Search results for 'Response' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Peter Menzies (1998). Possibility and Conceivability: A Response-Dependent Account of Their Connections. In Roberto Casati (ed.), European Review of Philosophy, Volume 3: Response-Dependence. Stanford: CSLI Publications. 255--277.score: 27.0
    In the history of modern philosophy systematic connections were assumed to hold between the modal concepts of logical possibility and necessity and the concept of conceivability. However, in the eyes of many contemporary philosophers, insuperable objections face any attempt to analyze the modal concepts in terms of conceivability. It is important to keep in mind that a philosophical explanation of modality does not have to take the form of a reductive analysis. In this paper I attempt to provide a (...)-dependent account of the modal concepts in terms of conceivability along the lines of a nonreductive model of explanation. (shrink)
     
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  2. Darren Bradley (2011). Functionalist Response-Dependence Avoids Missing Explanations. Analysis 71 (2):297-300.score: 24.0
    I argue that there is a flaw in the way that response-dependence has been formulated in the literature, and this flawed formulation has been correctly attacked by Mark Johnston’s Missing Explanation Argument. Moving to a better formulation, which is analogous to the move from behaviourism to functionalism, avoids the Missing Explanation Argument.
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  3. Jason Kawall (2004). Moral Response-Dependence, Ideal Observers, and the Motive of Duty: Responding to Zangwill. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 60 (3):357-369.score: 24.0
    Moral response-dependent metaethical theories characterize moral properties in terms of the reactions of certain classes of individuals. Nick Zangwill has argued that such theories are flawed: they are unable to accommodate the motive of duty. That is, they are unable to provide a suitable reason for anyone to perform morally right actions simply because they are morally right. I argue that Zangwill ignores significant differences between various approvals, and various individuals, and that moral response-dependent theories can accommodate the (...)
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  4. Andrew Howat (2005). Pragmatism, Truth and Response-Dependence. Facta Philosophica 7 (2):231-253.score: 24.0
    Mark Johnston claims the pragmatist theory of truth is inconsistent with the way we actually employ and talk about that concept. He is, however, sympathetic enough to attempt to rescue its respectable core using ‘response-dependence’, a revisionary form of which he advocates as a method for clarifying various philosophically significant concepts. But Johnston has misrepresented pragmatism; it does not require rescuing, and as I show here, his ‘missing explanation argument’ against pragmatism therefore fails. What Johnston and other critics including (...)
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  5. Nenad Miščević (2006). Moral Concepts: From Thickness to Response-Dependence. [REVIEW] Acta Analytica 21 (1):3-32.score: 24.0
    The paper examines three tenets of Dancy’s meta-ethics, finds them incompatible, and proposes a response-dependentist (or response-dispositional) solution. The first tenet is the central importance of thick concepts and properties. The second is that such concepts essentially involve response(s) of observers, which Dancy interprets in a way that fits the pattern of context-dependent resultance: thick concepts are well suited for the particularist grounding of moral theory. However, and this is the third tenet, in his earlier paper (1986) (...)
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  6. Jeremy Randel Koons (2003). Why Response-Dependence Theories of Morality Are False. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 6 (3):275 - 294.score: 24.0
    Many response-dependence theorists equate moral truth with the generation of some affective psychological response: what makes this action wrong, as opposed to right, is that it would cause (or merit) affective response of type R (perhaps under ideal conditions). Since our affective nature is purely contingent, and not necessarily shared by all rational creatures (or even by all humans), response-dependence threatens to lead to relativism. In this paper, I will argue that emotional responses and moral features (...)
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  7. Nenad Miščević (2011). No More Tears in Heaven: Two Views of Response-Dependence. [REVIEW] Acta Analytica 26 (1):75-93.score: 24.0
    The paper defends a neo-Lockean view of secondary qualities, in particular color, according to which the being of a given color amounts to having the disposition to produce in normal viewers under normal circumstances the response of seeing an objective manifest simple color. It also defends the view that the naïve color-concept, the simple color concept, so to speak, is a fully objective property. The defense of this view is carried against its nearest cousin , the view proposed and (...)
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  8. Aaron Smuts (forthcoming). How Not to Defend Response Moralism. Journal of Aesthetic Education.score: 24.0
    Response moralism holds that audience reactions to works of fiction can be morally bad. This position might appear implausible: How could it be bad to enjoy fictional suffering? It's just fiction. My goal is to sketch the most compelling argument in support of the theory. I show both how and how not to defend response moralism. First I argue that the best defenses in the literature fail. Then I offer a suggestion for how to support the theory. Finally, (...)
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  9. Richard A. Bernardi (2006). Associations Between Hofstede's Cultural Constructs and Social Desirability Response Bias. Journal of Business Ethics 65 (1):43 - 53.score: 24.0
    This paper examines the associations among social desirability response bias, cultural constructs and gender. The study includes the responses of 1537 students from 12 countries including Australia, Canada, China, Colombia, Ecuador, Hong Kong, Ireland, Japan, Nepal, South Africa, Spain, and the United States. The results of the analysis indicate that, on average, social desirability response bias decreases (increases) as a country’s Individualism (Uncertainty Avoidance) increases. The analysis also indicates that women scored significantly higher on Paulhus’ Image Management Subscale (...)
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  10. Richard A. Bernardi & Steven T. Guptill (2008). Social Desirability Response Bias, Gender, and Factors Influencing Organizational Commitment: An International Study. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 81 (4):797 - 809.score: 24.0
    This research is an extension of Walker Information’s (Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases, pp. 235–255, 1999) study on employees’ job attitudes that was conducted exclusively in the United States. Walker Information found that the reputation of the organization, fairness at work, care, and concern for employees, trust in employees, and resources available at work were important factors in an employee’s decision to remain with his or her company. Our sample includes 713 students from seven countries: Canada, Colombia, Ecuador, (...)
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  11. Derek Dalton & Marc Ortegren (2011). Gender Differences in Ethics Research: The Importance of Controlling for the Social Desirability Response Bias. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 103 (1):73-93.score: 24.0
    Gender is one of the most frequently studied variables within the ethics literature. In prior studies that find gender differences, females consistently report more ethical responses than males. However, prior research also indicates that females are more prone to responding in a socially desirable fashion. Consequently, it is uncertain whether gender differences in ethical decision-making exist because females are more ethical or perhaps because females are more prone to the social desirability response bias. Using a sample of 30 scenarios (...)
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  12. Raymond J. Nelson (1975). Behaviorism, Finite Automata, and Stimulus-Response Theory. Theory and Decision 6 (August):249-67.score: 24.0
    In this paper it is argued that certain stimulus-response learning models which are adequate to represent finite automata (acceptors) are not adequate to represent noninitial state input-output automata (transducers). This circumstance suggests the question whether or not the behavior of animals if satisfactorily modelled by automata is predictive. It is argued in partial answer that there are automata which can be explained in the sense that their transition and output functions can be described (roughly, Hempel-type covering law explanation) while (...)
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  13. Jeremy Randel Koons (2003). Why Response-Dependence Theories of Morality Are False. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 6 (3):275-294.score: 24.0
    Many response-dependence theorists equate moral truth with the generation of some affective psychological response: what makes this action wrong, as opposed to right, is that it would cause (or merit) affective response of type R (perhaps under ideal conditions). Since our affective nature is purely contingent, and not necessarily shared by all rational creatures (or even by all humans), response-dependence threatens to lead to relativism. In this paper, I will argue that emotional responses and moral features (...)
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  14. Eline Busck Gundersen (2011). The Chameleon's Revenge: Response-Dependence, Finks and Provisoed Biconditionals. Philosophical Studies 153 (3):435 - 441.score: 24.0
    Response-dependence theses are usually formulated in terms of a priori true biconditionals of roughly the form 'something, x, falls under the concept 'F' ↔ x would elicit response R from subjects S under conditions C'. Such formulations are vulnerable to conditional fallacy problems; counterexamples threaten whenever the C-conditions' coming to obtain might alter the object with respect to F. Crispin Wright has suggested that such problems can be avoided by placing the C-conditions in a proviso. This ensures that (...)
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  15. Daniel E. Moerman (2012). Society for the Anthropology of Consciousness Distinguished Lecture: Consciousness, “Symbolic Healing,” and the Meaning Response. Anthropology of Consciousness 23 (2):192-210.score: 24.0
    Symbolic healing, that is, responding to meaningful experiences in positive ways, can facilitate human healing. This process partly engages consciousness and partly evades consciousness completely (sometimes it partakes of both simultaneously). This paper, presented as the Society for the Anthropology of Consciousness Distinguished Lecture at the 2011 AAA meeting in Montreal, reviews recent research on what is ordinarily (and unfortunately) called the “placebo effect.” The author makes the argument that language use should change, and the relevant portions of what is (...)
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  16. Noël Pauwels, Bartel van De Walle, Frank Hardeman & Karel Soudan (2000). The Implications of Irreversibility in Emergency Response Decisions. Theory and Decision 49 (1):25-51.score: 24.0
    The irreversibility effect implies that a decision maker who neglects the prospect of receiving more complete information at later stages of a sequential decision problem will in certain cases too easily take an irreversible decision, as he ignores the existence of a positive option value in favour of reversible decisions. This option value represents the decision maker's flexibility to adapt subsequent decisions to the obtained information. In this paper we show that the economic models dealing with irreversibility as used in (...)
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  17. Doris Keye, Oliver Wilhelm, Klaus Oberauer & Birgit Stürmer (2013). Individual Differences in Response Conflict Adaptations. Frontiers in Psychology 4:947.score: 24.0
    Conflict-monitoring theory argues for a general cognitive mechanism that monitors for con-flicts in information-processing. If that mechanism detects conflict, it engages cognitive con-trol to resolve it. A slow-down in response to incongruent trials (conflict effect), and a modu-lation of the conflict effect by the congruence of the preceding trial (Gratton or context effect) have been taken as indicators of such a monitoring system. The present study (N = 157) investigated individual differences in the conflict and the context effect in (...)
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  18. Nenad Miscevic´ (2006). Moral Concepts: From Thickness to Response-Dependence. [REVIEW] Acta Analytica 21 (1):3 - 32.score: 24.0
    The paper examines three tenets of Dancy’s meta-ethics, finds them incompatible, and proposes a response-dependentist (or response-dispositional) solution. The first tenet is the central importance of thick concepts and properties. The second is that such concepts essentially involve response(s) of observers, which Dancy interprets in a way that fits the pattern of context-dependent resultance: thick concepts are well suited for the particularist grounding of moral theory. However, and this is the third tenet, in his earlier paper (1986) (...)
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  19. Ming Jia & Zhe Zhang (2013). Critical Mass of Women on BODs, Multiple Identities, and Corporate Philanthropic Disaster Response: Evidence From Privately Owned Chinese Firms. Journal of Business Ethics 118 (2):303-317.score: 24.0
    Although previous studies focus on the role of women in the boardroom and corporate response to natural disasters, none evaluate how women directors influence corporate philanthropic disaster response (CPDR). This study collects data on the philanthropic responses of privately owned Chinese firms to the Wenchuan earthquake of May 12, 2008, and the Yushu earthquake of April 14, 2010. We find that when at least three women serve on a board of directors (BOD), their companies’ responses to natural disasters (...)
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  20. Christopher Schwand, Rudolf Vetschera & Lea M. Wakolbinger (2010). The Influence of Probabilities on the Response Mode Bias in Utility Elicitation. Theory and Decision 69 (3):395-416.score: 24.0
    The response mode bias, in which subjects exhibit different risk attitudes when assessing certainty equivalents versus indifference probabilities, is a well-known phenomenon in the assessment of utility functions. In this empirical study, we develop and apply a cardinal measure of risk attitudes to analyze not only the existence, but also the strength of this phenomenon. Since probability levels involved in decision problems are already known to have a strong impact on behavior, we use this approach to study the impact (...)
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  21. C. Alain, D. Shen, H. Yu & C. Grady (2009). Dissociable Memory- and Response-Related Activity in Parietal Cortex During Auditory Spatial Working Memory. Frontiers in Psychology 1:202-202.score: 24.0
    Attending and responding to sound location generates increased activity in parietal cortex which may index auditory spatial working memory and/or goal-directed action. Here, we used an n-back task (Experiment 1) and an adaptation paradigm (Experiment 2) to distinguish memory-related activity from that associated with goal-directed action. In Experiment 1, participants indicated, in separate blocks of trials, whether the incoming stimulus was presented at the same location as in the previous trial (1-back) or two trials ago (2-back). Prior to a block (...)
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  22. Annelies De Schrijver (2012). Sample Survey on Sensitive Topics: Investigating Respondents' Understanding and Trust in Alternative Versions of the Randomized Response Technique. Journal of Research Practice 8 (1):Article - M1.score: 24.0
    In social science research, survey respondents hesitate to answer sensitive questions. This explains why traditional self-report surveys often suffer from high levels of non-response and dishonest answers. To overcome these problems, an adjusted questioning technique is necessary. This article examines one such adjusted questioning technique: the randomized response technique. However, in order to obtain reliable and valid data, respondents need to understand and trust this technique. Respondents' understanding and trust are assessed in two online variants of the randomized (...)
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  23. [deleted]Diego Redolar-Ripoll Ignacio Obeso, Noemí Robles, Elena M. Marrón (2013). Dissociating the Role of the Pre-SMA in Response Inhibition and Switching: A Combined Online and Offline TMS Approach. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    The pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) is considered to be a key node in the cognitive control of actions that require rapid updating, inhibition or switching, as well as working memory. It is now recognized that the pre-SMA is part of a ‘cognitive control’ network involving the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and subcortical regions, such as the striatum and subthalamic nucleus. However, two important questions remain to be addressed. First, it is not clear if the main role of the pre-SMA in (...)
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  24. [deleted]Cees van Leeuwen Ilias Rentzeperis, Andrey R. Nikolaev, Daniel C. Kiper (2012). Relationship Between Neural Response and Adaptation Selectivity to Form and Color: An ERP Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Adaptation is widely used as a tool for studying selectivity to visual features. In these studies it is usually assumed that the loci of feature selective neural responses and adaptation coincide. We used an adaptation paradigm to investigate the relationship between response and adaptation selectivity in event-related potentials (ERP). ERPs were evoked by the presentation of colored Glass patterns in a form discrimination task. Response selectivities to form and, to some extent, color of the patterns were reflected in (...)
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  25. Gregory Hickok Jonathan Henry Venezia, Kourosh Saberi, Charles Chubb (2012). Response Bias Modulates the Speech Motor System During Syllable Discrimination. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Recent evidence suggests that the speech motor system may play a significant role in speech perception. Repetitive TMS applied to a speech region of premotor cortex impaired syllable identification, while stimulation of motor areas for different articulators selectively facilitated identification of phonemes relying on those articulators. However, in these experiments performance was not corrected for response bias. It is not currently known how response bias modulates activity in these networks. The present fMRI experiment was designed to produce specific, (...)
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  26. [deleted]Martin Eimer Monika Kiss, Jane E. Raymond, Nikki Westoby, Anna C. Nobre (2008). Response Inhibition is Linked to Emotional Devaluation: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Evidence. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 2.score: 24.0
    To study links between the inhibition of motor responses and emotional evaluation, we combined electrophysiological measures of prefrontal response inhibition with behavioural measures of affective evaluation. Participants first performed a Go-Nogo task in response to Asian and Caucasian faces (with race determining their Go or Nogo status), followed by a trustworthiness rating for each face. Faces previously seen as Nogo stimuli were rated as less trustworthy than previous Go stimuli. To study links between the efficiency of response (...)
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  27. Heidrun Åm (2014). Quibbling and the Fallacy of Critical Scholarship: Response to Thorstensen. NanoEthics 8 (3):251-254.score: 24.0
    In this text, I respond to a paper by Erik Thorstensen entitled “Public Involvement and Narrative Fallacies of Nanotechnologies.” In his paper, Thorstensen critically reviews a previous ELSA project on engagement and nanotechnology known by the acronym DEEPEN. While I agree that the ELSA community could benefit from the critical examination of earlier research, I believe the approach taken by Thorstensen is not a constructive one. My response deals with three main issues: the character of the paper, narrative theory, (...)
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  28. [deleted]Christian Grillon Oliver J. Robinson, Marissa Krimsky (2013). The Impact of Induced Anxiety on Response Inhibition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Anxiety has wide reaching effects on cognition; evidenced most prominently by the ‘difficulties concentrating’ seen in anxiety disorders, and by adaptive harm-avoidant behaviors adopted under threatening circumstances. Despite having critical implications for daily-living, the precise impact of anxiety on cognition is as yet poorly quantified. Here we attempt to clarify the impact of anxiety on sustained attention and response inhibition via a translational anxiety induction in healthy individuals (N=22). Specifically, in a within-subjects design, participants completed the Sustained Attention to (...)
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  29. [deleted]Michael Falkenstein Patrick D. Gajewski (2012). Training-Induced Improvement of Response Selection and Error Detection in Aging Assessed by Task Switching: Effects of Cognitive, Physical, and Relaxation Training. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Cognitive control functions decline with increasing age. One of them is response selection that forms the link between the goals and the motor system and is therefore crucial for performance outcomes in cognitive tasks. The present study examines if different types of group-based and trainer-guided training effectively enhance performance of older adults in a task switching task, and how this expected enhancement is reflected in electrophysiological brain activity, as measured in event-related potentials (ERPs). 141 healthy participants aged 65 years (...)
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  30. [deleted]Ilias Rentzeperis, Andrey R. Nikolaev, Daniel C. Kiper & Cees Van Leeuwen (2012). Relationship Between Neural Response and Adaptation Selectivity to Form and Color: An ERP Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Adaptation is widely used as a tool for studying selectivity to visual features. In these studies it is usually assumed that the loci of feature selective neural responses and adaptation coincide. We used an adaptation paradigm to investigate the relationship between response and adaptation selectivity in event-related potentials (ERP). ERPs were evoked by the presentation of colored Glass patterns in a form discrimination task. Response selectivities to form and, to some extent, color of the patterns were reflected in (...)
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  31. Ming Shan, Albert P. C. Chan, Yun Le & Yi Hu (forthcoming). Investigating the Effectiveness of Response Strategies for Vulnerabilities to Corruption in the Chinese Public Construction Sector. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-23.score: 24.0
    Response strategy is a key for preventing widespread corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector. Although several studies have been devoted to this area, the effectiveness of response strategies has seldom been evaluated in China. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities through a survey in the Chinese public construction sector. Survey data obtained from selected experts involved in the Chinese public construction sector were analyzed by factor (...)
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  32. Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Sara Jahfari, Vanessa A. van Ast, Merel Kindt & Birte U. Forstmann (2011). Individual Differences in Heart Rate Variability Predict the Degree of Slowing During Response Inhibition and Initiation in the Presence of Emotional Stimuli. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    Response inhibition is a hallmark of executive control and crucial to support flexible behaviour in a constantly changing environment. Recently, it has been shown that response inhibition is influenced by the presentation of emotional stimuli (Verbruggen and De Houwer, 2007). Healthy individuals typically differ in the degree to which they are able to regulate their emotional state, but it remains unknown whether individual differences in emotion regulation (ER) may alter the interplay between emotion and response inhibition. Here (...)
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  33. Mark J. Fenske Anne E. Ferrey, Alexandra Frischen (2012). Hot or Not: Response Inhibition Reduces the Hedonic Value and Motivational Incentive of Sexual Stimuli. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    The motivational incentive of reward-related stimuli can become so salient that it drives behavior at the cost of other needs. Here we show that response inhibition applied during a Go/No-go task not only impacts hedonic evaluations but also reduces the behavioral incentive of motivationally-relevant stimuli. We first examined the impact of response inhibition on the hedonic value of sex stimuli associated with strong behavioral-approach responses (Experiment 1). Sexually-appealing and non-appealing images were both rated as less attractive when previously (...)
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  34. [deleted]Patrick D. Gajewski & Michael Falkenstein (2012). Training-Induced Improvement of Response Selection and Error Detection in Aging Assessed by Task Switching: Effects of Cognitive, Physical, and Relaxation Training. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Cognitive control functions decline with increasing age. One of them is response selection that forms the link between the goals and the motor system and is therefore crucial for performance outcomes in cognitive tasks. The present study examines if different types of group-based and trainer-guided training effectively enhance performance of older adults in a task switching task, and how this expected enhancement is reflected in electrophysiological brain activity, as measured in event-related potentials (ERPs). 141 healthy participants aged 65 years (...)
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  35. Miguel A. García-Pérez & Rocío Alcalá-Quintana (2012). Response Errors Explain the Failure of Independent-Channels Models of Perception of Temporal Order. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Independent-channels models of perception of temporal order (also referred to as threshold models or perceptual latency models) have been ruled out because two formal properties of these models (monotonicity and parallelism) are not borne out by data from ternary tasks in which observers must judge whether stimulus A was presented before, after, or simultaneously with stimulus B. These models generally assume that observed responses are authentic indicators of unobservable judgments, but blinks, lapses of attention, or errors in pressing the (...) keys (maybe, but not only, motivated by time pressure when reaction times are being recorded) may make observers misreport their judgments or simply guess a response. We present an extension of independent-channels models that considers response errors and we show that the model produces psychometric functions that do not satisfy monotonicity and parallelism. The model is illustrated by fitting it to data from a published study in which the ternary task was used. The fitted functions describe very accurately the absence of monotonicity and parallelism shown by the data. These characteristics of empirical data are thus consistent with independent-channels models when response errors are taken into consideration. The implications of these results for the analysis and interpretation of temporal-order judgment data are discussed. (shrink)
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  36. Catherine Gunzenhauser, Anika Faesche, Wolfgang Friedlmeier & Antje von Suchodoletz (2013). Face It or Hide It: Parental Socialization of Reappraisal and Response Suppression. Frontiers in Psychology 4:992.score: 24.0
    Mastery of cognitive emotion regulation strategies is an important developmental task. This paper focuses on two strategies that occur from preschool age onwards (Stegge & Meerum Terwogt, 2007): reappraisal and response suppression. Parental socialization of these strategies was investigated in a sample of N = 219 parents and their children. Informed by the tripartite model of family impact on children’s emotion regulation, direct relations of emotion socialization processes (modeling and reactions to the child’s negative emotions) and indirect relations of (...)
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  37. James F. Cavanagh Michael X. Cohen (2011). Single-Trial Regression Elucidates the Role of Prefrontal Theta Oscillations in Response Conflict. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    In most cognitive neuroscience experiments there are many behavioral and experimental dynamics, and many indices of brain activity, that vary from trial to trial. For example, in studies of response conflict, conflict is usually treated as a binary variable (i.e., response conflict exists or does not in any given trial), whereas some evidence and intuition suggests that conflict may vary in intensity from trial to trial. Here we demonstrate that single-trial multiple regression of time-frequency electrophysiological activity reveals neural (...)
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  38. Rocío Alcalá-Quintana Miguel A. García-Pérez (2012). Response Errors Explain the Failure of Independent-Channels Models of Perception of Temporal Order. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Independent-channels models of perception of temporal order (also referred to as threshold models or perceptual latency models) have been ruled out because two formal properties of these models (monotonicity and parallelism) are not borne out by data from ternary tasks in which observers must judge whether stimulus A was presented before, after, or simultaneously with stimulus B. These models generally assume that observed responses are authentic indicators of unobservable judgments, but blinks, lapses of attention, or errors in pressing the (...) keys (maybe, but not only, motivated by time pressure when reaction times are being recorded) may make observers misreport their judgments or simply guess a response. We present an extension of independent-channels models that considers response errors and we show that the model produces psychometric functions that do not satisfy monotonicity and parallelism. The model is illustrated by fitting it to data from a published study in which the ternary task was used. The fitted functions describe very accurately the absence of monotonicity and parallelism shown by the data. These characteristics of empirical data are thus consistent with independent-channels models when response errors are taken into consideration. The implications of these results for the analysis and interpretation of temporal-order judgment data are discussed. (shrink)
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  39. Pablo Ruiz, Carmen Ruiz & Ricardo Martínez (2011). Improving the "Leader-Follower" Relationship: Top Manager or Supervisor? The Ethical Leadership Trickle-Down Effect on Follower Job Response. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 99 (4):587 - 608.score: 24.0
    Since time immemorial, the phenomenon of leadership and its understanding has attracted the attention of the business world because of its important role in human groups. Nevertheless, for years efforts to understand this concept have only been centred on people in leadership roles, thus overlooking an important aspect in its understanding: the necessary moral dimension which is implicit in the relationship between leader and follower. As an illustrative example of the importance of considering good morality in leadership, an empirical study (...)
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  40. Margot A. Schel & Eveline A. Crone (2013). Development of Response Inhibition in the Context of Relevant Versus Irrelevant Emotions. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    The present study examined the influence of relevant and irrelevant emotions on response inhibition from childhood to early adulthood. Ninety-four participants between 6 and 25 years of age performed two go/nogo tasks with emotional faces (neutral, happy, and fearful) as stimuli. In one go/nogo task emotion formed a relevant dimension of the task and in the other go/nogo task emotion was irrelevant and participants had to respond to the color of the faces instead. A special feature of the latter (...)
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  41. [deleted]Jessica R. Cohen, Robert F. Asarnow, Fred W. Sabb, Robert M. Bilder, Susan Y. Bookheimer, Barbara J. Knowlton & Russell A. Poldrack (2010). Decoding Developmental Differences and Individual Variability in Response Inhibition Through Predictive Analyses Across Individuals. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 24.0
    Response inhibition is thought to improve throughout childhood and into adulthood. Despite the relationship between age and the ability to stop ongoing behavior, questions remain regarding whether these age-related changes reflect improvements in response inhibition or in other factors that contribute to response performance variability. Functional neuroimaging data shows age-related changes in neural activity during response inhibition. While traditional methods of exploring neuroimaging data are limited to determining correlational relationships, newer methods can determine predictability and can (...)
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  42. Eliza Congdon, Jeanette A. Mumford, Jessica R. Cohen, Adriana Galvan, Turhan Canli & Russell A. Poldrack (2012). Measurement and Reliability of Response Inhibition. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Response inhibition plays a critical role in adaptive functioning and can be assessed with the Stop-signal task, which requires participants to suppress prepotent motor responses. Evidence suggests that this ability to inhibit a motor response that has already been initiated (reflected as Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)) is a quantitative and heritable measure of interindividual variation in brain function. In order to examine the reliability of this measure, we pooled data across three separate studies and examined the influence of (...)
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  43. Anne E. Ferrey, Alexandra Frischen & Mark J. Fenske (2012). Hot or Not: Response Inhibition Reduces the Hedonic Value and Motivational Incentive of Sexual Stimuli. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    The motivational incentive of reward-related stimuli can become so salient that it drives behavior at the cost of other needs. Here we show that response inhibition applied during a Go/No-go task not only impacts hedonic evaluations but also reduces the behavioral incentive of motivationally-relevant stimuli. We first examined the impact of response inhibition on the hedonic value of sex stimuli associated with strong behavioral-approach responses (Experiment 1). Sexually-appealing and non-appealing images were both rated as less attractive when previously (...)
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  44. Andrew F. Heckler & Thomas M. Scaife (2014). Patterns of Response Times and Response Choices to Science Questions: The Influence of Relative Processing Time. Cognitive Science 38 (8):n/a-n/a.score: 24.0
    We report on five experiments investigating response choices and response times to simple science questions that evoke student “misconceptions,” and we construct a simple model to explain the patterns of response choices. Physics students were asked to compare a physical quantity represented by the slope, such as speed, on simple physics graphs. We found that response times of incorrect answers, resulting from comparing heights, were faster than response times of correct answers comparing slopes. This result (...)
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  45. Philippe Boulinguez Marion Criaud, Claire Wardak, Suliann Ben Hamed, Bénédicte Ballanger (2012). Proactive Inhibitory Control of Response as the Default State of Executive Control. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Refraining from reacting does not only involve reactive inhibitory mechanisms. It was recently found that inhibitory control also relies strongly on proactive mechanisms. However, since most available studies have focused on reactive stopping, little is known about how proactive inhibition of response is implemented. Two behavioral experiments were conducted to identify the temporal dynamics of this executive function. They manipulated respectively the time during which inhibitory control must be sustained until a stimulus occurs, and the time limit allowed to (...)
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  46. Jérôme Sackur Mikaël Bastian (2013). Mind Wandering at the Fingertips: Automatic Parsing of Subjective States Based on Response Time Variability. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Research from the last decade has successfully used two kinds of thought reports in order to probe whether the mind is wandering: random thought-probes and spontaneous reports. However, none of these two methods allows any assessment of the subjective state of the participant between two reports. In this paper, we present a step by step elaboration and testing of a continuous index, based on response time variability within Sustained Attention to Response Tasks (N=106, for a total of 10 (...)
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  47. Steven L. Small Pascale Tremblay (2011). Motor Response Selection in Overt Sentence Production: A Functional MRI Study. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    Many different cortical areas are thought to be involved in the process of selecting motor responses, from the inferior frontal gyrus, to the lateral and medial parts of the premotor cortex. The objective of the present study was to examine the neural underpinnings of motor response selection in a set of overt language production tasks. To this aim, we compared a sentence repetition task (externally constrained selection task) with a sentence generation task (volitional selection task) in a group of (...)
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  48. [deleted]Amelia Walter Valsamma Eapen, Rudi Črnčec (2013). Exploring Links Between Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Clinical Predictors of Response to Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is amongst the most familial of psychiatric disorders. Twin and family studies have demonstrated a monozygotic concordance rate of 70–90%, dizygotic concordance of around 10% and more than a 20-fold increase in risk for first-degree relatives. Despite major advances in the genetics of autism, the relationship between different aspects of the behavioural and cognitive phenotype and their underlying genetic liability is still unclear. This is complicated by the heterogeneity of autism, which exists at both genetic and (...)
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  49. D. H. Weissman & J. Carp (2012). Congruency Sequence Effects Are Driven by Previous-Trial Congruency, Not Previous-Trial Response Conflict. Frontiers in Psychology 4:587-587.score: 24.0
    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study sought to distinguish between conflict and non-conflict accounts of CSEs. To this end, we (...)
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  50. [deleted]Peter W. R. Woodruff Tom F. D. Farrow, Naomi K. Johnson, Michael D. Hunter, Anthony T. Barker, Iain D. Wilkinson (2012). Neural Correlates of the Behavioral-Autonomic Interaction Response to Potentially Threatening Stimuli. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 22.0
    Subjective assessment of emotional valence is typically associated with both brain activity and autonomic arousal. Accurately assessing emotional salience is particularly important when perceiving threat. We sought to characterise the neural correlates of the interaction between behavioural and autonomic responses to potentially threatening visual and auditory stimuli. 25 healthy male subjects underwent fMRI scanning whilst skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded. 180 pictures, sentences and sounds were assessed as ‘harmless’ or ‘threatening’. Individuals’ stimulus-locked, phasic SCRs and trial-by-trial behavioural assessments were (...)
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