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  1. Richard J. Arneson, Against Freedom of Conscience.
    Is there a moral right to freedom of conscience? Should a legal right to freedom of conscience be established in each country on Earth? This essay argues for negative answers to both questions. The term freedom of conscience might refer to freedom of thought and the freedom of expression that sustains freedom of thought. In this sense we might affirm the right of each person to form individual opinions about the right and the good, about what we owe one another (...)
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  2. Richard J. Arneson, Chapter 3: Theories, Types, and Bounds of Justice.
    What do we owe to people in other countries around the globe? What do others owe to us? What does morality require of nation states in their policies toward other nation states and toward people other than co-nationals? (On the latter, see Buchanan 2004 and Rawls 1999). These questions define the subject matter of global justice theory.
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  3. Richard J. Arneson, Consent.
    The Lockean natural rights tradition—including its libertarian branch-- is a work in progress.1 Thirty years after the publication of Anarchy, State, and Utopia, Robert Nozick’s classic work of political theory is still regarded by academic philosophers as the authoritative statement of right-wing libertarian Lockeanism in the Ayn Rand mold.2 Despite the classic status of this great book, its tone is not at all magisterial, but improvisational, quirky, tentative, and exploratory. Its author has more questions than answers. On some central foundational (...)
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  4. Richard J. Arneson, Disadvantage, Capability, Commensurability, and Policy.
    In their excellent book Disadvantage, Jonathan Wolff and Avner de-Shalit (hereafter: the Authors) state that their aim “is to provide practical guidance to policy makers by providing a version of egalitarian theory which can be applied to actual social policy.”1 This is a worthy project and their execution of it is full of insight. However, I doubt that they succeed in fulfilling their stated aim.
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  5. Richard J. Arneson, Distributive Justice and Basic Capability Equality: 'Good Enough' is Not Good Enough.
    Amartya Sen is a renowned economist who has also made important contributions to philosophical thinking about distributive justice. These contributions tend to take the form of criticism of inadequate positions and insistence on making distinctions that will promote clear thinking about the topic. Sen is not shy about making substantive normative claims, but thus far he has avoided commitment to a theory of justice, in the sense of a set of principles that specifies what facts are relevant for policy choice (...)
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  6. Richard J. Arneson, Part.
    Karl Marx was a fierce critic of early capitalist market relations.2 His characterization of these relations, as they were forming in the nineteenth century when he observed them or as they have matured in subsequent centuries, strikes many people as inaccurate. But few doubt that an economy that resembled his description of early capitalism would be unjust.3 In that economy, some people are born into extreme poverty and never have a chance to experience a life of decent quality. These proletarians (...)
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  7. Richard J. Arneson, The Supposed Right to a Democratic Say.
    Democratic instrumentalism is the combination of two ideas. One is instrumentalism regarding political arrangements: the form of government that ought to be instituted and sustained in a political society is the one the consequences of whose operation would be better than those of any feasible alternative. The second idea is the claim that under modern conditions democratic political institutions would be best according to the instrumentalist norm and ought to be established. “Democratic instrumentalism” is not a catchy political slogan apt (...)
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  8. Richard J. Arneson, What Do We Owe to Distant Needy Strangers?
    As an affluent person in a world of needy poor, I should probably do more to aid badly off persons around the globe. Many people subscribe to this thought, which prompts guilt and chagrin. However, the thought readily becomes an extremely demanding vise. If I am contemplating using a few dollars of mine to go to a restaurant and a movie, I might reflect that the money would do more good, yield more (...)
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  9. Richard J. Arneson, What, If Anything, Renders All Humans Morally Equal?
    All humans have an equal basic moral status. They possess the same fundamental rights, and the comparable interests of each person should count the same in calculations that determine social policy. Neither supposed racial differences, nor skin color, sex, sexual orientation, ethnicity, intelligence, nor any other differences among humans negate their fundamental equal worth and dignity. These platitudes are virtually universally affirmed. A white supremacist racist or an admirer of Adolf Hitler who denies them is rightly regarded as beyond the (...)
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  10. Richard J. Arneson, Whatever of What?
    In 1980, Amartya Sen’s essay ‘Equality of What?’ stimulated a still ongoing discussion on the question: ‘Insofar as one holds that social justice demands rendering people’s condition more nearly equal, what aspects of people’s condition should be equalized?’ (Sen, 1982). In what respects should people be rendered more nearly the same? Prominent responses include resources, fundamental liberties, capabilities, advantages, welfare, and opportunities for welfare.1 There is a more general question in this neighbourhood that should be of interest. We might conceive (...)
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  11. Richard J. Arneson (2013). Equality of Opportunity: Derivative Not Fundamental. Journal of Social Philosophy 44 (4):316-330.
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  12. Richard J. Arneson (2013). From Primary Goods to Capabilities to Well-Being. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 16 (2):179-195.
    Amartya Sen?s The Idea of Justice (2009) mistakenly characterizes transcendental accounts of justice as being unable to compare non-ideal alternatives, and thus misfires as a criticism of Robert Nozick and John Rawls. In fact, Nozick?s disinterest in when rights may be overridden does not bespeak indifference to specific questions of comparative assessment, and Lockean rights do give determinate advice in everyday circumstances. Sen correctly reports that Rawls?s theory is defective at giving practical normative advice, but the basic problem is the (...)
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  13. Richard J. Arneson (2013). International Clinical Trials Are Not Inherently Exploitative. In Arthur L. Caplan & Robert Arp (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Bioethics. John Wiley & Sons. 25--485.
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  14. Richard J. Arneson (2013). The Enforcement of Morals Revisited. Criminal Law and Philosophy 7 (3):435-454.
    Against Patrick Devlin, H. L. A. Hart rejects the enforcement of morals as such. Hart defends an expanded version of John Stuart Mill’s harm principle, but this expanded version is no more defensible than Mill’s original claim. Hart’s discussion fails to clarify what is really at stake in controversies regarding the moral acceptability of criminal prohibition of such activities as suicide and assisted suicide, recreational drug use, prostitution, and so on. Regarding the enforcement of morals as such, we should acknowledge (...)
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  15. Richard J. Arneson (2011). Liberalism, Capitalism, and “Socialist” Principles. Social Philosophy and Policy 28 (2):232-261.
  16. Richard J. Arneson (2010). Good, Period. Analysis 70 (4):731-744.
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  17. Richard J. Arneson (2010). Self-Ownership and World Ownership: Against Left-Libertarianism. Social Philosophy and Policy 27 (1):168-194.
    What regime of property ownership satisfies norms of justice? The doctrine known as “left-libertarianism” offers a seemingly plausible answer.1 Its basic thrust is that libertarianism properly understood leaves room for an egalitarianism that enhances its appeal. In this essay I argue that the seeming plausibility of the doctrine evaporates under scrutiny. This set of views is unacceptable from any political standpoint, left, right, or center. The left-libertarian category encompasses a family of positions. I focus on one of these, the views (...)
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  18. Richard J. Arneson (2009). Meaningful Work and Market Socialism Revisited. Analyse and Kritik 31 (1).
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  19. Richard J. Arneson (2007). Desert and Equality. In Nils Holtug & Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen (eds.), Egalitarianism: New Essays on the Nature and Value of Equality. Clarendon Press. 262--293.
  20. Richard J. Arneson, Robert E. Goodin, David Schmidtz, Agnieszka Jaworska, Caspar Hare & Lionel K. McPherson (2007). 10. Laurence Thomas, The Family and the Political Self Laurence Thomas, The Family and the Political Self (Pp. 580-585). In Laurie DiMauro (ed.), Ethics. Greenhaven Press.
     
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  21. Richard J. Arneson (2005). Do Patriotic Ties Limit Global Justice Duties? Journal of Ethics 9 (1-2):127 - 150.
    Some theorists who accept the existence of global justice duties to alleviate the condition of distant needy strangers hold that these duties are significantly constrained by special ties to fellow countrymen. The patriotic priority thesis holds that morality requires the members of each nation-state to give priority to helping needy fellow compatriots over more needy distant strangers. Three arguments for constraint and patriotic priority are examined in this essay: an argument from fair play, one from coercion, another from coercion and (...)
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  22. Richard J. Arneson (2005). The Shape of Lockean Rights: Fairness, Pareto, Moderation, and Consent. Social Philosophy and Policy 22 (1):255-285.
    In chapter four of Anarchy, State, and Utopia, Robert Nozick raised interesting questions about whether or not it is ever morally acceptable to act against what are agreed to be an individual's natural moral rights. The pursuit of these questions opens up issues concerning the specific content of these individual rights. This essay explores Nozick's questions by posing examples and using our considered responses to them to specify the shape of individual rights. The exploration provisionally concludes that a conception of (...)
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  23. Richard J. Arneson (2004). Cracked Foundations of Liberal Equality. In Ronald Dworkin & Justine Burley (eds.), Dworkin and His Critics: With Replies by Dworkin. Blackwell Pub.. 79--98.
  24. Richard J. Arneson (2004). Stephen Darwall, Welfare and Rational Care:Welfare and Rational Care. Ethics 114 (4):815-819.
  25. Bruce Ackerman, Richard J. Arneson, Ronald Dworkin, Gerald F. Gaus, Kent Greenawalt, Vinit Haksar, Thomas Hurka, George Klosko, Charles Larmore, Stephen Macedo, Thomas Nagel, John Rawls, Joseph Raz & George Sher (2003). Perfectionism and Neutrality: Essays in Liberal Theory. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  26. Richard J. Arneson (2003). Defending the Purely Instrumental Account of Democratic Legitimacy. Journal of Political Philosophy 11 (1):122–132.
  27. Richard J. Arneson (2002). Equality. In Robert L. Simon (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Social and Political Philosophy. Blackwell.
     
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  28. Richard J. Arneson (2002). The End of Welfare as We Know It? Scanlon Versus Welfarist Consequentialism. Social Theory and Practice 28 (2):315-336.
  29. Richard J. Arneson (2002). Ronald Dworkin, Sovereign Virtue: The Theory and Practice of Equality:Sovereign Virtue: The Theory and Practice of Equality. Ethics 112 (2):367-371.
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  30. Richard J. Arneson (2001). Exploitation. Alan Wertheimer. Mind 110 (439):888-891.
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  31. Richard J. Arneson (2001). Equality, Responsibility, and the Law. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 31 (2):245-262.
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  32. Richard J. Arneson (2001). Luck and Equality: Richard J. Arneson. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 75 (1):73–90.
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  33. Richard J. Arneson (2001). Against Rights. Noûs 35 (s1):172 - 201.
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  34. Richard J. Arneson (2000). Economic Analysis Meets Distributive Justice. Social Theory and Practice 26 (2):327-345.
    Some of the best philosophers do not hold academic appointments in philosophy departments. Wouldn't you rather have the ghost of Frank Ramsey (the Cambridge mathematician who died in the 1920s) as a hall mate instead of some of your current colleagues? Confining our attention to the living, we find some economists among the more philosophically inclined intellectuals. The best of these fellow traveling economistphilosophers are the Nobel Prize winner Amartya Sen and also John Roemer. In the early 1980s Roemer did (...)
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  35. Richard J. Arneson (2000). Luck Egalitarianism and Prioritarianism. Ethics 110 (2):339-349.
    In her recent, provocative essay “What Is the Point of Equality?”, Elizabeth Anderson argues against a common ideal of egalitarian justice that she calls “luck egalitarianism” and in favor of an approach she calls “democratic equality.”1 According to the luck egalitarian, the aim of justice as equality is to eliminate so far as is possible the impact on people’s lives of bad luck that falls on them through no fault or choice of their own. In the ideal luck egalitarian society, (...)
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  36. Richard J. Arneson (2000). Perfectionism and Politics. Ethics 111 (1):37-63.
    Philosophers perennially debate the nature of the good for humans. Is it subjective or objective? That is to say, do the things that are intrinsically good for an agent, good for their own sakes and apart from further consequences, acquire this status only in virtue of how she happens to regard them? Or are there things that are good in themselves for an individual independently of her desires and attitudes toward them? The issue sounds recondite, but has been thought to (...)
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  37. John Deigh, Robert E. Goodin David Parker, Louise M. Antony, Richard J. Arneson, Hilary Charlesworth, Richard Mulgan, Martha C. Nussbaum, Eamonn Callan, Lester H. Hunt & Fernando R. Teson (2000). 26. Book Notes Book Notes (Pp. 199-216). Ethics 111 (1).
     
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  38. Hugh LaFollette, Elijah Millgram, David McCabe, Richard J. Arneson & Noël Carroll (2000). 10. Charles W. Mills, Blackness Visible: Essays on Philosophy and Race Charles W. Mills, Blackness Visible: Essays on Philosophy and Race (Pp. 432-434). [REVIEW] Ethics 110 (2).
     
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  39. Richard J. Arneson (1999). Against Rawlsian Equality of Opportunity. Philosophical Studies 93 (1):77-112.
    According to John Rawls, "Justice is the first virtue of social institutions."1 Like Gaul, justice is tripartite. Rawls affirms an Equal Liberty Principle that guarantees equal basic or constitutional liberties for all citizens and a Difference Principle that requires inequalities in the distribution of certain social and economic benefits, the primary social goods, to be set so that the long-term holdings of primary social goods are maximized for the citizens whose holdings are least. Sandwiched between these two principles is a (...)
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  40. Richard J. Arneson (1999). Egalitarianism and Responsibility. Journal of Ethics 3 (3):225-247.
    This essay examines several possible rationales for the egalitarian judgment that justice requires better-off individuals to help those who are worse off even in the absence of social interaction. These rationales include equality (everyone should enjoy the same level of benefits), moral meritocracy (each should get benefits according to her responsibility or deservingness), the threshold of sufficiency (each should be assured a minimally decent quality of life), prioritarianism (a function of benefits to individuals should be maximized that gives priority to (...)
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  41. Richard J. Arneson (1997). Egalitarianism and the Undeserving Poor. Journal of Political Philosophy 5 (4):327–350.
    Recently in the U.S. a near-consensus has formed around the idea that it would be desirable to "end welfare as we know it," in the words of President Bill Clinton.1 In this context, the term "welfare" does not refer to the entire panoply of welfare state provision including government sponsored old age pensions, government provided medical care for the elderly, unemployment benefits for workers who have lost their jobs without being fired for cause, or aid to the disabled. "Welfare" in (...)
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  42. Richard J. Arneson (1997). Feminism and Family Justice. Public Affairs Quarterly 11 (4):313-330.
  43. Richard J. Arneson (1997). Review: The Priority of the Right Over the Good Rides Again. [REVIEW] Ethics 108 (1):169 - 196.
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  44. Richard J. Arneson (1997). The Priority of the Right Over the Good Rides Again:A Treatise on Social Justice, Vol. 2, Justice as Impartiality. Brian Barry. Ethics 108 (1):169-.
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  45. Richard J. Arneson (1996). Introduction. Ethics 106 (3):508.
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  46. Richard J. Arneson (1996). Value in Ethics and Economics, Elizabeth Anderson. Harvard University Press, 1993. 246 + Xvi Pages. Economics and Philosophy 12 (01):89-.
  47. Richard J. Arneson (1994). Book Review:Contemporary Political Philosophy: An Introduction. Will Kymlicka. [REVIEW] Ethics 104 (2):388-.
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  48. Richard J. Arneson (1993). Socialism as the Extension of Democracy. Social Philosophy and Policy 10 (2):145-171.
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  49. Richard J. Arneson (1992). Commodification and Commerical Surrogacy. Philosophy and Public Affairs 21 (2):132-164.
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