Search results for 'Reward' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Ariane Bazan & Sandrine Detandt (2013). On the Physiology of Jouissance: Interpreting the Mesolimbic Dopaminergic Reward Functions From a Psychoanalytic Perspective. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Jouissance is a Lacanian concept, infamous for being impervious to understanding and which expresses the paradoxical satisfaction that a subject may derive from his symptom. On the basis of Freud’s “experience of satisfaction” we have proposed a first working definition of jouissance as the (benefit gained from) the motor tension underlying the action which was [once] adequate in bringing relief to the drive and, on the basis of their striking reciprocal resonances, we have proposed that central dopaminergic systems could embody (...)
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  2. Ivo Van Den Berg, Ingmar H. A. Franken & Peter Muris (2010). A New Scale for Measuring Reward Responsiveness. Frontiers in Psychology 1.score: 18.0
    Several psychological theories assume that there are two basic brain mechanisms that guide behavior: an avoidance or inhibition system, which is responsive to signals of punishment, and an approach or activation system, which is sensitive to signals of reward. Several self-report scales have been developed to assess the sensitivity to punishment and reward, and these instruments have been shown to be useful in research on personality, psychopathology, and underlying biological substrates. However, it is also true that in particular (...)
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  3. Hub Zwart (2010). The Nobel Prize as a Reward Mechanism in the Genomics Era: Anonymous Researchers, Visible Managers and the Ethics of Excellence. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (3):299-312.score: 18.0
    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is regarded by many as one of the major scientific achievements in recent science history, a large-scale endeavour that is changing the way in which biomedical research is done and expected, moreover, to yield considerable benefit for society. Thus, since the completion of the human genome sequencing effort, a debate has emerged over the question whether this effort merits to be awarded a Nobel Prize and if so, who should be the one(s) to receive it, (...)
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  4. Jari Kätsyri, Riitta Hari, Niklas Ravaja & Lauri Nummenmaa (2013). Just Watching the Game Ain't Enough: Striatal fMRI Reward Responses to Successes and Failures in a Video Game During Active and Vicarious Playing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Although the multimodal stimulation provided by modern audiovisual video games is pleasing by itself, the rewarding nature of video game playing depends critically also on the players’ active engagement in the gameplay. The extent to which active engagement influences dopaminergic brain reward circuit responses remains unsettled. Here we show that striatal reward circuit responses elicited by successes (wins) and failures (losses) in a video game are stronger during active than vicarious gameplay. Eleven healthy males both played a competitive (...)
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  5. Steven Yantis Brian A. Anderson, Patryk A. Laurent (2013). Reward Predictions Bias Attentional Selection. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Attention selects stimuli for perceptual and cognitive processing according to an adaptive selection schedule. It has long been known that attention selects stimuli that are task relevant or perceptually salient. Recent evidence has shown that stimuli previously associated with reward persistently capture attention involuntarily, even when they are no longer associated with reward. Here we examine whether the capture of attention by previously reward-associated stimuli is modulated by the processing of current but unrelated rewards. Participants learned to (...)
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  6. David Spurrett (2012). What is to Be Done? Why Reward is Difficult to Do Without. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    What is to be Done? Why Reward is Difficult to Do Without. (A Commentary on Clark, A. "Whatever Next?" in Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
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  7. Lisa H. Berghorst, Ryan Bogdan, Michael J. Frank & Diego A. Pizzagalli (2013). Acute Stress Selectively Reduces Reward Sensitivity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Stress may promote the onset of psychopathology by disrupting reward processing. However, the extent to which stress impairs reward processing, rather than incentive processing more generally, is unclear. To evaluate the specificity of stress-induced reward processing disruption, 100 psychiatrically healthy females were administered a probabilistic stimulus selection task enabling comparison of sensitivity to reward-driven (Go) and punishment-driven (NoGo) learning under either ‘no stress’ or ‘stress’ (threat-of-shock) conditions. Cortisol samples and self-report measures were collected. Contrary to hypotheses, (...)
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  8. Estela Camara, Antoni Rodriguez-Fornells & Thomas F. Münte (2009). Functional Connectivity of Reward Processing in the Brain. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 2:19.score: 18.0
    Controversial results have been reported concerning the neural mechanisms involved in the processing of rewards and punishments. On the one hand, there is evidence suggesting that monetary gains and losses activate a similar fronto-subcortical network. On the other hand, results of recent studies imply that reward and punishment may engage distinct neural mechanisms. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we investigated both regional and interregional functional connectivity patterns while participants performed a gambling task featuring unexpectedly high monetary gains and losses. (...)
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  9. Susanne Graef, Guido Biele, Lea K. Krugel, Frank Marzinzik, Michael Wahl, Johann Wotka, Fabian Klostermann & Hauke R. Heekeren (2010). Differential Influence of Levodopa on Reward-Based Learning in Parkinson's Disease. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 18.0
    The mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system linking the dopaminergic midbrain to the prefrontal cortex and subcortical striatum has been shown to be sensitive to reinforcement in animals and humans. Within this system, coexistent segregated striato-frontal circuits have been linked to different functions. In the present study, we tested patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by dopaminergic cell loss, on two reward-based learning tasks assumed to differentially involve dorsal and ventral striato-frontal circuits. 15 non-depressed and non-demented PD patients (...)
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  10. Matthew D. Lieberman Joshua C. Poore, Jennifer H. Pfeifer, Elliot T. Berkman, Tristen K. Inagaki, Benjamin L. Welborn (2012). Prediction-Error in the Context of Real Social Relationships Modulates Reward System Activity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 18.0
    The human reward system is sensitive to both social (e.g., validation) and non-social rewards (e.g., money) and is likely integral for relationship development and reputation building. However, data is sparse on the question of whether implicit social reward processing meaningfully contributes to explicit social representations such as trust and attachment security in pre-existing relationships. This event-related fMRI experiment examined reward system prediction-error activity in response to a potent social reward—social validation—and this activity’s relation to both attachment (...)
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  11. Laura Kaltwasser, Stephanie Ries, Werner Sommer, Robert Knight & Roel M. Willems (2013). Independence of Valence and Reward in Emotional Word Processing: Electrophysiological Evidence. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 18.0
    Both emotion and reward are primary modulators of cognition: Emotional word content enhances word processing, and reward expectancy similarly amplifies cognitive processing from the perceptual up to the executive control level. Here, we investigate how these primary regulators of cognition interact. We studied how the anticipation of gain or loss modulates the neural time course (event-related potentials, ERPs) related to processing of emotional words. Participants performed a semantic categorization task on emotional and neutral words, which were preceded by (...)
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  12. Hans Marien, Henk Aarts & Ruud Custers (2013). Adaptive Control of Human Action: The Role of Outcome Representations and Reward Signals. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 18.0
    The present paper aims to advance the understanding of the control of human behavior by integrating two lines of literature that so far have led separate lives. First, one line of literature is concerned with the ideomotor principle of human behavior, according to which actions are represented in terms of their outcomes. The second line of literature mainly considers the role of reward signals in adaptive control. Here, we offer a combined perspective on how outcome representations and reward (...)
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  13. S. A. Wylie Nelleke C. Van Wouwe, K. R. Ridderinkhof, W. P. M. Van den Wildenberg, G. P. H. Band, A. Abisogun, W. J. Elias, R. Frysinger (2011). Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Improves Reward-Based Decision-Learning in Parkinson's Disease. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 18.0
    Recently, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been shown to be critically involved in decision-making, action selection, and motor control. Here we investigate the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN on reward-based decision-learning in patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD). We determined computational measures of outcome evaluation and reward prediction from PD patients who performed a probabilistic reward-based decision-learning task. In previous work, these measures covaried with activation in the nucleus caudatus (outcome evaluation during the (...)
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  14. P. Read Montague Ramiro Salas, Philip Baldwin, Mariella de Biasi (2010). BOLD Responses to Negative Reward Prediction Errors in Human Habenula. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 18.0
    Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Although positive reward prediction error, a key element in learning that is signaled by dopamine cells has been extensively studied, little is known about negative reward prediction errors in humans. Detailed animal electrophysiology (...)
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  15. Masud Husain Stephanie Burnett Heyes, Robert J. Adam, Maren Urner, Leslie van der Leer, Bahador Bahrami, Paul M. Bays (2012). Impulsivity and Rapid Decision-Making for Reward. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    Impulsivity is a feature of many brain disorders. Although often defined as the predisposition to act with an inadequate degree of deliberation, forethought or control, it has proven difficult to measure. This may in part be because, increasingly, impulsivity is recognized as a multifaceted construct, with impulsive decisions potentially arising due to a number of underlying mechanisms. Indeed, in certain contexts, a ‘functional’ degree of impulsivity may promote effective, motivated behavior in healthy participants. Although many tasks have been developed to (...)
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  16. Werner Sommer Birgit Stürmer, Roland Nigbur, Annekathrin Schacht (2011). Reward and Punishment Effects on Error Processing and Conflict Control. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 18.0
    Recently, positive mood has been shown to reduce cognitive conflicts and adaptation related to conflict control. Van Steenbergen et al. (2009) proposed that short-term adaptation after conflict is driven by the aversive quality of the conflict. They reasoned that monetary gain and its positive emotional consequences might counteract the aversive quality of the preceding conflict and hence reduce subsequent conflict-driven adaptation processes. According to Ashby et al. (1999), however, positive affect increases cognitive flexibility and might, therefore, support cognitive conflict control. (...)
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  17. Adriana Galván (2010). Adolescent Development of the Reward System. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 18.0
    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by increased reward-seeking behavior. Investigators have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with reward paradigms to test two opposing hypotheses about adolescent developmental changes in the striatum, a region implicated in reward processing. One hypothesis posits that the striatum is relatively hypo-responsive to rewards during adolescence, such that heightened reward-seeking behavior is necessary to achieve the same activation as adults. Another view suggests that during adolescence the striatal (...) system is hyper-responsive, which subsequently results in greater reward-seeking. While evidence for both hypotheses has been reported, the field has generally converged on this latter hypothesis based on compelling evidence. In this review, I describe the evidence to support this notion, speculate on the disparate fMRI findings and conclude with future areas of inquiry to this fascinating question. (shrink)
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  18. Rico Fischer Gesine Dreisbach (2012). The Role of Affect and Reward in the Conflict-Triggered Adjustment of Cognitive Control. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 18.0
    Adapting to changing task demands is one of the hallmarks of human cognition. According to an influential theory, the conflict monitoring theory, the adaptation of information processing occurs in a context-sensitive manner in that conflicts signal the need for control recruitment. Starting from the conflict monitoring theory, here the authors discuss the role of affect in the context of conflict-triggered processing adjustments from three different perspectives: (1) the affective value of conflict per se, (2) the affective modulation of conflict-triggered processing (...)
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  19. David H. Zald Michael T. Treadway, Joshua W. Buckholtz (2013). Perceived Stress Predicts Altered Reward and Loss Feedback Processing in Medial Prefrontal Cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Stress is significant risk factor for the development of psychopathology, particularly symptoms related to reward processing. Importantly, individuals display marked variation in how they perceive and cope with stressful events, and such differences are strongly linked to risk for developing psychiatric symptoms following stress exposure. However, many questions remain regarding the neural architecture that underlies inter-subject variability in perceptions of stressors. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a monetary incentive delay paradigm, we examined the effects of self-reported perceived (...)
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  20. Ahmed A. Moustafa (2011). Levodopa Enhances Reward Learning but Impairs Reversal Learning in Parkinson's Disease Patients. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 18.0
    Levodopa Enhances Reward Learning but Impairs Reversal Learning in Parkinson's Disease Patients.
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  21. Ruth M. Krebs Paul S. Muhle-Karbe (2012). On the Influence of Reward on Action-Effect Binding. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    Ideomotor theory states that the formation of anticipatory representations about the perceptual consequences of an action (i.e. action-effect (A-E) binding) provides the functional basis of voluntary action control. A host of studies has demonstrated that A-E binding occurs fast and effortlessly, yet only little is known about cognitive and affective factors that influence this learning process. In the present study, we sought to test whether the motivational value of an action modulates the acquisition of A-E associations. To this end, we (...)
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  22. Joshua C. Poore, Jennifer H. Pfeifer, Elliot T. Berkman, Tristen K. Inagaki, Benjamin L. Welborn & Matthew D. Lieberman (2012). Prediction-Error in the Context of Real Social Relationships Modulates Reward System Activity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 18.0
    The human reward system is sensitive to both social (e.g., validation) and non-social rewards (e.g., money) and is likely integral for relationship development and reputation building. However, data is sparse on the question of whether implicit social reward processing meaningfully contributes to explicit social representations such as trust and attachment security in pre-existing relationships. This event-related fMRI experiment examined reward system prediction-error activity in response to a potent social reward—social validation—and this activity’s relation to both attachment (...)
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  23. Varsha Singh (2013). A Potential Role of Reward and Punishment in the Facilitation of the Emotion-Cognition Dichotomy in the Iowa Gambling Task. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 18.0
    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is based on the assumption that a decision maker is equally motivated to seek reward and avoid punishment, and that decision making is governed solely by the intertemporal attribute (i.e., preference for an option that produces an immediate outcome instead of one that yields a delayed outcome is believed to reflect risky decision making and is considered a deficit). It was assumed in the present study that the emotion- and cognition-based processing dichotomy manifests in (...)
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  24. Hauke R. Heekeren Thomas Mell, Isabell Wartenburger, Alexander Marschner, Arno Villringer, Friedel M. Reischies (2009). Altered Function of Ventral Striatum During Reward-Based Decision Making in Old Age. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 3.score: 18.0
    Normal aging is associated with a decline in different cognitive domains and local structural atrophy as well as decreases in dopamine concentration and receptor density. To date, it is largely unknown how these reductions in dopaminergic neurotransmission affect human brain regions responsible for reward-based decision making in older adults. Using a learning criterion in a probabilistic object reversal task, we found a learning stage by age interaction in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) during decision making. While young adults recruited (...)
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  25. Carmelo M. Vicario, Ada Kritikos, Alessio Avenanti & Robert Rafal (2013). Reward and Punishment: Investigating Cortico-Bulbar Excitability to Disclose the Value of Goods. Frontiers in Psychology 4:39-1.score: 18.0
    Reward and punishment: investigating cortico-bulbar excitability to disclose the value of goods.
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  26. Teck Chuan Voo (2014). Altruism and Reward: Motivational Compatibility in Deceased Organ Donation. Bioethics 28 (6).score: 18.0
    Acts of helping others are often based on mixed motivations. Based on this claim, it has been argued that the use of a financial reward to incentivize organ donation is compatible with promoting altruism in organ donation. In its report Human Bodies: Donation for Medicine and Research, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics uses this argument to justify its suggestion to pilot a funeral payment scheme to incentivize people to register for deceased organ donation in the UK. In this article, (...)
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  27. Marc J. Buehner W. James Greville (2012). Assessing Evidence for a Common Function of Delay in Causal Learning and Reward Discounting. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    Time occupies a central role in both the induction of causal relationships and determining the subjective value of rewards. Delays devalue rewards and also impair learning of relationships between events. The mathematical relation between the time until a delayed reward and its present value has been characterized as a hyperbola-like function, and increasing delays of reinforcement tend to elicit judgments or response rates that similarly show a negatively accelerated decay pattern. Furthermore, neurological research implicates both the hippocampus and pre-frontal (...)
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  28. Kimberly Sarah Chiew & Todd S. Braver (2011). Positive Affect Versus Reward: Emotional and Motivational Influences on Cognitive Control. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 16.0
    It is becoming increasingly appreciated that affective influences can contribute strongly to goal-oriented cognition and behaviour. However, much work is still needed to properly characterize these influences and the mechanisms by which they contribute to cognitive processing. An important question concerns the nature of emotional manipulations (i.e., direct induction of affectively-valenced subjective experience) versus motivational manipulations (e.g., delivery of performance-contingent rewards and punishments) and their impact on cognitive control. Empirical evidence suggests that both kinds of manipulations can influence cognitive control (...)
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  29. Nicholas Shea (2014). Reward Prediction Error Signals Are Meta‐Representational. Noûs 48 (2):314-341.score: 15.0
  30. Andrew Brook (2006). Desire, Reward, Feeling: Commentary on Three Faces of Desire. Dialogue 45 (1):157-164.score: 15.0
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  31. Roger L. Mellgren, Dennis G. Dyck, Jeffrey A. Seybert & Dan M. Wrather (1973). Within-Subject Partial Reinforcement Effects: Reward-Nonreward Transitions and Generalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 (3):389-394.score: 15.0
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  32. Richard L. Patten (1973). Facilitation Effect of Incomplete Reward Reduction in Discrimination: Comparison of Within-Subject and Between-Subject Methods. Journal of Experimental Psychology 100 (1):185.score: 15.0
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  33. Karen Galbraith, Michael E. Rashotte & Abram Amsel (1968). Within-Subjects Partial Reinforcement Effects Varying Percentage of Reward to the Partial Stimulus Between Groups. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (4):547.score: 15.0
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  34. I.-Ning Huang (1969). Successive Contrast Effects as a Function of Type and Magnitude of Reward. Journal of Experimental Psychology 82 (1p1):64.score: 15.0
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  35. J. V. Murphy & R. E. Miller (1958). Effect of the Spatial Relationship Between Cue, Reward, and Response in Simple Discrimination Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 56 (1):26.score: 15.0
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  36. Richard H. Peckham & Abram Amsel (1967). Within-Subject Demonstration of a Relationship Between Frustration and Magnitude of Reward in a Differential Magnitude of Reward Discrimination. Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (2):187.score: 15.0
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  37. Joseph A. Sgro, Robert A. Glotfelty & Bruce D. Moore (1970). Delay of Reward in the Double Alleyway: A Within-Subjects Versus Between-Groups Comparison. Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (1):82.score: 15.0
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  38. Norman E. Spear & William B. Pavlik (1966). Percentage of Reinforcement and Reward Magnitude Effects in a T Maze: Between and Within Subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (4):521.score: 15.0
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  39. Mark A. Berkley (1963). Discrimination of Rewards as a Function of Contrast in Reward Stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (4):371.score: 15.0
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  40. Carrell A. Dammann & Charles C. Perkins Jr (1969). Duration of Antecedent Discriminative Stimuli and Within-Subject Reward Magnitude Differences as Determiners of Running Speed. Journal of Experimental Psychology 82 (3):554.score: 15.0
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  41. James R. Gavelek & James H. McHose (1970). Contrast Effects in Differential Delay of Reward Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (3):454.score: 15.0
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  42. H. Wayne Ludvigson & Robert A. Gay (1967). An Investigation of Conditions Determining Contrast Effects in Differential Reward Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (1):37.score: 15.0
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  43. Louise Brightwell Miller & Betsy Worth Estes (1961). Monetary Reward and Motivation in Discrimination Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 61 (6):501.score: 15.0
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  44. Richard G. Seymann (1969). Effect of Differences in Reward Magnitude with Correlated Cues on Running Speed. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (3):504.score: 15.0
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  45. Joseph A. Sgro, John R. Showalter & Neil H. Cohn (1971). Frustration Effect Following Training with Continuous and Partial Delay of Reward. Journal of Experimental Psychology 87 (3):320-325.score: 15.0
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  46. Fred D. Sheffield (1949). 'Spread of Effect' Without Reward or Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 39 (4):575.score: 15.0
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  47. Amos Tversky & Ward Edwards (1966). Information Versus Reward in Binary Choices. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (5):680.score: 15.0
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  48. Nora D. Volkow, Gene‐Jack Wang, Joanna S. Fowler, Dardo Tomasi, Frank Telang & Ruben Baler (2010). Addiction: Decreased Reward Sensitivity and Increased Expectation Sensitivity Conspire to Overwhelm the Brain's Control Circuit. Bioessays 32 (9):748-755.score: 15.0
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  49. Norma Fredenburg Besch & William F. Reynolds (1958). Alley Length and Time of Food Deprivation in Instrumental Reward Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 56 (5):448.score: 15.0
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  50. Yvonne Brackbill, Michael S. Kappy & Raymond H. Starr (1962). Magnitude of Reward and Probability Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 63 (1):32.score: 15.0
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