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Robert C. Richardson [58]Robert C. Richardson [1]
  1. Fred C. Boogerd, Frank J. Bruggeman, Robert C. Richardson, Achim Stephan & Hans V. Westerhoff (forthcoming). » Emergence and its Place in Nature: A Case Study of Biochemical Networks «, Erscheint In. Synthese.
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  2. Fred C. Boogerd, Frank J. Bruggeman & Robert C. Richardson (2013). Mechanistic Explanations and Models in Molecular Systems Biology. Foundations of Science 18 (4):725-744.
    Mechanistic models in molecular systems biology are generally mathematical models of the action of networks of biochemical reactions, involving metabolism, signal transduction, and/or gene expression. They can be either simulated numerically or analyzed analytically. Systems biology integrates quantitative molecular data acquisition with mathematical models to design new experiments, discriminate between alternative mechanisms and explain the molecular basis of cellular properties. At the heart of this approach are mechanistic models of molecular networks. We focus on the articulation and development of mechanistic (...)
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  3. Robert C. Richardson (2013). Cells to Civilizations: The Principles of Change That Shape Life. BioScience 63 (10).
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  4. Robert C. Richardson (2013). Seeing the Forest—And the Trees. BioScience 63 (10):832-834.
  5. Robert C. Richardson (2009). Multiple Realization and Methodological Pluralism. Synthese 167 (3):473 - 492.
    Multiple realization was once taken to be a challenge to reductionist visions, especially within cognitive science, and a foundation of the “antireductionist consensus.” More recently, multiple realization has come to be challenged on naturalistic grounds, as well as on more “metaphysical” grounds. Within cognitive science, one focal issue concerns the role of neural plasticity for addressing these issues. If reorganization maintains the same cognitive functions, that supports claims for multiple realization. I take up the reorganization involved in language dysfunctions to (...)
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  6. Robert C. Richardson (2008). Autonomy and Multiple Realization. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):526-536.
    Multiple realization historically mandated the autonomy of psychology, and its principled irreducibility to neuroscience. Recently, multiple realization and its implications for the reducibility of psychology to neuroscience have been challenged. One challenge concerns the proper understanding of reduction. Another concerns whether multiple realization is as pervasive as is alleged. I focus on the latter question. I illustrate multiple realization with actual, rather than hypothetical, cases of multiple realization from within the biological sciences. Though they do support a degree of autonomy (...)
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  7. Robert C. Richardson (2007). Evolutionary Psychology as Maladapted Psychology. A Bradford Book.
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  8. Robert C. Richardson (2007). Review of William C. Wimsatt, Re-Engineering Philosophy for Limited Beings: Piecewise Approximations to Reality. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2007 (12).
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  9. Robert C. Richardson & Achim Stephan (2007). Emergence. Biological Theory 2 (1):91-96.
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  10. Robert C. Richardson (2006). Chance and the Patterns of Drift: A Natural Experiment. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):642-654.
    Evolutionary models can explain the dynamics of populations, how genetic, genotypic, or phenotypic frequencies change with time. Models incorporating chance, or drift, predict specific patterns of change. These are illustrated using classic work on blood types by Cavalli-Sforza and his collaborators in the Parma Valley of Italy, in which the theoretically predicted patterns are exhibited in human populations. These data and the models display properties of ensembles of populations. The explanatory problem needs to be understood in terms of how likely (...)
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  11. F. C. Boogerd, F. J. Bruggeman, Robert C. Richardson, Achim Stephan & H. Westerhoff (2005). Emergence and Its Place in Nature: A Case Study of Biochemical Networks. Synthese 145 (1):131 - 164.
    We will show that there is a strong form of emergence in cell biology. Beginning with C.D. Broad's classic discussion of emergence, we distinguish two conditions sufficient for emergence. Emergence in biology must be compatible with the thought that all explanations of systemic properties are mechanistic explanations and with their sufficiency. Explanations of systemic properties are always in terms of the properties of the parts within the system. Nonetheless, systemic properties can still be emergent. If the properties of the components (...)
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  12. Anthony Landreth & Robert C. Richardson (2004). Localization and the New Phrenology: A Review Essay on William Uttal's the New Phrenology. [REVIEW] Philosophical Psychology 17 (1):107-123.
    William Uttal's The new phrenology is a broad attack on localization in cognitive neuroscience. He argues that even though the brain is a highly differentiated organ, "high level cognitive functions" should not be localized in specific brain regions. First, he argues that psychological processes are not well-defined. Second, he criticizes the methods used to localize psychological processes, including imaging technology: he argues that variation among individuals compromises localization, and that the statistical methods used to construct activation maps are flawed. Neither (...)
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  13. Robert C. Richardson (2003). Adaptationism, Adaptation, and Optimality. Biology and Philosophy 18 (5):695-713.
  14. Robert C. Richardson (2003). Engineering Design and Adaptation. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1277-1288.
    Reverse engineering is a matter of inferring adaptive function from structure. The utility of reverse engineering for evolutionary biology has been a matter of controversy. I offer a simple taxonomy of the uses of engineering design in assessing adaptation, with a variety of illustrations. The plausibility of applications of engineering design reflects the specific way the models are elaborated and derived.
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  15. Robert C. Richardson (2002). Reduction. In Lynn Nadel (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Macmillan.
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  16. Robert C. Richardson (2001). Complexity, Self-Organization and Selection. Biology and Philosophy 16 (5):653-682.
    Recent work on self organization promises an explanation of complex order which is independent of adaptation. Self-organizing systems are complex systems of simple units, projecting order as a consequence of localized and generally nonlinear interactions between these units. Stuart Kauffman offers one variation on the theme of self-organization, offering what he calls a ``statistical mechanics'' for complex systems. This paper explores the explanatory strategies deployed in this ``statistical mechanics,'' initially focusing on the autonomy of statistical explanation as it applies in (...)
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  17. Robert C. Richardson (2000). The Organism in Development. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):321.
    Developmental biology has resurfaced in recent years, often without a clearly central role for the organism. The organism is pulled in divergent directions: on the one hand, there is an important body of work that emphasizes the role of the gene in development, as executing and controlling embryological change; on the other hand, there are more theoretical approaches under which the organism disappears as little more than an instance for testing biological generalizations. I press here for the ineliminability of the (...)
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  18. Robert C. Richardson (2000). Michael Levin, Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean:Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean. Ethics 110 (4):847-848.
  19. Robert C. Richardson (1999). Cognitive Science and Neuroscience: New Wave Reductionism. Philosopical Psychology 12 (3):297-307.
    John Bickle's Psychoneural reduction: the new wave (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998) aims to resurrect reductionism within philosophy of mind. He develops a new model of scientific reduction, geared to enhancing our understanding of how theories in neuroscience and cognitive science are interrelated. I put this discussion in context, and assess the prospects for new wave reductionism, both as a general model of scientific reduction and as an attempt to defend reductionism in the philosophy of mind.
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  20. Robert C. Richardson (1997). Natural and Artificial Complexity. Philosophy of Science 64 (4):267.
    Genetic regulatory networks are complex, involving tens or hundreds of genes and scores of proteins with varying dependencies and organizations. This invites the application of artificial techniques in coming to understand natural complexity. I describe two attempts to deploy artificial models in understanding natural complexity. The first abstracts from empirically established patterns, favoring random architectures and very general constraints, in an attempt to model developmental phenomena. The second incorporates detailed information concerning the genetic structure, organization, and dependencies in actual systems (...)
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  21. William Bechtel, Robert C. Richardson & Scott A. Kleiner (1996). Discovering Complexity. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 18 (3):363-382.
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  22. Richard M. Burian & Robert C. Richardson (1996). Form and Order in Evolutionary Biology. In Margaret A. Boden (ed.), The Philosophy of Artificial Life. Oxford University Press. 146--72.
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  23. Richard M. Burian, Robert C. Richardson & Wim J. Van der Steen (1996). Against Generality: Meaning in Genetics and Philosophy. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 27 (1):1-29.
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  24. Robert C. Richardson (1996). Critical Notice: Robert N. Brandon, Adaptation and Environment. Philosophy of Science 63 (1):122-136.
     
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  25. Robert C. Richardson (1996). The Prospects for an Evolutionary Psychology: Human Language and Human Reasoning. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 6 (4):541-557.
    Evolutionary psychology purports to explain human capacities as adaptations to an ancestral environment. A complete explanation of human language or human reasoning as adaptations depends on assessing an historical claim, that these capacities evolved under the pressure of natural selection and are prevalent because they provided systematic advantages to our ancestors. An outline of the character of the information needed in order to offer complete adaptation explanations is drawn from Robert Brandon (1990), and explanations offered for the evolution of language (...)
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  26. Robert C. Richardson (1996). Book Review:Adaptation and Environment Robert N. Brandon. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 63 (1):122-.
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  27. William E. Morris & Robert C. Richardson (1995). How Not to Demarcate Cognitive Science and Folk Psychology: A Response to Pickering and Chater. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 5 (3):339-355.
    Pickering and Chater (P&C) maintain that folk psychology and cognitive science should neither compete nor cooperate. Each is an independent enterprise, with a distinct subject matter and characteristic modes of explanation. P&C''s case depends upon their characterizations of cognitive science and folk psychology. We question the basis for their characterizations, challenge both the coherence and the individual adequacy of their contrasts between the two, and show that they waver in their views about the scope of each. We conclude that P&C (...)
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  28. Robert N. Brandon, Janis Antonovics, Richard Burian, Scott Carson, Greg Cooper, Paul Sheldon Davies, Christopher Horvath, Brent D. Mishler, Robert C. Richardson, Kelly Smith & Peter Thrall (1994). Sober on Brandon on Screening-Off and the Levels of Selection. Philosophy of Science 61 (3):475-486.
    Sober (1992) has recently evaluated Brandon's (1982, 1990; see also 1985, 1988) use of Salmon's (1971) concept of screening-off in the philosophy of biology. He critiques three particular issues, each of which will be considered in this discussion.
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  29. Menachem Fisch & Robert C. Richardson (1994). William Whewell Philosopher of Sciences. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 16 (1):155.
  30. Robert C. Richardson (1994). Optimization in Evolutionary Ecology. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:13 - 21.
    Optimization models treat natural selection as a process tending to produce maximal adaptedness to the environment, measured on some "criterion scale" defining the optimal phenotype. These models are descriptively adequate if they describe the outcomes of evolutionary processes. They are dynamically adequate if the variables which describe the outcomes also are responsible for those evolutionary outcomes. Optimality models can be descriptively adequate, but dynamically unrealistic. Relying on cases from evolutionary ecology, I provide reasons to question the dynamic adequacy of optimality (...)
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  31. William Edward Morris & Robert C. Richardson (1993). Mismatching Categories? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):62.
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  32. Robert C. Richardson & Richard M. Burian (1992). A Defense of Propensity Interpretations of Fitness. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:349 - 362.
    We offer a systematic examination of propensity interpretations of fitness, which emphasizes the role that fitness plays in evolutionary theory and takes seriously the probabilistic character of evolutionary change. We distinguish questions of the probabilistic character of fitness from the particular interpretations of probability which could be incorporated. The roles of selection and drift in evolutionary models support the view that fitness must be understood within a probabilistic framework, and the specific character of organism/environment interactions supports the conclusion that fitness (...)
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  33. Richard M. Burian & Robert C. Richardson (1990). Form and Order in Evolutionary Biology: Stuart Kauffman's Transformation of Theoretical Biology. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:267 - 287.
    The formal framework of Kauffman (1991) depicts the constraints of self-organization on the evolution of complex systems and the relation of self-organization to selection. We discuss his treatment of 'generic constraints' as sources of order (section 2) and the relation between adaptation and organization (section 3). We then raise a number of issues, including the role of adaptation in explaining order (section 4) and the limitations of formal approaches in explaining the distinctively biological (section 5). The principal question we pose (...)
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  34. Thomas C. Kane, Robert C. Richardson & Daniel W. Fong (1990). The Phenotype as the Level of Selection: Cave Organisms as Model Systems. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:151 - 164.
    Selection operates at many levels. Robert Brandon has distinguished the question of the level of selection from the unit of selection, arguing that the phenotype is commonly the target of selection, whatever the unit of selection might be. He uses "screening off" as a criterion for distinguishing the level of selection. Cave animals show a common morphological pattern which includes hypertrophy of some structures and reduction or loss of others. In a study of a cave dwelling crustacean, Gammarus minus, (...)
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  35. Robert C. Richardson (1990). The "Tally Argument" and the Validation of Psychoanalysis. Philosophy of Science 57 (4):668-676.
    The classic charge against Freudian theory is that the therapeutic success of psychoanalysis can be explained without appeal to the mechanisms of repression and insight. Whatever therapeutic success psychoanalysis might enjoy would then provide no support for the diagnostic claim that psychological disorders are due to repressed desires or for the therapeutic claim that the gains in psychoanalysis are due to insight into repressed causes. Adolf Grünbaum has repeated the charge in The Foundations of Psychoanalysis (1984), arguing that Freud's response (...)
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  36. Robert C. Richardson (1988). Objects and Fields. In Perspectives On Mind. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
     
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  37. Robert C. Richardson (1988). Perspectives On Mind. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
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  38. Robert C. Richardson (1986). Language, Thought, and Communication. In William Bechtel (ed.), Integrating Scientific Disciplines. 263--283.
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  39. Robert C. Richardson (1986). Models and Scientific Explanations. Philosophica 37.
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  40. Robert C. Richardson (1986). Models and Scientific Explanations in Current Issues in the Philosophy of Biology. Philosophica 37:59-72.
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  41. Robert C. Richardson (1985). Union and Interaction of Body and Soul. Journal of the History of Philosophy 23 (2):221-226.
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  42. Robert C. Richardson (1984). Biology and Ideology: The Interpenetration of Science and Values. Philosophy of Science 51 (3):396-420.
    The mutual influence of science and values in biology is exhibited in several cases from the biological literature. It is argued in a number of cases, from R. A. Fisher's argument for the optimality of a 50:50 sex ratio to A. Jensen's defense of a genetic basis for intelligence, and including work on the evolution of sexual dimorphism and muted aggression, that the credence accorded the views is disproportionate with their theoretical and empirical warrant. It is, furthermore, suggested that the (...)
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  43. Robert C. Richardson (1984). Book Review:The Extended Phenotype: The Gene as the Unit of Selection Richard Dawkins. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 51 (2):357-.
  44. William P. Bechtel & Robert C. Richardson (1983). Consciousness and Complexity: Evolutionary Perspectives on the Mind-Body Problem. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 61 (December):378-95.
    (1983). Consciousness and complexity: Evolutionary perspectives on the mind-body problem. Australasian Journal of Philosophy: Vol. 61, No. 4, pp. 378-395.
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  45. Robert C. Richardson (1983). Modality Third Grade. Philosophia 12 (3-4):345-356.
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  46. Robert C. Richardson (1982). Grades of Organization and the Units of Selection Controversy. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:324 - 340.
    Much recent work in sociobiology can be understood as designed to demonstrate the sufficiency of selection operating at lower levels of organization by the development of models at the level of the gene or the individual. Higher level units are accordingly viewed as artifacts of selection operating at lower levels. The adequacy of this latter form of argument is dependent upon issues of the complexity of the systems under consideration. A taxonomy is proposed elaborating a series of types, or grades, (...)
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  47. Robert C. Richardson (1982). How Not to Reduce a Functional Psychology. Philosophy of Science 49 (1):125-37.
  48. Robert C. Richardson (1982). The 'Scandal' of Cartesian Interactionism. Mind 91 (January):20-37.
  49. Robert C. Richardson (1982). Turing Tests for Intelligence: Ned Block's Defense of Psychologism. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 41 (May):421-6.
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