Search results for 'Robert Anthony Williams' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. J. Robert & G. Williams (2012). Counterfactual Triviality. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 85 (3):648-670.score: 2799.9
    I formulate a counterfactual version of the notorious 'Ramsey Test'. Whereas the Ramsey Test for indicative conditionals links credence in indicatives to conditional credences, the counterfactual version links credence in counterfactuals to expected conditional chance. I outline two forms: a Ramsey Identity on which the probability of the conditional should be identical to the corresponding conditional probabihty/expectation of chance; and a Ramsey Bound on which credence in the conditional should never exceed the latter.Even in the weaker, bound, form, the counterfactual (...)
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  2. McCrudden Christopher, Ford Robert & Heath Anthony (2004). Legal Regulation of Affirmative Action in Northern Ireland: An Empirical Assessment. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 24 (3).score: 1600.0
     
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  3. Patricia J. Williams (1998). Seeing a Cohr-Blind Future: The Paradox of Race (New York: Farrar, Straus and GiroUX, 1997); Robert Gooding-Williams," Race. Multiculturalism, and Democracy,". Constellations 5:i8 - 41.score: 1460.0
     
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  4. Owen Flanagan & Robert Anthony Williams (2010). What Does the Modularity of Morals Have to Do With Ethics? Four Moral Sprouts Plus or Minus a Few. Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):430-453.score: 870.0
    Flanagan (1991) was the first contemporary philosopher to suggest that a modularity of morals hypothesis (MMH) was worth consideration by cognitive science. There is now a serious empirically informed proposal that moral competence is best explained in terms of moral modules-evolutionarily ancient, fast-acting, automatic reactions to particular sociomoral experiences (Haidt & Joseph, 2007). MMH fleshes out an idea nascent in Aristotle, Mencius, and Darwin. We discuss the evidence for MMH, specifically an ancient version, “Mencian Moral Modularity,” which claims four innate (...)
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  5. C. J. F. Williams, Anthony Savile, Richard Norman, Robert Black, R. G. Swinburne, David Holdcroft, Eva Schaper, Thomas McPheron & Karl Britton (1973). New Books. [REVIEW] Mind 82 (328):617-638.score: 810.0
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  6. John D. Sommer, Ed Casey, Mary C. Rawlinson, Eva Kittay, Michael A. Simon, Patrick Grim, Clyde Lee Miller, Rita Nolan, Marshall Spector, Don Ihde, Peter Williams, Anthony Weston, Donn Welton, Dick Howard, David A. Dilworth, Tom Foster Digby 3d, Anthony Appiah, David Auerbach, Annette Baier, Seyla Benhabib, Akeel Bilgrami, Richard Boyd, Robert Brandon, Joshua Cohen, Arnold Davidson, Owen Flanagan, Nancy Fraser, Marcia Lind, Alexander Nehamas, Linda Nicholson, Adrian Piper, Lynne Tirrell, Lawrence Blum, Lawrence Foster, Roma Farion, Mitchel Silver, Jenifer Radden, Jack Bayne, Robert K. Shope, Jane Roland Martin, Arthur B. Millman, Beebe Nelson, Robert Rosenfeld, Janet Farrell-Smith, David E. Flesche, Daniel E. Anderson, J. R. Brown, F. Cunningham, D. Goldstick, I. Hacking, C. Normore, A. Ripstein, W. Sumner, Alison M. Jaggar, Harry Deutsch, Irving Stein, John Hund, George Englebretsen, Fred Strohm, D. L. Ouren, P. Bilimoria, F. B. D. & Nora Nevin (1993). Letters to the Editor. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 66 (5):97 - 112.score: 810.0
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  7. David M. Williams, Robert W. Scotland, Christopher J. Humphries & Darrell J. Siebert (1996). Confusion in Philosophy: A Comment on Williams (1992). Synthese 108 (1):127 - 136.score: 600.0
    Patricia Williams made a number of claims concerning the methods and practise of cladistic analysis and classification. Her argument rests upon the distinction of two kinds of hierarchy: a divisional hierarchy depicting evolutionary descent and the Linnean hierarchy describing taxonomic groups in a classification. Williams goes on to outline five problems with cladistics that lead her to the conclusion that systematists should eliminate cladism as a school of biological taxonomy and to replace it either with something that is (...)
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  8. Robert R. Williams (2006). Review of Robert M. Wallace, Hegel's Philosophy of Reality, Freedom, and God. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2006 (1).score: 540.0
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  9. Robert R. Williams (2010). G. W. F. Hegel, Robert F. Brown (Ed., Tr.), Lectures on the History of Philosophy 1825-6: Volume I: Introduction and Oriental Philosophy. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (7).score: 540.0
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  10. Robert R. Williams (2012). Tragedy, Recognition, and the Death of God: Studies in Hegel and Nietzsche. Oup Oxford.score: 520.0
    Robert R. Williams offers a bold new account of divergences and convergences in the work of Hegel and Nietzsche. He explores four themes - the philosophy of tragedy; recognition and community; critique of Kant; and the death of God - and explicates both thinkers' critiques of traditional theology and metaphysics.
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  11. Skelton Anthony (2002). Review of Robert Myers Self-Governance and Cooperation. [REVIEW] Utilitas 14 (1):128-130.score: 360.0
  12. John R. Williams (2010). In Defense of Human Dignity: Essays for Our Times (Loyola Topics in Political Philosophy). Edited by Robert P. Kraynak and Glenn Tinder. Heythrop Journal 51 (2):340-341.score: 360.0
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  13. Patricia Williams (1990). Evolved Ethics Re-Examined: The Theory of Robert J. Richards. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 5 (4):451-457.score: 360.0
    Richards's theory, then, fails on three counts. By illegitimately importing a premise from outside of the theory of evolution in order to construct a valid argument, Richards has failed to achieve his objective of deriving a moral theory exclusively from biological facts. By sliding from a causal use of “ought” to a moral one, Richards commits the fallacy of ambiguity. And by insisting that action from the motive of altruism is moral while claiming that an ethical theory which justifies Hitler's (...)
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  14. Michael Williams (2000). ¿ Es Enunciable El Contextualismo?: Una Respuesta a Robert Fogelin. Teorema: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 19 (3):81-86.score: 360.0
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  15. Harry F. Williams (1987). Glyn S. Burgess and Robert A. Taylor, Eds., with Alan Deyermond, Denni Green, and Beryl Rowland, The Spirit of the Court. Selected Proceedings of the Fourth Congress of the International Courtly Literature Society (Toronto 1983). Woodbridge, Suffolk, and Dover, N.H.: D. S. Brewer, 1985. Pp. 408. $59.25. [REVIEW] Speculum 62 (2):392-394.score: 360.0
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  16. See D. Williams (2004). From Constantine the Great to Robert the Bruce: The Elgin Porphyry. Minerva 15 (1):40-2.score: 360.0
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  17. Sharon E. Williams & Rebecca A. Rialon (2011). Illuminating the Complexities of Ethical Decision Making: APA Ethics Code Commentary and Case Illustrations. Linda Campbell, Melba Vasquez, Stephen Behnke, and Robert Kinscherff. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2010, 392 Pages, $69.95 (Hardcover). [REVIEW] Ethics and Behavior 21 (3):261-262.score: 360.0
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  18. Clifford Williams (1987). Robert B. Kruschwitz and Robert C. Roberts, Eds., The Virtues: Contemporary Essays on Moral Character Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 7 (6):239-241.score: 360.0
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  19. Simon Williams (2010). Robert Carsen's Production of Les Contes d'Hoffmann : An Exercise in Theatrical Self-Reflection. In Walter Bernhart & Werner Wolf (eds.), Self-Reference in Literature and Other Media. Rodopi.score: 360.0
     
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  20. Robert Williams, Indeterminate Survival.score: 300.0
    Most views of personal identity allow that sometimes, facts of personal identity can be borderline or indeterminate. Bernard Williams argued that regarding questions of one’s own survival as borderline “had no comprehensible representation” in one’s emotions and expectations. Whether this is the case, I will argue, depends crucially on what account of indeterminacy is presupposed.
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  21. J. Robert G. Williams, Chancy Counterfactuals, Redux: Response to Dodd.score: 300.0
    Chancy counterfactuals are a headache. Dylan Dodd (2009) presents an interesting argument against a certain general strategy for accounting for them, instances of which are found in the appendices to Lewis (1979) and in Williams (2008). I will argue (i) that Dodd’s understates the counterintuitiveness of the conclusions he can reach; (ii) that the counterintuitiveness can be thought of as an instance of more general oddities arising when we treat vagueness and indeterminacy in a classical setting; and (iii) the (...)
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  22. John N. Williams (2009). Justifying Circumstances and Moore-Paradoxical Beliefs: A Response to Brueckner. Analysis 69 (3):490-496.score: 300.0
    In 2004, I explained the absurdity of Moore-paradoxical belief via the syllogism (Williams 2004): (1) All circumstances that justify me in believing that p are circumstances that tend to make me believe that p. (2) All circumstances that tend to make me believe that p are circumstances that justify me in believing that I believe that p. (3) All circumstances that justify me in believing that p are circumstances that justify me in believing that I believe that p. I (...)
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  23. J. Robert G. Williams (2012). Generalized Probabilism: Dutch Books and Accuracy Domination. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (5):811-840.score: 300.0
    Jeff Paris (2001) proves a generalized Dutch Book theorem. If a belief state is not a generalized probability (a kind of probability appropriate for generalized distributions of truth-values) then one faces ‘sure loss’ books of bets. In <span class='Hi'>Williams</span> (manuscript) I showed that Joyce’s (1998) accuracy-domination theorem applies to the same set of generalized probabilities. What is the relationship between these two results? This note shows that (when ‘accuracy’ is treated via the Brier Score) both results are easy corollaries (...)
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  24. J. Robert G. Williams, Dutch Books and Accuracy Domination.score: 300.0
    Jeff Paris (2001) proves a generalized Dutch Book theorem. If a belief state is not a generalized probability (a kind of probability appropriate for generalized distributions of truth-values) then one faces ‘sure loss’ books of bets. In Williams (manuscript) I showed that Joyce’s (1998) accuracy-domination theorem applies to the same set of generalized probabilities. What is the relationship between these two results? This note shows that (when ‘accuracy’ is treated via the Brier Score) both results are easy corollaries of (...)
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  25. Robert W. Armstrong, Robert J. Williams & J. Douglas Barrett (2004). The Impact of Banality, Risky Shift and Escalating Commitment on Ethical Decision Making. Journal of Business Ethics 53 (4):365-370.score: 280.0
    This paper posits that organizational variables are the factors that lead to the moral decline of companies like Enron and Worldcom. The individuals involved created environments within the organizations that precipitated a spiral of unethical decision-making. It is proposed that at the executive level, it is the organizational factors associated with power and decision-making that have the critical influence on moral and ethical behavior. The study has used variables that were deemed to be surrogate measures of the ethical violations (OSHA (...)
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  26. Robert A. Hicks, Susan L. Williams & Felice Ferrante (1979). Eye Color and the Pupillary Attributions of College Students to Happy and Angry Faces. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 13 (1):55-56.score: 280.0
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  27. Kelleen Toohey, Bill Johnston, C. Philip Kearney, Robert R. Sherman, Stephen S. Williams, William M. Stallings, Philip A. Cusick, Doris Walker Weathers, Ronald Podeschi & Elaine Pearson (1989). Book Review Section 2. [REVIEW] Educational Studies 20 (3):296-351.score: 280.0
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  28. Robert A. Opoku & Edem B. Williams (2010). Stakeholder Management Online: An Empirical Analysis of US and Swedish Political Party Web Sites. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 8 (3):249-269.score: 280.0
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  29. James Wetzel, Leonard F. Wheat, Robert L. Wicks, Robert R. Williams & David Wolfsdorf (2013). Editions and Translations. Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 (3):503-505.score: 280.0
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  30. J. Robert G. Williams & Elizabeth Barnes (2011). A Theory of Metaphysical Indeterminacy. In Karen Bennett & Dean W. Zimmerman (eds.), Oxford Studies in Metaphysics volume 6. Oxford University Press. 103-148.score: 240.0
    If the world itself is metaphysically indeterminate in a specified respect, what follows? In this paper, we develop a theory of metaphysical indeterminacy answering this question.
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  31. J. Robert G. Williams (2007). Eligibility and Inscrutability. Philosophical Review 116 (3):361-399.score: 240.0
    Inscrutability arguments threaten to reduce interpretationist metasemantic theories to absurdity. Can we find some way to block the arguments? A highly influential proposal in this regard is David Lewis’ ‘eligibility’ response: some theories are better than others, not because they fit the data better, but because they are framed in terms of more natural properties. The purposes of this paper are (1) to outline the nature of the eligibility proposal, making the case that it is not ad hoc, but instead (...)
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  32. Robert Williams, Aristotelian Indeterminacy and the Open Future.score: 240.0
    I explore the thesis that the future is open, in the sense that future contingents are neither true nor false. The paper is divided into three sections. In the first, I survey how the thesis arises on a variety of contemporary views on the metaphysics of time. In the second, I explore the consequences for rational belief of the ‘Aristotelian’ view that indeterminacy is characterized by truth-value gaps. In the third, I outline one line of defence for the Aristotelian against (...)
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  33. J. Robert G. Williams (2008). Ontic Vagueness and Metaphysical Indeterminacy. Philosophy Compass 3 (4):763-788.score: 240.0
    Might it be that world itself, independently of what we know about it or how we represent it, is metaphysically indeterminate? This article tackles in turn a series of questions: In what sorts of cases might we posit metaphysical indeterminacy? What is it for a given case of indefiniteness to be 'metaphysical'? How does the phenomenon relate to 'ontic vagueness', the existence of 'vague objects', 'de re indeterminacy' and the like? How might the logic work? Are there reasons for postulating (...)
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  34. Robert Williams (2010). Fundamental and Derivative Truths. Mind 119 (473):103-141.score: 240.0
    This article investigates the claim that some truths are fundamentally or really true — and that other truths are not. Such a distinction can help us reconcile radically minimal metaphysical views with the verities of common sense. I develop an understanding of the distinction whereby Fundamentality is not itself a metaphysical distinction, but rather a device that must be presupposed to express metaphysical distinctions. Drawing on recent work by Rayo on anti-Quinean theories of ontological commitments, I formulate a rigourous theory (...)
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  35. Robert Williams, On Sider on Naturalness.score: 240.0
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  36. Robert Williams (2008). The Price of Inscrutability. Noûs 42 (4):600 - 641.score: 240.0
  37. J. Robert G. Williams (2010). Defending Conditional Excluded Middle. Noûs 44 (4):650-668.score: 240.0
    Lewis (1973) gave a short argument against conditional excluded middle, based on his treatment of ‘might’ counterfactuals. Bennett (2003), with much of the recent literature, gives an alternative take on ‘might’ counterfactuals. But Bennett claims the might-argument against CEM still goes through. This turns on a specific claim I call Bennett’s Hypothesis. I argue that independently of issues to do with the proper analysis of might-counterfactuals, Bennett’s Hypothesis is inconsistent with CEM. But Bennett’s Hypothesis is independently objectionable, so we should (...)
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  38. Lee Walters & Robert Williams (2013). An Argument for Conjunction Conditionalization. Review of Symbolic Logic 6 (4):573-588.score: 240.0
    Are counterfactuals with true antecedents and consequents automatically true? That is, is Conjunction Conditionalization: if (X & Y), then (X > Y) valid? Stalnaker and Lewis think so, but many others disagree. We note here that the extant arguments for Conjunction Conditionalization are unpersuasive, before presenting a family of more compelling arguments. These arguments rely on some standard theorems of the logic of counterfactuals as well as a plausible and popular semantic claim about certain semifactuals. Denying Conjunction Conditionalization, then, requires (...)
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  39. Robert Williams (2008). Multiple Actualities and Ontically Vague Identity. Philosophical Quarterly 58 (230):134-154.score: 240.0
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  40. Robert Williams (2008). Chances, Counterfactuals, and Similarity. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 77 (2):385-420.score: 240.0
    John Hawthorne in a recent paper takes issue with Lewisian accounts of counterfactuals, when relevant laws of nature are chancy. I respond to his arguments on behalf of the Lewisian, and conclude that while some can be rebutted, the case against the original Lewisian account is strong.I develop a neo-Lewisian account of what makes for closeness of worlds. I argue that my revised version avoids Hawthorne’s challenges. I argue that this is closer to the spirit of Lewis’s first (non-chancy) proposal (...)
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  41. Robert Williams (forthcoming). Degree Supervaluational Logic. Review of Symbolic Logic.score: 240.0
    Supervaluationism is often described as the most popular semantic treatment of indeterminacy. There’s little consensus, however, about how to fill out the barebones idea to include a characterization of logical consequence. In a recent paper, Achille Varzi writes: it is pretty clear that there is not just one supervaluational semantics out there–there are lots of such semantics; and although it is true that they all exploit the same insight, their relative differences are by no means immaterial . . . a (...)
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  42. Robert Williams (2008). Gavagai Again. Synthese 164 (2):235 - 259.score: 240.0
    Quine (1960, "Word and object". Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, ch. 2) claims that there are a variety of equally good schemes for translating or interpreting ordinary talk. 'Rabbit' might be taken to divide its reference over rabbits, over temporal slices of rabbits, or undetached parts of rabbits, without significantly affecting which sentences get classified as true and which as false. This is the basis of his famous 'argument from below' to the conclusion that there can be no fact of the (...)
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  43. Robert Williams, Metaphysical Indeterminacy, Supervenience, and Emergence.score: 240.0
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  44. J. Robert G. Williams, A Lewis-Impossibility Result for Counterfactuals.score: 240.0
    I formulate a counterfactual version of the notorious ‘Ramsey Test’. Even in a weak form, this makes counterfactuals subject to the very argument that Lewis used to persuade the majority of the philosophical community that indicative conditionals were in hot water. I outline two reactions: to indicativize the debate on counterfactuals; or to counterfactualize the debate on indicatives.
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  45. Robert Williams (2006). An Argument for the Many. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 106 (1):411-419.score: 240.0
    If one believes that vagueness is an exclusively representational phenomenon, one faces the problem of the many. In the vicinity of Kilimanjaro, there are many many ‘mountain candidates’ all, apparently, with more-or-less equal claim to be mountains. David Lewis has defended a radical claim: that all the billions of mountain candidates are mountains. This paper argues that the supervaluationist about vagueness should adopt Lewis’ proposal, on pain of losing their best explanation of the seductiveness of the sorites.
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  46. J. Robert G. Williams (2008). Conversation and Conditionals. Philosophical Studies 138 (2):211 - 223.score: 240.0
    I outline and motivate a way of implementing a closest world theory of indicatives, appealing to Stalnaker’s framework of open conversational possibilities. Stalnakerian conversational dynamics helps us resolve two outstanding puzzles for a such a theory of indicative conditionals. The first puzzle—concerning so-called ‘reverse Sobel sequences’—can be resolved by conversation dynamics in a theory-neutral way: the explanation works as much for Lewisian counterfactuals as for the account of indicatives developed here. Resolving the second puzzle, by contrast, relies on the interplay (...)
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  47. J. Robert G. Williams (2014). Decision-Making Under Indeterminacy. Philosophers' Imprint 14 (4).score: 240.0
    Decisions are made under uncertainty when there are distinct outcomes of a given action, and one is uncertain to which the act will lead. Decisions are made under indeterminacy when there are distinct outcomes of a given action, and it is indeterminate to which the act will lead. This paper develops a theory of (synchronic and diachronic) decision-making under indeterminacy that portrays the rational response to such situations as inconstant. Rational agents have to capriciously and randomly choose how to resolve (...)
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  48. J. Robert G. Williams (2007). The Possibility of Onion Worlds: Rebutting an Argument for Structural Universals. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 85 (2):193 – 203.score: 240.0
    Some argue that theories of universals should incorporate structural universals, in order to allow for the metaphysical possibility of worlds of 'infinite descending complexity' ('onion worlds'). I argue that the possibility of such worlds does not establish the need for structural universals. So long as we admit the metaphysical possibility of emergent universals, there is an attractive alternative description of such cases.
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  49. J. Robert G. Williams (2013). Part‐Intrinsicality. Noûs 47 (3):431-452.score: 240.0
    In some sense, survival seems to be an intrinsic matter. Whether or not you survive some event seems to depend on what goes on with you yourself —what happens in the environment shouldn’t make a difference. Likewise, being a person at a time seems intrinsic. The principle that survival seems intrinsic is one factor which makes personal fission puzzles so awkward. Fission scenarios present cases where if survival is an intrinsic matter, it appears that an individual could survive twice over. (...)
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  50. Robert R. Williams (2008). Ricoeur on Recognition. European Journal of Philosophy 16 (3):467-473.score: 240.0
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