We contend that if efficiency and reliability are important factors in neural information processing then distributed, not localist, representations are “evolution's best bet.” We note that distributed codes are the most efficient method for representing information, and that this efficiency minimizes metabolic costs, providing adaptive advantage to an organism.
In this paper the authors present a description and reflective analysis of an underdeveloped aspect of legal ethics education: judicial ethics. Part I provides an introduction to Canada's National Judicial Institute and its early attempts to design and deliver judicial ethics education programmes. Part II then suggests that in the last few years a second generation of judicial ethics education has emerged, generating a more systemic and contextually sophisticated pedagogical agenda. Finally, in Part III, the authors argue in favour of (...) even more challenging judicial ethics programmes that will enable judges to develop an enhanced ethical identity. (shrink)
W artykule rozważana jest możliwość powstania ogólnej teorii informacji, która miałaby szerszy zakres tematyczny i wyższy stopień ogólności niż matematyczna teoria komunikacji (łączności) Shannona. Uzasadnieniem takiego oczekiwania jest nie tylko dojrzałość wielu współczesnych koncepcji i teorii informacji, głównie formalnych i matematycznych, lecz również znaczące zmiany w sferze masowej komunikacji i komputerowych systemów informacyjnych (dokonujące się w tzw. zwrocie informacyjnym). Omawiane są koncepcje takich autorów, jak C. Shannon, N. Wiener, Y. Bar-Hillel, K. Devlin, F. Adams, F. Dretske, P. Adriaans oraz (...) J. van Benthem. W oparciu o ten materiał ukazane jest bogactwo znaczeń i zastosowań kategorii informacji w naukach i w filozofii. (shrink)
Against Patrick Devlin, H. L. A. Hart rejects the enforcement of morals as such. Hart defends an expanded version of John Stuart Mill’s harm principle, but this expanded version is no more defensible than Mill’s original claim. Hart’s discussion fails to clarify what is really at stake in controversies regarding the moral acceptability of criminal prohibition of such activities as suicide and assisted suicide, recreational drug use, prostitution, and so on. Regarding the enforcement of morals as such, we should (...) acknowledge that the jury is still out. (shrink)
Irish socialist republicanism has cast a larger shadow over political thought in Ireland than one would expect either from the number of its historical adherents or from the cogency of its central arguments. In modern Ulster -- where political theory is constantly chased, and often mauled, by engaged political practitioners -- one can witness this �disproportionate shadow� syndrome in operation. Thus, for example, the bold and boisterous Bernadette Devlin was not only convinced by the arguments of the socialist republican (...) thinker, James Connolly, but offered readings of Irish history which turned centrally on socialist dynamics. � Since the treaty of 1921, which freed the south from British rule but severed the north from the rest of the country, the republican target has been a reunited, socialist Ireland . . . From  on national feeling grew and throughout the nineteenth century, there was continual struggle, punctuated by famine and emigration, to end British occupation, British imperialism, and British capitalism; and this was throughout Ireland as a whole.� These words underline the importance of Devlin's own suggestion that her book �may not always be objectively accurate�. In fact, she is simply wrong. Her notion that the post-1921 Irish republican movement pursued socialist objectives is as historically misleading as is her suggestion of �continual� nineteenth-century struggle, and neither argument need detain us. The important point for this current essay is to note that -- like numerous other influential post-1960s Ulster republicans -- Devlin owed a debt to, and had a vision of Irish history built upon, socialist republican thinking. (shrink)
On liberty, by J. S. Mill.--Morals and the criminal law, by P. Devlin.--Immorality and treason, by H. L. A. Hart.--Lord Devlin and the enforcement of morals, by R. Dworkin.--Sins and crimes, by A. R. Louch.--Morals offenses and the model penal code, L. B. Schwartz.--Paternalism, by G. Dworkin.--Four cases involving the enforcement of morality: Shaw v. Director of Public Prosecutions; People v. Cohen; Repouille v. United States; Commonwealth v. Donoghue.--Bibliography (p. 149).
Contemporary liberal thinkers commonly suppose that there is something in principle unjust about the legal prohibition of putatively victimless crimes. Here Robert P. George defends the traditional justification of morals legislation against criticisms advanced by leading liberal theorists. He argues that such legislation can play a legitimate role in maintaining a moral environment conducive to virtue and inhospitable to at least some forms of vice. Among the liberal critics of morals legislation whose views George considers are Ronald Dworkin, Jeremy Waldron, (...) David A.J. Richards, and Joseph Raz. He also considers the influential modern justification for morals legislation offered by Patrick Devlin as an alternative to the traditional approach. George closes with a sketch of a "pluralistic perfectionist" theory of civil liberties and public morality, showing that it is fully compatible with a defense of morals legislation. Making Men Moral will interest legal scholars and political theorists as well as theologians and philosophers focusing on questions of social justice and political morality. (shrink)