1. Johan M. Koedijker, Jamie M. Poolton, Jonathan P. Maxwell, Raôul R. D. Oudejans, Peter J. Beek & Rich S. W. Masters (2011). Attention and Time Constraints in Perceptual-Motor Learning and Performance: Instruction, Analogy, and Skill Level. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):245-256.
    We sought to gain more insight into the effects of attention focus and time constraints on skill learning and performance in novices and experts by means of two complementary experiments using a table tennis paradigm. Experiment 1 showed that skill-focus conditions and slowed ball frequency disrupted the accuracy of experts, but dual-task conditions and speeded ball frequency did not. For novices, only speeded ball frequency disrupted accuracy. In Experiment 2, we extended these findings by instructing novices either explicitly or by (...)
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  2. Rich S. W. Masters, Jon P. Maxwell & Frank F. Eves (2009). Marginally Perceptible Outcome Feedback, Motor Learning and Implicit Processes. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (3):639-645.
    Participants struck 500 golf balls to a concealed target. Outcome feedback was presented at the subjective or objective threshold of awareness of each participant or at a supraliminal threshold. Participants who received fully perceptible feedback learned to strike the ball onto the target, as did participants who received feedback that was only marginally perceptible . Participants who received feedback that was not perceptible showed no learning. Upon transfer to a condition in which the target was unconcealed, performance increased in both (...)
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  3. Robin C. Jackson & Rich S. W. Masters (2006). Ritualized Behavior in Sport. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (6):621-622.
    We consider evidence for ritualized behavior in the sporting domain, noting that such behavior appears commonplace both before a competitive encounter and as part of pre-performance routines. The specific times when ritualized behaviors are displayed support the supposition that they provide temporary relief from pre-competition anxiety and act as thought suppressors in the moments preceding skill execution. (Published Online February 8 2007).
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