relative institutionalizations strengths by the main geographical regions, countries, research sectors, disciplines, and institutional types provides a very diverse picture over the time period because of different national science policies. The results allow a (...)
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  37. John Elliott & Dominik Luke (2008). Epistemology as Ethics in Research and Policy: The Use of Case Studies. Journal of Philosophy of Education 42 (s1):87-119.score: 168.0
    This article examines the ethnographic case study in education in the context of policy making with particular emphasis on the practice of research and policy making. The central claim of the article is that it is impossible to establish a transcendental epistemology of the case study on instrumental rationality. Instead it argues for the notion of situated judgement that needs to be made by practitioners in context, practitioners being both researchers and policy makers. In other words, (...)
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  38. Lorraine Foreman-peck & Jane Murray (2008). Action Research and Policy. Journal of Philosophy of Education 42 (s1):145-163.score: 168.0
    This article examines the relationship between action research and policy and the kind of confidence teachers, policy makers and other potential users may have in such research. Many published teacher action research accounts are criticised on the grounds that they do not fully meet the conventional standards for reporting social scientific research, and by implication are held to be less trustworthy. Action research is nevertheless often seen by some academics and policy makers (...)
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  39. Allan C. Shipp (1999). Commentary on “Changing Explanatory Frameworks in the U.S. Government's Attempt to Define Research Misconduct” (D. Guston). [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (2):155-157.score: 168.0
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  40. Dan Lyons (2011). Protecting Animals Versus the Pursuit of Knowledge: The Evolution of the British Animal Research Policy Process. Society and Animals 19 (4):356-367.score: 168.0
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  41. Pola B. Gupta, Stephen J. Gould & Bharath Pola (2004). “To Pirate or Not to Pirate”: A Comparative Study of the Ethical Versus Other Influences on the Consumer's Software Acquisition-Mode Decision. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 55 (3):255 - 274.score: 165.0
    Consumers of software often face an acquisition-mode decision, namely whether to purchase or pirate that software. In terms of consumer welfare, consumers who pirate software may stand in opposition to those who purchase it. Marketers also face a decision whether to attempt to thwart that piracy or to ignore, if not encourage it as an aid to their softwares diffusion, and policymakers face the decision whether to adopt interventionist policies, which are government-centric, or laissez faire policies, which are marketer-centric. (...)
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  42. Charles Clark (2011). Education(Al) Research, Educational Policy-Making and Practice. Journal of Philosophy of Education 45 (1):37-57.score: 164.0
    Professor Whitty has endorsed the consensus that research into education is empirical social science, distinguishing ‘educational research’ which seeks directly to influence practice, and ‘education research’ that has substantive value but no necessary practical application.The status of the science here is problematic. The positivist approach is incoherent and so supports neither option. Critical educational science is virtually policy-inert. The interpretive approach is empirically sound but, because of the value component in education, does not support education (...) either, or account for this component.A solution to the latter problem is sought in the debate between Carr and Hirst on the relationship between philosophy and education. This shows Carr making claims that rely on a conception of philosophy that he rejects, while Hirst insists on this conception, uses it to justify practical claims, but denies that this is possible.To achieve a practically relevant analysis of educational research, both need to include second-order, normative, conceptual enquiry into the philosophies that drive educational policy-making and partly regulate teaching methodology. Deweyan, first-order, ‘reflective practice’ needs, then, to be supplemented with second-order reflection.Educational research is philosophy- not science-driven, and is value-led. Consequently, it has the status not of scientific discovery but of practical recommendation. (shrink)
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  43. David Bridges & Michael Watts (2008). Educational Research and Policy: Epistemological Considerations. Journal of Philosophy of Education 42 (s1):41-62.score: 164.0
    This article is centrally concerned with the sort of knowledge that can and should inform educational policy—and it treats this as an epistemological question. It distinguishes this question from the more extensively explored question of what sort of knowledge in what form policy-makers do in fact commonly take into account. The article examines the logical and rhetorical character of policy and the components of policy decisions and argues that policy demands a much wider range of (...)
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  44. Andrea Brinckmann (2006). The Studiengruppe Für Systemforschung: Systems Research and Policy Advice in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1958–1975. [REVIEW] Minerva 44 (2):149-166.score: 164.0
    In recent years, students of science policy in the Federal Republic of Germany have looked with increasing interest to the innovations of the 1960s. Key concepts such as democratization, participation, and planning mark the political and socio-cultural discourse of the time. For over two decades, the Studiengruppe für Systemforschung (Study Group for Systems Research – SfS) in Heidelberg gave a fresh impetus to policy advice. This essay continues our reflections on its history, traces its origins and development, (...)
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  45. C. D. Godwin (2002). Government Policy and the Provision of Teachers. British Journal of Educational Studies 50 (1):76 - 99.score: 164.0
    The introduction of mass public education posed unfamiliar problems for the governments of modern states, and the ways in which governments worked through those problems can reveal much about the culture and values of a state. This paper focuses on central Government officials and the Ministers they advised, with particular attention to the pivotal period 1960-1976. Trends identified include: the shift from post-War optimism to the more pessimistic view of schooling since the late 1960s; the dynamics of professional development (...)
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  46. David A. Cleveland, Fred Bowannie Jr, Donald F. Eriacho, Andrew Laahty & Eric Perramond (1995). Zuni Farming and United States Government Policy: The Politics of Biological and Cultural Diversity in Agriculture. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 12 (3):2-18.score: 164.0
    Indigenous Zuni farming, including cultural values, ecological and biological diversity, and land distribution and tenure, appears to have been quite productive and sustainable for at least 2000 before United States influence began in the later half of the 18th century. United States Government Indian agriculture policy has been based on assimilation of Indians and taking of their resources, and continues in more subtle ways today. At Zuni this policy has resulted in the degradation and loss of natural (...)
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  47. Judith Wagner DeCew (2004). Privacy and Policy for Genetic Research. Ethics and Information Technology 6 (1):5-14.score: 156.0
    I begin with a discussion of the value of privacy and what we lose without it. I then turn to the difficulties of preserving privacy for genetic information and other medical records in the face of advanced information technology. I suggest three alternative public policy approaches to the problem of protecting individual privacy and also preserving databases for genetic research:(1) governmental guidelines and centralized databases, (2) corporate self-regulation, and (3) my hybrid approach. None of these are unproblematic; I (...)
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  48. Heather A. Kitchin (2003). The Tri-Council Policy Statement and Research in Cyberspace: Research Ethics, the Internet, and Revising a 'Living Document'. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 1 (4):397-418.score: 156.0
    Increasingly, the Internet is proving to be an important research tool. Today, cyberspace affords researchers easy access to traditionally difficult to reach populations, a host of virtual communities, and a wealth of data created through computer-mediated-communication. This newfound research frontier brings with it, however, a multiplicity of ethical concerns, including: (1) whether the Internet constitutes a private or public space; (2) whether the human subject paradigm is appropriate when considering the ethics of Internet research; and (3) whether (...)
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  49. Patrick L. Taylor (2005). The Gap Between Law and Ethics in Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: Overcoming the Effect of U.S. Federal Policy on Research Advances and Public Benefit. Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (4):589-616.score: 156.0
    Key ethical issues arise in association with the conduct of stem cell research by research institutions in the United States. These ethical issues, summarized in detail, receive no adequate translation into federal laws or regulations, also described in this article. U.S. Federal policy takes a passive approach to these ethical issues, translating them simply into limitations on taxpayer funding, and foregoes scientific and ethical leadership while protecting intellectual property interests through a laissez faire approach to stem cell (...)
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  50. David H. Guston (1999). Changing Explanatory Frameworks in the U.S. Government's Attempt to Define Research Misconduct. Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (2):137-154.score: 156.0
    Nearly two decades of debate have not settled the definition of research misconduct. The literature provides four explanatory frameworks for misconduct. The paper examines these frameworks and maps them onto efforts by the U.S. Public Health Service to define research misconduct and subsequent responses to these efforts by the scientific community. The changing frameworks suggest that closure will not be achieved without an authoritative effort, which may occur through the Research Integrity Panel’s recent attempt to create a (...)
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