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  1. Patricia Smith Churchland, Rick Grush, Rob Wilson & Frank Keil, Computation and the Brain.
    Two very different insights motivate characterizing the brain as a computer. One depends on mathematical theory that defines computability in a highly abstract sense. Here the foundational idea is that of a Turing machine. Not an actual machine, the Turing machine is really a conceptual way of making the point that any well-defined function could be executed, step by step, according to simple 'if-you-are-in-state-P-and-have-input-Q-then-do-R' rules, given enough time (maybe infinite time) [see COMPUTATION]. Insofar as the brain is a device whose (...)
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  2. Rick Grush, Internal Models and the Construction of Time: Generalizing From State Estimation to Trajectory Estimation to Address Temporal Features of Perception, Including Temporal Illusions.
    The question of whether time is its own best representation is explored. Though there is theoretical debate between proponents of internal models and embedded cognition proponents (e.g. Brooks R 1991 Artificial Intelligence 47 139–59) concerning whether the world is its own best model, proponents of internal models are often content to let time be its own best representation. This happens via the time update of the model that simply allows the model’s state to evolve along with the state of the (...)
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  3. Rick Grush, Time and Experience.
    Nothing is more obvious than the fact that we are able to experience events in the world such a ball deflecting from the cross-bar of a goal. But what is the temporal relation between these two things, the event, and our experience of the event? One possibility is that the world progresses temporally through a sequence of instantaneous states – the striker’s foot in contact with the ball, then the ball between the striker and the goal, then the ball in (...)
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  4. Rick Grush, To Appear in Philosophy of Science.
    It is an under-appreciated fact that we have no significant understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms supporting any aspect of cognition, broadly construed. The limited understanding we do have is a combination of a multitude of enticing empirical fragments, scattered sparsely on a background of noise, and a number of vastly underdetermined theoretical frameworks. But however incomplete the answers, the questions posed by cognitive neuroscience are compelling. Indeed, it is nothing less than ourselves -- our decision making abilities, our command of (...)
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  5. Rick Grush, Yet Another Design for a Brain? Review of Port and van Gelder (Eds) Mind as Motion.
    It is the aim of work in theoretical cognitive science to produce good theories of what exactly cognition amounts to, preferably theories which not only provide a framework for fruitful empirical investigation, but which also shed light on cognitive activity itself, which help us to understand our place, as cognitive agents, in a complex causally determined physical universe. The most recent such framework to gain significant fame is the so-called dynamical approach to cognition (henceforth DST, for Dynamical Systems Theory ). (...)
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  6. Rick Grush, Blending in Language, Conceptual Structure, and the Cerebral Cortex.
    0. Introduction The past decade has seen Cognitive Linguistics (CL) emerge as an important, exciting and promising theoretical alternative to Chomskyan approaches to the study of language. Even so, sheer numbers and institutional inertia make it the case that most current neurolinguistic research either assumes that the Chomskyan formalist story is more or less correct (and thus that the task of neurolinguistics is to determine how the brain implements GB, for instance), or that the there are two possibilities, Chomskyanism or (...)
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  7. Rick Grush, Introduction.
    [1] Michael Gareth Justin Evans was born in London on May 12 th, 1946, to his parents Gwaldus and Justin Evans. He had an older brother Huw, an older sister Myfawny, and a younger sister Elaine. As a young student, Evans was both highly intelligent and careless. The final report from his form master at Granton Primary School says that "Gareth is so vigorous and impatient to get his work finished that he is subject to error. A delightful (...)
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  8. Rick Grush, Manifolds, Coordinations, Imagination, Objectivity.
    Each of us distinguishes between himself and states of himself on the one hand, and what is not himself or a state of himself on the other. What are the conditions of our making this distinction, and how are they fulfilled? In what way do we make it, and why do we make it in the way we do?
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  9. Rick Grush, Space, Time and Objects.
    In this paper I will outline a unified information processing framework whose goal is to explain how the nervous system represents space, time and objects. In the remainder of this introductory section I will first be more specific about the sort of spatial, temporal, and object representation at issue, and then outline the structure of this paper.
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  10. Lucia Foglia & Rick Grush (2011). The Limitations of a Purely Enactive (Non-Representational) Account of Imagery. Journal of Consciousness Studies 18 (5-6):35 - 43.
     
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  11. Lucia Foglia & Rick Grush (2010). Reuse (Neural, Bodily, and Environmental) as a Fundamental Organizational Principle of Human Cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):274-274.
    We taxonomize the varieties of representational reuse and point out that all the sorts of reuse that the brain engages in (1) involve something like a model (or schema or simulator), and (2) are effected in bodily and external media, as well as neural media. This suggests that the real fundamental organizational principle is not neural reuse, but model reuse.
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  12. Rick Grush & Przemysław Nowakowski (2010). Emulujący wywiad… z Rickiem Grushem. Avant 1 (1).
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  13. Rick Grush & Przemysław Nowakowski (2010). The Emulating Interview… with Rick Grush. Avant 1 (1).
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  14. Holly Andersen & Rick Grush (2009). A Brief History of Time-Consciousness: Historical Precursors to James and Husserl. Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (2):277-307.
    William James’ Principles of Psychology, in which he made famous the ‘specious present’ doctrine of temporal experience, and Edmund Husserl’s Zur Phänomenologie des inneren Zeitbewusstseins, were giant strides in the philosophical investigation of the temporality of experience. However, an important set of precursors to these works has not been adequately investigated. In this article, we undertake this investigation. Beginning with Reid’s essay ‘Memory’ in Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man, we trace out a line of development of ideas about (...)
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  15. Rick Grush (2008). Review of William M. Ramsey, Representation Reconsidered. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (2).
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  16. Rick Grush (2007). A Plug for Generic Phenomenology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5-6):504-505.
    I briefly sketch a notion of generic phenomenology, and what I call the wave-collapse illusion to the effect that transitions from generic to detailed phenomenology are not noticed as phenomenal changes. Change blindness and inattentional blindness can be analyzed as cases where certain things are phenomenally present, but generically so.
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  17. Rick Grush (2007). Berkeley and the Spatiality of Vision. Journal of the History of Philosophy 45 (3):413-442.
    : Berkeley's Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision presents a theory of various aspects of the spatial content of visual experience that attempts to undercut not only the optico-geometric accounts of e.g., Descartes and Malebranche, but also elements of the empiricist account of Locke. My task in this paper is to shed light on some features of Berkeley's account that have not been adequately appreciated. After rehearsing a more detailed Lockean critique of the notion that depth is a proper (...)
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  18. Rick Grush (2007). Evans on Identification-Freedom. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 37 (4):605-617.
    Gareth Evans’ account of Identifi cation-freedom (IF), which he devel- ops in Chapters 6 and 7 of The Varieties of Reference (henceforth VR) is almost universally misunderstood.1 Howell is guilty of this same mis- understanding, and as a result claims to have mounted a criticism of Evans, when in fact he has not. I will take the occasion of Howell’s oth- erwise insightful article to clarify Evans’ position. Note that the bulk of Howell’s analysis is targeted at the phenomenon known (...)
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  19. Rick Grush (2007). Skill Theory V2.0: Dispositions, Emulation, and Spatial Perception. Synthese 159 (3):389 - 416.
    An attempt is made to defend a general approach to the spatial content of perception, an approach according to which perception is imbued with spatial content in virtue of certain kinds of connections between perceiving organism's sensory input and its behavioral output. The most important aspect of the defense involves clearly distinguishing two kinds of perceptuo-behavioral skills—the formation of dispositions, and a capacity for emulation. The former, the formation of dispositions, is argued to by the central pivot of spatial content. (...)
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  20. Rick Grush (2006). How to, and How Not to, Bridge Computational Cognitive Neuroscience and Husserlian Phenomenology of Time Consciousness. Synthese 153 (3):417-450.
    A number of recent attempts to bridge Husserlian phenomenology of time consciousness and contemporary tools and results from cognitive science or computational neuroscience are described and critiqued. An alternate proposal is outlined that lacks the weaknesses of existing accounts.
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  21. Rick Grush (2005). Brain Time and Phenomenological Time. In A. Brooks & Kathleen Akins (eds.), Philosophy and the Neurosciences. Cambridge.
    ... there are cases in which on the basis of a temporally extended content of consciousness a unitary apprehension takes place which is spread out over a temporal interval (the so-called specious present). ... That several successive tones yield a melody is possible only in this way, that the succession of psychical processes are united "forthwith" in a common structure.
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  22. Rick Grush (2004). Further Explorations of the Empirical and Theoretical Aspects of the Emulation Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):425-435.
    The emulation theory of representation articulated in the target article is further explained and explored in this response to commentaries. Major topics include: the irrelevance of equilibrium-point and related models of motor control to the theory; clarification of the particular sense of “representation” which the emulation theory of representation is an account of; the relation between the emulation framework and Kalman filtering; and addressing the empirical data considered to be in conflict with the emulation theory. In addition, I discuss the (...)
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  23. Rick Grush (2004). The Emulation Theory of Representation: Motor Control, Imagery, and Perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):377-396.
    The emulation theory of representation is developed and explored as a framework that can revealingly synthesize a wide variety of representational functions of the brain. The framework is based on constructs from control theory (forward models) and signal processing (Kalman filters). The idea is that in addition to simply engaging with the body and environment, the brain constructs neural circuits that act as models of the body and environment. During overt sensorimotor engagement, these models are driven by efference copies in (...)
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  24. Rick Grush (2003). In Defense of Some "Cartesian" Assumption Concerning the Brain and its Operation. Biology and Philosophy 18 (1):53-92.
    I argue against a growing radical trend in current theoretical cognitive science that moves from the premises of embedded cognition, embodied cognition, dynamical systems theory and/or situated robotics to conclusions either to the effect that the mind is not in the brain or that cognition does not require representation, or both. I unearth the considerations at the foundation of this view: Haugeland's bandwidth-component argument to the effect that the brain is not a component in cognitive activity, and arguments inspired by (...)
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  25. Rick Grush (2002). Cognitive Science. In Peter Machamer Michael Silberstein (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Science. Blackwell. 272--289.
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  26. Rick Grush, The Philosophy of Cognitive Science.
    Philosophy interfaces with cognitive science in three distinct but related areas. First, there is the usual set of issues that fall under the heading of philosophy of science (explanation, reduction, etc.), applied to the special case of cognitive science. Second, there is the endeavor of taking results from cognitive science as bearing upon traditional philosophical questions about the mind, such as the nature of mental representation, consciousness, free will, perception, emotions, memory, etc. Third.
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  27. Rick Grush & Pete Mandik (2002). Representational Parts. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 1 (4):389-394.
  28. Pete Mandik & Rick Grush (2002). Representational Parts. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 1 (389):394.
    In this reply we claim that, contra Dreyfus, the kinds of skillful performances Dreyfus discusses _are_ representational. We explain this proposal, and then defend it against an objection to the effect that the representational notion we invoke is a weak one countenancing only some global state of an organism as a representation. According to this objection, such a representation is not a robust, projectible property of an organism, and hence will gain no explana- tory leverage in cognitive scientific explanations. We (...)
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  29. Rick Grush (2001). The Semantic Challenge to Computational Neuroscience. In Peter K. Machamer, Peter McLaughlin & Rick Grush (eds.), Theory and Method in the Neurosciences. University of Pittsburgh Press. 155--172.
    I examine one of the conceptual cornerstones of the field known as computational neuroscience, especially as articulated in Churchland et al. (1990), an article that is arguably the locus classicus of this term and its meaning. The authors of that article try, but I claim ultimately fail, to mark off the enterprise of computational neuroscience as an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the cognitive, information-processing functions of the brain. The failure is a result of the fact that the authors provide no (...)
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  30. Peter K. Machamer, Rick Grush, Peter McLaughlin & Gualtiero Piccinini (2001). Book Reviews-Theory and Method in the Neurosciences. Philosophy of Science 68 (4):584-588.
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  31. Peter K. Machamer, Peter McLaughlin & Rick Grush (eds.) (2001). Theory and Method in the Neurosciences. University of Pittsburgh Press.
  32. Peter McLaughlin, Peter Machamer & Rick Grush (eds.) (2001). Theory and Method in the Neurosciences. Pittsburgh University Press.
  33. Rick Grush (2000). Self, World and Space: The Meaning and Mechanisms of Ego- and Allocentric Spatial Representation. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 1 (1):59-92.
    b>: The problem of how physical systems, such as brains, come to represent themselves as subjects in an objective world is addressed. I develop an account of the requirements for this ability that draws on and refines work in a philosophical tradition that runs from Kant through Peter Strawson to Gareth Evans. The basic idea is that the ability to represent oneself as a subject in a world whose existence is independent of oneself involves the ability to represent space, and (...)
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  34. Andy Clark & Rick Grush (1999). Towards a Cognitive Robotics. Adaptive Behavior 7 (1):5-16.
    There is a definite challenge in the air regarding the pivotal notion of internal representation. This challenge is explicit in, e.g., van Gelder, 1995; Beer, 1995; Thelen & Smith, 1994; Wheeler, 1994; and elsewhere. We think it is a challenge that can be met and that (importantly) can be met by arguing from within a general framework that accepts many of the basic premises of the work (in new robotics and in dynamical systems theory) that motivates such scepticism in the (...)
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  35. Rick Grush (1998). Perception, Imagery, and the Sensorimotor Loop. In F. Esken & F.-D. Heckman (eds.), A Consciousness Reader. Schoeningh Verlag.
    I have argued elsewhere that imagery and represention are best explained as the result of operations of neurally implemented emulators of an agent's body and environment. In this article I extend the theory of emulation to address perceptual processing as well. The key notion will be that of an emulator of an agent's egocentric behavioral space. This emulator, when run off-line, produces mental imagery, including transformations such as visual image rotations. However, while on-line, it is used to process information from (...)
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  36. Rick Grush (1998). Skill and Spatial Content. Electronic Journal of Analytic Philosophy 6 (6).
    [1] It is well-known that Evans laid the groundwork for a truly radical and fruitful theory of _content_ -- a theory according to which content is a genus with at least conceptual and nonconceptual varieties as species, and in which nonconceptual content plays a very significant role. It is less well-recognized that Evans was also in the process of working out the details of a truly radical and groundbreaking theory of _representation_, a task he was unfortunately unable to bring to (...)
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  37. Rick Grush & Patricia S. Churchland (1998). Computation and the Brain. In Robert A. Wilson & Frank F. Keil (eds.), Mit Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (Mitecs). Mit Press.
    Two very different insights motivate characterizing the brain as a computer. One depends on mathematical theory that defines computability in a highly abstract sense. Here the foundational idea is that of a Turing machine. Not an actual machine, the Turing machine is really a conceptual way of making the point that any well-defined function could be executed, step by step, according to simple 'if-you-are-in-state-P-and-have-input-Q-then-do-R' rules, given enough time (maybe infinite time) [see COMPUTATION]. Insofar as the brain is a device whose (...)
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  38. Rick Grush (1997). The Architecture of Representation. Philosophical Psychology 10 (1):5-23.
    b>: In this article I outline, apply, and defend a theory of natural representation. The main consequences of this theory are: i) representational status is a matter of how physical entities are used, and specifically is not a matter of causation, nomic relations with the intentional object, or information; ii) there are genuine (brain-)internal representations; iii) such representations are really representations, and not just farcical pseudo-representations, such as attractors, principal components, state-space partitions, or what-have-you;and iv) the theory allows us to (...)
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  39. Rick Grush (1997). Book Review:The Cognitive Neurosciences Michael S. Gazzaniga. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 64 (1):188-.
  40. Rick Grush (1995). Emulation and Cognition. Dissertation, University of California, San Diego
  41. Rick Grush & P. Churchland (1995). Gaps in Penrose's Toiling. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Conscious Experience. Ferdinand Schoningh. 10-29.
    Using the Gödel Incompleteness Result for leverage, Roger Penrose has argued that the mechanism for consciousness involves quantum gravitational phenomena, acting through microtubules in neurons. We show that this hypothesis is implausible. First, the Gödel Result does not imply that human thought is in fact non algorithmic. Second, whether or not non algorithmic quantum gravitational phenomena actually exist, and if they did how that could conceivably implicate microtubules, and if microtubules were involved, how that could conceivably implicate consciousness, is entirely (...)
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  42. Rick Grush & Patricia Smith Churchland (1995). Gaps in Penroses Toiling. Journal of Consciousness Studies 2 (1):10-29.
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  43. Rick Grush & Patricia Smith Churchland (1995). Penrose's Toilings. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Conscious Experience. Ferdinand Schoningh.
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  44. Rick Grush (1994). Beyond Connectionist Versus Classical Al: A Control Theoretic Perspective on Development and Cognitive Science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):720.
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  45. Rick Grush (1994). Consequences of Consequentialism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):18.
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  46. Rick Grush (1994). Motor Models as Steps to Higher Cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (2):209.
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  47. Bruce Glymour, Rick Grush, Valerie Gray Hardcastle, Brian Keeley, Joe Ramsey, Oron Shagrir & Ellen Watson (1992). The Cartesian Theater Stance. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (2):209-210.
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