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  1. Richard Cross (2012). Duns Scotus and Analogy. Modern Schoolman 89 (3-4):147-154.
    Duns Scotus defends the view that we can speak univocally of God and creatures. When we do so, we use words in the same sense in the two cases. Scotus maintains that the concepts that these univocal words signify are themselves univocal: the same concept in the two cases. In this paper, I consider a related question: does Duns Scotus have the notion of analogous concepts—concepts whose relation to each other lies somewhere between the univocal and the equivocal? Using some (...)
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  2. Richard Cross (2012). Form and Universal in Boethius. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (3):439-458.
    Contrary to the claims of recent commentators, I argue that Boethius holds a modified version of the Ammonian three-fold universal (transcendent, immanent, and conceptual). He probably identifies transcendent universals as divine ideas, and accepts too forms immanent in corporeal particulars, most likely construing these along the Aphrodisian lines that he hints at in a well-known passage from his second commentary on Porphyry's Isagoge. Boethius never states the theory of the three-fold form outright, but I attempt to show that this theory (...)
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  3. Richard Cross (2012). Moral Dilemmas in Medieval Thought From Gratian to Aquinas. By M.V. Dougherty. (Cambridge UP, 2011. Pp. X + 226. Price £55.00, $90.00.). [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 62 (247):404-405.
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  4. Richard Cross (2011). Disability, Impairment, and Some Medieval Accounts of the Incarnation: Suggestions for a Theology of Personhood. Modern Theology 27 (4):639 - 658.
    Drawing on insights from the medieval theologians Duns Scotus and Hervaeus Natalis, I argue that medieval views of the Incarnation require that there is a sense in which the divine person depends on his human nature for his human personhood, and thus that the paradigmatic pattern of human personhood is in some way dependent existence. I relate this to a modern distinction between impairment and disability to show that impairment -- understood as dependence -- is normative for human personhood. I (...)
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  5. Richard Cross (2011). Duns Scotus: Some Recent Research. Journal of the History of Philosophy 49 (3):271-295.
    Duns Scotus (c. 1266-1308) has long ranked as one of the most challenging of philosophers. He was known from shortly after his death as doctor subtilis—the subtle doctor—and his obscure style and complex thought-processes make him a hard thinker to study. That said, he quickly established an almost cult following among his students, and his thought, for all its density, remained hugely popular throughout the Middle Ages and beyond. It is no exaggeration to claim that the last two decades have (...)
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  6. Richard Cross (2011). Vehicle Externalism and the Metaphysics of the Incarnation: A Medieval Contribution. In Anna Marmodoro & Jonathan Hill (eds.), The Metaphysics of the Incarnation. Oup Oxford.
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  7. Richard Cross (2010). Antonie Vos, The Philosophy of John Duns Scotus, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006. Xii + 672pp, £170 Hb. ISBN 9780748624621. [REVIEW] Journal of Scottish Philosophy 8 (2):211-213.
  8. Richard Cross (2010). Duns Scotus on the Semantic Content of Cognitive Acts and Species. Quaestio 10 (1):135-154.
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  9. Richard Cross (2010). Henry of Ghent on the Reality of Non-Existing Possibles – Revisited. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 92 (2):115-132.
    According to a well-known interpretation, Henry of Ghent holds that possible but non-existent essences – items merely with what Henry labels ‘ esse essentiae ’ – have some reality external to the divine mind, but short of actual existence ( esse existentiae ). I argue that this reading of Henry is mistaken. Furthermore, Henry identifies any essence, considered independently of its existence as a universal concept or as instantiated in a particular as an item that has some kind of reality (...)
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  10. Richard Cross (2010). Review of Russell L. Friedman, Medieval Trinitarian Thought From Aquinas to Ockham. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (11).
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  11. Richard Cross (2010). Recent Work on the Philosophy of Duns Scotus. Philosophy Compass 5 (8):667-675.
    This article highlights five areas of Scotus' philosophy that have recently been the subject of scholarly discussion. (1) Metaphysics : I outline the most current accounts of Scotus on individuation (thisness or haecceity) and the common nature. (2) Modal theory : I consider recent accounts both of Scotus' innovations in spelling out the notion of the logically (and broadly logically) possible, and of his account of the independence of modality. (3) Cognitive psychology : I examine recent views of Scotus' theory (...)
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  12. Richard Cross (2008). Idolatry and Religious Language. Faith and Philosophy 25 (2):190-196.
    Upholding a univocity theory of religious language does not entail idolatry, because nothing about univocity entails misidentifying God altogether—which is what idolatry amounts to. Upholders and opponents of univocity can agree on the object to which they are ascribing various attributes, even if they do not agree on the attributes themselves. Neither does the defender of univocity have to maintain that there is anything real really shared by God and creatures. Furthermore, even if much of language is analogous, syllogistic argument—and (...)
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  13. Richard Cross (2008). Some Varieties of Semantic Externalism in Duns Scotus's Cognitive Psychology. Vivarium 46 (3):275-301.
    According to Scotus, an intelligible species with universal content, inherent in the mind, is a partial cause of an occurrent cognition whose immediate object is the self-same species. I attempt to explain how Scotus defends the possibility of this causal activity. Scotus claims, generally, that forms are causes, and that inherence makes no difference to the capacity of a form to cause an effect. He illustrates this by examining a case in which an accident is an instrument of a substance (...)
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  14. Richard Cross (2008). The Incarnation. In Thomas P. Flint & Michael C. Rea (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Theology. Oxford University Press.
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  15. Richard Cross (2007). Analytical Thomism: Traditions in Dialogue, Craig Paterson & Matthew Pugh Eds. (Review). [REVIEW] Ars Disputandi 7.
  16. Richard Cross (2006). David Burrell Faith and Freedom: An Interfaith Perspective. (Malden MA & Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2004). Pp. Xxi+266. £60.00 (Hbk), £19.99 (Pbk). ISBN 140512170X (Hbk), 1405121718 (Pbk). [REVIEW] Religious Studies 42 (3):360-364.
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  17. Richard Cross (2006). The Eternity of the World and the Distinction Between Creation and Conservation. Religious Studies 42 (4):403-416.
    According to an important set of medieval arguments, it is impossible to make a distinction between creation and conservation on the assumption of a beginningless universe. The argument is that, on such an assumption, either God is never causally sufficient for the existence of the universe, or, if He is at one time causally sufficient for the existence of the universe, He is at all times causally sufficient for the universe, and occasionalism is true. I defend the claim that these (...)
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  18. Richard Cross & Andrew Flinn (2006). Introduction. Science and Society 70 (1):11 - 21.
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  19. Malcolm Seymour, Trevor Green, Audrey Healy, J. D. G. Evans, Richard Cross, James Ladyman, Katherine J. Morris, W. J. Mander, Christine Battersby, A. W. Moore, Robert Stern, Christopher Hookway, Bob Carruthers, Gary Russell, Dennis Hedlund, Alex Ridgway, Alexander Fyfe, Paul Farrer & Trevor Nichols (eds.) (2006). Western Philosophy. Kultur.
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  20. Marilyn McCord Adams & Richard Cross (2005). Aristotelian Substance and Supposits. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 79:15 - 72.
    [Marilyn McCord Adams] In this paper I begin with Aristotle's Categories and with his apparent forwarding of primary substances as metaphysically special because somehow fundamental. I then consider how medieval reflection on Aristotelian change led medieval Aristotelians to analyses of primary substances that called into question how and whether they are metaphysically special. Next, I turn to a parallel issue about supposits, which Boethius seems in effect to identify with primary substances, and how theological cases-the doctrines of the Trinity, the (...)
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  21. Marilyn McCord Adams & Richard Cross (2005). What's Metaphysically Special About Supposits? Some Medieval Variations on Aristotelian Substance. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 79 (1):15–52.
  22. Marilyn McCord Adams & Richard Cross (2005). Marilyn McCord Adams. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 79 (1):15-52.
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  23. Marilyn McCord Adams & Richard Cross (2005). Richard Cross. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 79 (1):53-72.
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  24. Richard Cross (2005). Relations, Universals, and the Abuse of Tropes. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 79 (1):53–72.
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  25. Richard Cross (2005). .
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  26. Richard Cross (2005). Anti-Pelagianism and the Resistibility of Grace. Faith and Philosophy 22 (2):199-210.
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  27. Richard Cross (2005). The Philosophy of Aquinas. International Philosophical Quarterly 45 (3):398-399.
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  28. Richard Cross (2004). A. S. McGrade (Ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Philosophy. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003). Pp. XVIII+405. £45.00 (Hbk); £17.99 (Pbk). ISBN 0521806039 (Hbk); 051000637 (Pbk). [REVIEW] Religious Studies 40 (4):516-520.
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  29. Richard Cross (2004). Being and Some Twentieth Century Thomists. International Philosophical Quarterly 44 (3):446-448.
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  30. Richard Cross (2003). Incarnation, Omnipresence, and Action at a Distance. Neue Zeitschrift Für Systematische Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 45 (3):293-312.
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  31. Richard Cross (2003). Medieval Theories of Haecceity. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  32. Richard Cross (2003). 8 Philosophy of Mind. In Thomas Williams (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Duns Scotus. Cambridge University Press. 263.
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  33. Richard Cross (2003). Tobias Hoffmann Creatura Intellecta: Die Ideen Und Possibilien Bei Duns Scotus Mit Ausblick Auf Franz Von Mayronis, Poncius Und Mastrius. (Beiträge Zur Geschichte der Philosophie Und Theologie Des Mittelalters, Neue Folge, 60) (Münster: Aschendorff, 2002). Pp. V+358. € 46.00 (Pbk). ISBN 3 402 04011. [REVIEW] Religious Studies 39 (4):489-491.
  34. Richard Cross (2003). Divisibility, Communicability, and Predicability in Duns Scotus's Theories of the Common Nature. Medieval Philosophy and Theology 11 (01):43-63.
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  35. Richard Cross (2003). Duns Scotus on Divine Substance and the Trinity. Medieval Philosophy and Theology 11 (02):181-201.
  36. Richard Cross (2002). Absolute Time: Peter John Olivi and the Bonaventurean Tradition. Medioevo 27:261-300.
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  37. Richard Cross (2002). Two Models of the Trinity? Heythrop Journal 43 (3):275–294.
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  38. Richard Cross (2002). The Metaphysical Thought of Thomas Aquinas. International Philosophical Quarterly 42 (1):128-130.
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  39. Richard Cross (2001). A Recent Contribution on the Distinction Between Monophysitism and Chalcedonianism. The Thomist 65 (3):361-383.
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  40. Richard Cross (2001). Atonement Without Satisfaction. Religious Studies 37 (4):397-416.
    According to Swinburne, one way of dealing with the guilt that attaches to a morally bad action is satisfaction, consisting of repentance, apology, reparation, and penance. Thus, Christ's life and death make atonement for human sin by providing a reparation which human beings would otherwise be unable to pay. I argue that the nature of God's creative activity entails that human beings can by themselves make reparation for their sins, merely by apology. So there is no need for additional reparation, (...)
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  41. Richard Cross (2000). Perichoresis, Deification, and Christological Predication in John of Damascus. Mediaeval Studies 62 (1):69-124.
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  42. Richard Cross (1999). Duns Scotus. Oxford University Press.
    The nature and content of the thought of Duns Scotus (c. 1266-1308) remains largely unknown except by the expert. This book provides an accessible account of Scotus' theology, focusing both on what is distinctive in his thought, and on issues where his insights might prove to be of perennial value.
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  43. Richard Cross (1999). Four-Dimensionalism and Identity Across Time: Henry of Ghent Vs. Bonaventure. Journal of the History of Philosophy 37 (3):393-414.
  44. Richard Cross (1999). Incarnation, Indwelling, and the Vision of God: Henry of Ghent and Some Franciscans. Franciscan Studies 57 (1):79 - 130.
    According to Henry of Ghent (d. 1293), it is impossible for the second person of the Trinity to assume into unity of person an irrational nature (e.g., a stone nature), or to assume a rational nature that does not enjoy the beatific vision. He argues that the assumption of a nature to a divine person entails both that the nature has the sort of powers that could exercise supernatural activities and that these powers are exercised. Henry’s Franciscan opponents argue against (...)
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  45. Richard Cross (1999). Identity, Origin, and Persistence in Duns Scotus's Physics. History of Philosophy Quarterly 16 (1):1 - 18.
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  46. Richard Cross (1999). Ockham on Part and Whole. Vivarium 37 (2):143-167.
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  47. Simon Tugwell, Anne Davenport, Richard Cross, Andrew E. Larsen, Joke Spruyt & Kent Emery (1999). Brill Online Books and Journals. Vivarium 37 (2).
     
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  48. Richard Cross (1998). Theories of Cognition in the Later Middle Ages. International Philosophical Quarterly 38 (4):445-446.
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  49. Richard Cross (1998). The Physics of Duns Scotus: The Scientific Context of a Theological Vision. Clarendon Press.
    Duns Scotus, along with Thomas Aquinas and William of Ockham, was one of the three most talented and influential of the medieval schoolmen, and a highly original and creative thinker. Natural philosophy, or physics, is one of the areas of his system which has not received detailed attention in modern literature. But it is important, both for understanding Scotus's contributions in theology, and in tracing some important developments in the basically Aristotelian world-view which Scotus and his contemporaries espoused. The book (...)
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  50. Richard Cross (1998). Infinity, Continuity, and Composition: The Contribution of Gregory of Rimini. Medieval Philosophy and Theology 7 (01):89-110.
    Gregory of Rimini (1300s motivations for accepting this view, and indeed how precisely he understands it.
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