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  1. Richard E. Michod (forthcoming). On the Transfer of Fitness From the Cell to the Organism. Biology and Philosophy.(Forthcoming).
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  2. Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod (forthcoming). Group Selection and Group Adaptation During a Major Evolutionary Transition: Insights From the Evolution of Multicellularity in the Volvocine Algae. Biological Theory.
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  3. Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod (2014). Levels of Selection and the Formal Darwinism Project. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):217-224.
    Understanding good design requires addressing the question of what units undergo natural selection, thereby becoming adapted. There is, therefore, a natural connection between the formal Darwinism project (which aims to connect population genetics with the evolution of design and fitness maximization) and levels of selection issues. We argue that the formal Darwinism project offers contradictory and confusing lines of thinking concerning level(s) of selection. The project favors multicellular organisms over both the lower (cell) and higher (social group) levels as the (...)
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  4. Richard E. Michod (2011). Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality: Multicellularity and Sex. In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. Mit Press. 169--198.
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  5. Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod (2010). Philosophical Foundations for the Hierarchy of Life. Biology and Philosophy 25 (3):391-403.
    We review Evolution and the Levels of Selection by Samir Okasha. This important book provides a cohesive philosophical framework for understanding levels-of-selections problems in biology. Concerning evolutionary transitions, Okasha proposes that three stages characterize the shift from a lower level of selection to a higher one. We discuss the application of Okasha’s three-stage concept to the evolutionary transition from unicellularity to multicellularity in the volvocine green algae. Okasha’s concepts are a provocative step towards a more general understanding of the major (...)
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  6. Richard E. Michod (2005). On the Transfer of Fitness From the Cell to the Multicellular Organism. Biology and Philosophy 20 (5):967-987.
    The fitness of any evolutionary unit can be understood in terms of its two basic components: fecundity (reproduction) and viability (survival). Trade-offs between these fitness components drive the evolution of life-history traits in extant multicellular organisms. We argue that these trade-offs gain special significance during the transition from unicellular to multicellular life. In particular, the evolution of germ–soma specialization and the emergence of individuality at the cell group (or organism) level are also consequences of trade-offs between the two basic fitness (...)
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  7. Norman A. Johnson & Richard E. Michod (1999). Cooperation and Conflict at All LevelsDarwinian Dynamics: Evolutionary Transitions in Fitness and Individuality. BioScience 49 (10):833.
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  8. Richard E. Michod (1993). Biology and the Origin of Values. In R. Michod, L. Nadel & M. Hechter (eds.), The Origin of Values. Aldine de Gruyer. 261--271.
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  9. Henry C. Byerly & Richard E. Michod (1991). Fitness and Evolutionary Explanation. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 6 (1):45-53.
    Recent philosophical discussions have failed to clarify the roles of the concept fitness in evolutionary theory. Neither the propensity interpretation of fitness nor the construal of fitness as a primitive theoretical term succeed in explicating the empirical content and explanatory power of the theory of natural selection. By appealing to the structure of simple mathematical models of natural selection, we separate out different contrasts which have tended to confuse discussions of fitness: the distinction between what fitness is defined as versus (...)
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  10. Richard E. Michod (1986). On Fitness and Adaptedness and Their Role in Evolutionary Explanation. Journal of the History of Biology 19 (2):289 - 302.
  11. Richard E. Michod (1981). Positive Heuristics in Evolutionary Biology. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 32 (1):1-36.
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