Search results for 'Robert E. Widing' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Penny M. Simpson, Gene Brown & Robert E. Widing (1998). The Association of Ethical Judgment of Advertising and Selected Advertising Effectiveness Response Variables. Journal of Business Ethics 17 (2):125-136.score: 870.0
    This study examines the potential effects of unethically perceived advertising executionson consumer responses to the ad. The study found that the unethical perceptions of the advertisement shown significantly and negatively affected all advertising response variables examined in the study.
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  2. Penny M. Simpson, Gene Brown & I. I. Robert E. Widing (1998). The Association of Ethical Judgment of Advertising and Selected Advertising Effectiveness Response Variables. Journal of Business Ethics 17 (2):125-136.score: 90.0
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  3. Robert E. Goodin (1995). Utilitarianism as a Public Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.score: 43.0
    Utilitarianism, the great reforming philosophy of the nineteenth century, has today acquired the reputation for being a crassly calculating, impersonal philosophy unfit to serve as a guide to moral conduct. Yet what may disqualify utilitarianism as a personal philosophy makes it an eminently suitable guide for public officials in the pursuit of their professional responsibilities. Robert E. Goodin, a philosopher with many books on political theory, public policy and applied ethics to his credit, defends utilitarianism against its critics and (...)
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  4. Adrian Brasoveanu, Structured Anaphora to Quantifier Domains: A Unified Account of Quantificational & Modal Subordination and Exceptional Wide Scope.score: 42.0
    The paper proposes a novel analysis of quantificational subordination, e.g. Harvey courts a woman at every convention. {She is very pretty. vs. She always comes to the banquet with him.} (Karttunen 1976), in particular of the fact that the indefinite in the initial sentence can have wide or narrow scope, but the first discourse as a whole allows only for the wide scope reading, while the second discourse allows for both readings. The cross-sentential interaction between scope and anaphora is captured (...)
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  5. Mário Antonio Sanches & Vanessa Roberta Massambani Ruthes (2009). Ética mundial e cultura da paz: desafios da Bioética (World-wide ethics and culture of the peace: dialleenges of the Bioethics) - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2009v7n14p31. [REVIEW] Horizonte 7 (14):31-45.score: 42.0
    O projeto de ética mundial, desenvolvido pelo teólogo ecumênico Hans Küng, propõe que somente por meio de um diálogo inter-religioso é possível estruturar princípios básicos que sejam válidos globalmente e que proporcionem a construção de uma cultura da paz. Essa possibilidade no campo da ética estabelece um amplo diálogo com diferentes autores. No entanto, como o próprio autor assume, o projeto possui limitações, sendo que uma delas é a exclusão de temas que envolvem questões de Bioética que são importantes para (...)
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  6. Angela Ballantyne, Belinda Bennett, Véronique Bergeron & Diana Buccafurni (2008). Richard E. Ashcroft is Professor of Bioethics in the School of Law at Queen Mary, at the University of London. He has Published Widely on Ethical Issues in Medical Research and in Public Health. His Current Research is on Bioethics and Human Rights and Equality and Difference in Reproductive Rights. [REVIEW] International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 1 (2).score: 40.0
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  7. Ellis H. Minns (1934). The Oldest Latin Manuscripts E. A. Lowe: Codices Latini Antiquiores. A Palaeographical Guide to the Latin MSS. Prior to the IXth Century. Part I, The Vatican City. Wide Folio, 44 × 30 Cm, Pp. Xii + 44; 34 Plates, Four Specimens on Each. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1934. Cloth and Boards, £2 10s. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 48 (05):189-.score: 40.0
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  8. Backsansky Oleg E. (2008). Rethinking Epistemology, Philosophy of Science and Technology. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:335-342.score: 40.0
    Modern cognitive approach represents the interdisciplinary branch of scientific reflection uniting researchers of knowledge, studying laws of purchase, transformation, representation, storages and reproduction of the information. People react to own experience, instead of "objective" reality. Cognitive map of the world according to which we operate, our feelings, belief and life experience create. We have no direct access to a "objective" reality, therefore our cognitive map is for us this unique "real" reality. Cognitive science widely uses methodology of synergetic approach successfully (...)
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  9. Ben Eggleston, Dale E. Miller & D. Weinstein (eds.) (2011). John Stuart Mill and the Art of Life. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
    The 'Art of Life' is John Stuart Mill's name for his account of practical reason. In this volume, eleven leading scholars elucidate this fundamental, but widely neglected, element of Mill's thought. Mill divides the Art of Life into three 'departments': 'Morality, Prudence or Policy, and Æsthetics'. In the volume's first section, Rex Martin, David Weinstein, Ben Eggleston, and Dale E. Miller investigate the relation between the departments of morality and prudence. Their papers ask whether Mill is a rule utilitarian and, (...)
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  10. David D. Karnos & Robert G. Shoemaker (eds.) (1994). Falling in Love with Wisdom: American Philosophers Talk About Their Calling. OUP USA.score: 30.0
    In this collection, a wide variety of American philosophers attempt to explain why they were drawn to philosophy and the difference it has made in their lives. Among the contributors are: Henry E. Kyburg, Jr., Joel Feinberg, Alfred Mele, Walter B. Gulick, Robert Solomon, Robert G. Shoemaker, and David D. Karnos.
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  11. Stephan Blatti & Sandra Lapointe (eds.) (forthcoming). Ontology After Carnap. Oxford University Press.score: 27.0
    Analytic philosophy is once again in a methodological frame of mind. Nowhere is this more evident than in metaphysics, whose practitioners and historians are actively reflecting on the nature of ontological questions, the status of their answers, and the relevance of contributions both from other areas within philosophy (e.g., philosophical logic, semantics) and beyond (notably, the natural sciences). Such reflections are hardly new: the debate between Willard van Orman Quine and Rudolf Carnap about how to understand and resolve ontological questions (...)
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  12. William D. Harpine (1993). The Appeal to Tradition: Cultural Evolution and Logical Soundness. Informal Logic 15 (3).score: 27.0
    The Appeal to Tradition, often considered to be unsound, frequently reflects sophisticated adaptations to the environment. Once developed, these adaptations are often transmitted culturally rather than as reasoned argument, so that people mayor may not be aware of why their traditions are wise. Tradition is more likely to be valid in a stable environment in which a wide range of variations have been available for past testing; however, traditions tend to become obsolete in a rapidly changing environment.
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  13. William L. Rowe & William J. Wainwright (1998). Philosophy of Religion: Selected Readings. OUP USA.score: 27.0
    This third edition of Philosophy of Religion offers a wide variety of readings designed to introduce students to important issues in the philosophy of religion. The authors have coupled new readings--including essays by Robert M. Adams, Peter Van Inwagen, and William P. Alston--with readings from classical philosophers, thus offering instructors and students an even more comprehensive and well-focused textbook. Many of the essays are particularly accessible to beginning philosophy students. New essays cover religious pluralism, teleological and moral arguments for (...)
     
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  14. Marcia M. Ward, Thomas E. Vaughn, Tanya Uden‐Holman, Bradley N. Doebbeling, William R. Clarke & Robert F. Woolson (2002). Physician Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding a Widely Implemented Guideline. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (2):155-162.score: 27.0
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  15. Seumas Miller & John Weckert (2000). Privacy, the Workplace and the Internet. Journal of Business Ethics 28 (3):255 - 265.score: 24.0
    This paper examines workplace surveillance and monitoring. It is argued that privacy is a moral right, and while such surveillance and monitoring can be justified in some circumstances, there is a presumption against the infringement of privacy. An account of privacy precedes consideration of various arguments frequently given for the surveillance and monitoring of employees, arguments which look at the benefits, or supposed benefits, to employees as well as to employers. The paper examines the general monitoring of work, and the (...)
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  16. Isabelle Travis (2011). 'Is Getting Well Ever An Art?': Psychopharmacology and Madness in Robert Lowell's Day by Day. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 32 (4):315-324.score: 22.0
    On the publication of Robert Lowell’s Life Studies in 1959, some critics were shocked by the poet’s use of seemingly frank autobiographical material, in particular the portrayal of his hospitalizations for bipolar disorder. During the late fifties and throughout the sixties, a rich vein, influenced by Lowell , developed in American poetry. Also during this time, the nascent science of psychopharmacology competed with and complemented the more established somatic treatments, such as psychosurgery, shock treatments, and psychoanalytical therapies. The development (...)
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  17. Lucília de Almeida Neves & Mauro Passos (2009). Silêncios e diálogos: o catolicismo e a defesa dos direitos sociais e humanos ante à intolerância política da ditadura militar no Brasil (1964-1985). [REVIEW] Horizonte 3 (5):67-81.score: 22.0
    Os anos 1964-1985 se caracterizam pela mobilização popular e pela emergência de uma poderosa vontade de mudança social. Queria-se uma libertação das opressões históricas que a maioria do povo vinha sofrendo. Paradoxalmente, foi um tempo de autoritarismo e desrespeito aos direitos sociais e humanos. Este trabalho pretende analisar o movimento do catolicismo brasileiro, especialmente sua luta por esses direitos. Diversos aspectos atuam e influenciam no contexto político-religioso desse período. A reconstrução do significado desse movimento valeu-se de ampla documentação. Apesar dos (...)
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  18. Wilson Francisco Correia (2013). O que é conservadorismo em educação? // What is conservatism in education? Conjectura: Filosofia E Educação 18 (2):78-90.score: 20.0
    Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Resumo O tema deste trabalho é "conservadorismo em educação". Problematiza indagando: como o pensamento conservador, sobretudo que expressa a visão política durante os anos 1990, manifestou-se no campo educacional? O objetivo deste artigo é o de evidenciar que o pensamento conservador interferiu no campo educacional durante as reformas educacionais realizadas nos anos 1990, mediante rearranjos curriculares, face às necessidades do sistema capitalista, então globalizado ou mundializado. A metodologia utilizada neste trabalho segue as diretrizes (...)
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  19. Samuel Newlands & Larry M. Jorgensen (eds.) (2009). Metaphysics and the Good: Themes From the Philosophy of Robert Merrihew Adams. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    Throughout his philosophical career at Michigan, UCLA, Yale, and Oxford, Robert Merrihew Adams's wide-ranging contributions have deeply shaped the structure of debates in metaphysics, philosophy of religion, history of philosophy, and ethics. Metaphysics and the Good: Themes from the Philosophy of Robert Merrihew Adams provides, for the first time, a collection of original essays by leading philosophers dedicated to exploring many of the facets of Adams's thought, a philosophical outlook that combines Christian theism, neo-Platonism, moral realism, metaphysical idealism, (...)
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  20. Rocco J. Gennaro (2013). Defending HOT Theory and The Wide Intrinsicality View: A Reply to Weisberg, Van Gulick, and Seager. Journal of Consciousness Studies 20 (11-12):82-100.score: 18.0
    This is my reply to Josh Weisberg, Robert Van Gulick, and William Seager, published in JCS vol 20, 2013. This symposium grew out of an author-meets-critics session at the Central APA conference in 2013 on my 2012 book THE CONSCIOUSNESS PARADOX (MIT Press). Topics covered include higher-order thought (HOT) theory, my own "wide intrinsicality view," the problem of misrepresentation, targetless HOTs, conceptualism, introspection, and the transitivity principle.
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  21. Takashi Yagisawa, Content and Modality: Themes From the Philosophy of Robert Stalnaker, Edited by Judith Thomson and Alex Byrne. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2006. Pp. VIII + 304. H/B £40.00. [REVIEW]score: 18.0
    The eleven original essays in this collection competently cover a wide range of Robert Stalnaker’s philosophical work, and Stalnaker’s replies to them are clear, well-thought out, and informative. Anyone interested in Stalnaker’s philosophy or the areas covered in this volume is well advised to read it.
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  22. R. Lanier Anderson (2013). Love and the Moral Psychology of the Hegelian Nietzsche: Comments on Robert Pippin's Nietzsche, Psychology, and First Philosophy. Journal of Nietzsche Studies 44 (2):158-180.score: 18.0
    In Nietzsche, Psychology, and First Philosophy, Robert Pippin suggests intriguing connections between Nietzsche and the traditional French moralistes, especially Montaigne, Pascal, and La Rochefoucauld. 1 But the point of placing Nietzsche in this company is philosophical, not historical. In contrast to the wide-ranging and detailed historical analyses that have found their place in Pippin’s ongoing history of modernism (Modernism as a Philosophical Problem; Idealism as Modernism: Hegelian Variations), the present book does not focus on repairing our awareness of the (...)
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  23. John D. Caputo (2004). Filosofia e Pós-modernismo Profético: Para uma Pós-modernidade Católica. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 60 (4):827 - 843.score: 18.0
    A pós-modernidade sublinha o papel produtivo da diferença, em oposição à predilecção "moderna" ou do Iluminismo pela universalidade, comunalidade, consenso, bem como por aquilo que os modernos chamam "racionalidade". Segundo o autor do artigo, existem duas variedades distintas desta filosofia da diferença, dependendo de qual predecessor do século XIX – Nietzsche ou Kierkegaard – se prefere, de modo que o artigo distingue entre um pós-modernismo "dionisíaco" e outro de carácter mais "profético". A maioria das objecções que se fazem contra o (...)
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  24. Walter Gulick (2013). Realism in Religion: A Pragmatist's Perspective by Robert Cummings Neville (Review). American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 34 (1):70-74.score: 18.0
    Although the title Realism in Religion suggests that this collection of essays might be narrowly focused, this work is an ideal entry to Robert Neville's wide-ranging thought as a whole. All but two of the essays were written as lectures, and consequently, Neville states, "the necessity of writing so as to be understood on first reading makes this book more accessible than my more numbingly nuanced monographs" (xiii). Most of the essays date from the past decade, although two were (...)
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  25. Olav Krämer (2011). Self-Reflection and Life-Narratives in Robert Musil's The Man Without Qualities. Iris 3 (6):109-125.score: 18.0
    The role of narrativity in the constitution of personal identity, a widely discussed topic in recent philosophy, is also an important issue in Robert Musil’s novel “The Man without Qualities.” Apart from a theoretical passage, where the coherence established by life-narratives is explicitly rejected as an illusion, the novel displays various instances of reflection in which characters seek to articulate their identity by narrating parts of their lives. Not all of these self-narratives are presented as flawed; rather, by highlighting (...)
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  26. João Nogueira Pereira (2009). A compreensão do ethos diante de normas morais e religiosas. Horizonte 3 (6):33-46.score: 18.0
    O enfoque principal deste artigo é a relação da ética com a vivência e a prática religiosas. A presença de uma ética não se restringe ao vasto campo da tradição semítica ou religiões proféticas, mas se entende também às raízes da religiosidade mística e sapiencial. O texto tem como um dos principais objetivos aprofundar a compreensão dessa relação, seja nos códigos e normas das diversas religiões, como também na prática religiosa das comunidades. A ética ocupa um lugar fundamental como ciência (...)
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  27. John Sutton (2001). Robert Hooke. In Encyclopedia of the life sciences. MacMillan. 202-203.score: 18.0
    English instrument-maker, experimentalist, and natural philosopher who made key contributions in a wide range of areas including physiology, geology, and mechanics. Born on the Isle of Wight, Hooke showed early aptitude with the design of mechanical toys. At Westminster School he learnt mathematics and geometry, and at Christ Church, Oxford, he joined a remarkable group of natural philosophers working before the Restoration on physiological and physical topics (Frank 1980). Much of Hooke’s career was driven by financial uncertainty. As an employee, (...)
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  28. David A. Cook & Furman S. McDonald (2007). E-Learning: Is There Anything Special About the "E"? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51 (1):5-21.score: 18.0
    E-learning has been widely utilized in medical education and suggested by some proponents to represent a fundamental advance in educational methodology. We challenge this conclusion by examining e-learning in the context of broader learning theories, specifically as they relate to instructional design and methods. Core tenets of educational design are applied to e-learning in a unified model for instructional design, and examples of e-learning technologies are examined in the context of medical education, with reflections on research questions generated by these (...)
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  29. Gábor Péter Háden, Renáta Németh, Miklós Török, Sándor Drávucz & István Winkler (2013). Context Effects on Processing Widely Deviant Sounds in Newborn Infants. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 18.0
    Detecting and orienting towards sounds carrying new information is a crucial feature of the human brain that supports adaptation to the environment. Rare, acoustically widely deviant sounds presented amongst frequent tones elicit large event related brain potentials (ERPs) in neonates. Here we tested whether these discriminative ERP responses reflect only the activation of fresh afferent neuronal populations (i.e., neuronal circuits not affected by the tones) or they also index the processing of contextual mismatch between the rare and the frequent sounds. (...)
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  30. M. S. Marques, V. Tomé, A. Oliveira, P. Maio, H. Bacelar-Nicolau & J. G. Ferreira (2010). Um Projecto de Intervenção Em Cuidados Domiciliários E o Seu Contexto Institucional. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 66 (2):323 - 340.score: 18.0
    Apresentamos um resumo do desenvolvimento e do contexto institucional do Projecto Humanização dos Cuidados Paliativos em Contexto Domiciliário, aprovado e financiado pela Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. Utilizam-se largamente os próprios documentos que o justificaram e os relatórios oficiais para dar uma imagem vivida, realista e técnica das dificuldades da profissionalização e reforma dos Cuidados Paliativos, mesmo quando integrada em acções de formação num serviço de um Centro de Tratamento Compreensivo do Cancro. We put forward a synopsis of the development and institutional (...)
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  31. Alan Charles Kors (2003). Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment: 4 Volumes: Print and E-Reference Editions Available. OUP USA.score: 18.0
    Comprising more than seven hundred articles totalling more than one million words, the Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment is a unique and comprehensive reference work on the entire range of philosophic and social changes wrought by the Enlightenment. It is available in both print and as an e-reference text from Oxford's Digital Reference Shelf. The Enlightenment is here defined as the 'long eighteenth century', from the rise of Descarte's disciples in 1670 to the Restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in France in (...)
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  32. Antonio Maria Nunziante (2005). " Singolarità" e" infinito". Appunti per una discussione tra Leibniz e Hegel. Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 34 (1-2):29-61.score: 18.0
    Aim of this paper is to reconsider the controversial problem of the relationship between the philosophy of Hegel and Leibniz. Beyond the tick courtain of historical references (which have been widely developed by scholars), it is in fact possible to assume some guideline concepts (i.e. those of "singularity" and "infinity") to reconstruct the deep theoretical influence which Leibniz played in Hegel's thought since the Jaener Systementwurf of 1804/1805.
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  33. Robert E. Ulanowicz (2012). Widening the Third Window. Axiomathes 22 (2):269-289.score: 17.0
    The respondent agrees with William Grassie that many windows on nature are possible; that emphasis must remain on the generation of order; that “chance” would better be recast as “contingency”; and that the ecological metaphysic has wide implications for a “politics of nature”. He accepts the challenge by Pedro Sotolongo to extend his metaphysic into the realm of pan-semiotics and agrees that an ecological perspective offers the best hope for solving the world’s inequities. He replies to Stanley Salthe that he (...)
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  34. Robert E. Wood (2010). High and Low in Nietzsche's Zarathustra. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 84 (2):357-382.score: 17.0
    Contrary to wide-spread caricatures of Nietzsche, he has definite standards of value that are largely defensible, though on another basis than he provides. Thenadir is the Last Man; the zenith is the Overman. Contrary to the otherworldliness of Plato and the Christian tradition, Nietzsche demands fidelity to the earth anda love of the body. The modern virtue of truthfulness dissolved the tradition, but eventuated in the Last Man who lives in “wretched contentment.” The Overmanrequires organizing the chaos of one’s life (...)
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  35. Robert E. Innis (2011). Framing Hunger: Eating and Categories of Self-Development. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 25 (2):184-202.score: 17.0
    Hunger seems, at first glance, to be primarily a biological state, emerging first incipiently and then with insistent, yet extremely varying, sharpness in the wide continuum of sentient and feeling beings. The pervasive lived through, but not necessarily attended to, tonus of somatic well-being is unbalanced by the experience of lack that initiates attempts to restore equilibrium in a cycle that continues until death or its equivalent. Hunger in this sense provokes appetite or appetition. It is satisfied by an appropriate (...)
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  36. Robert E. Kohler (1972). The Reception of Eduard Buchner's Discovery of Cell-Free Fermentation. Journal of the History of Biology 5 (2):327 - 353.score: 17.0
    What general conclusions can be drawn about the reception of zymase, its relation to the larger shift from a protoplasm to an enzyme theory of life, and its status as a social phenomenon?The most striking and to me unexpected pattern is the close correlation between attitude toward zymase and professional background. The disbelief of the fermentation technologists, Will, Delbrück, Wehmer, and even Stavenhagen, was as sharp and unanimous as the enthusiasm of the immunologists and enzymologists, Duclaux, Roux, Fernback, and Bertrand, (...)
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  37. Robert E. Allinson (ed.) (1989). Understanding the Chinese Mind: The Philosophical Roots. Oxford University Press.score: 17.0
    These essays represent an attempt to understand the Chinese mind through its philosophy. The first volume of its kind, the collection demonstrates how Chinese philosophy can be understood in light of techniques and categories taken from Western philosophy. Eight philosophers, each of whom is a recognized authority in Western philosophy as well as in some area of Chinese philosophy, contribute chapters from perspectives that indicate the uniqueness of the Chinese way of thinking in categories adapted from Western philosophy. The book (...)
     
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  38. Robert E. Goodin (2010). An Epistemic Case for Legal Moralism. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 30 (4):615-633.score: 17.0
    Ignorance of the law is no excuse, or so we are told. But why not? The statute books run to hundreds of volumes. How can an ordinary citizen know what is in them? The best way might be for law (at least in its wide-scope duty-conferring aspects) to track broad moral principles that ordinary citizens can know and apply for themselves. In contrast to more high-minded and deeply principled arguments, this epistemic argument for legal moralism is purely pragmatic—but importantly so. (...)
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  39. Rachel Maree Jones, Gemma Cadby, Phillip E. Melton, Lawrence J. Abraham, Andrew J. Whitehouse & Eric K. Moses (2013). Genome-Wide Association Study of Autistic-Like Traits in a General Population Study of Young Adults. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 16.0
  40. J. E. Malpas & Robert C. Solomon (eds.) (1998). Death and Philosophy. Routledge.score: 15.0
    Death and Philosophy presents a wide ranging and fascinating variety of different philosophical, aesthetic and literary perspectives on death. Death raises key questions such as whether life has meaning of life in the face of death, what the meaning of "life after death" might be and whether death is part of a narrative that can be retold in different ways, and considers the various types of death, such as brain death, that challenge mind-body dualism. The essays also include explorations of (...)
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  41. Brendan O'Sullivan & Robert Schroer (2012). Painful Reasons: Representationalism as a Theory of Pain. Philosophical Quarterly 62 (249):737-758.score: 15.0
    It is widely thought that functionalism and the qualia theory are better positioned to accommodate the ‘affective’ aspect (i.e., the hurtfulness) of pain phenomenology than representationalism. In this paper, we attempt to overturn this opinion by raising problems for both functionalism and the qualia theory on this score. With regard to functionalism, we argue that it gets the order of explanation wrong: pain experience gives rise to the effects it does because it hurts, and not the other way around. With (...)
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  42. Robert Noggle & Daniel E. Palmer (2005). Radials, Rollovers and Responsibility: An Examination of the Ford-Firestone Case. Journal of Business Ethics 56 (2):185 - 203.score: 15.0
    In August of 2000, Firestone executives initiated the second largest tire recall in U.S. history. Many of the recalled tires had been installed as original factory equipment on the popular Ford Explorer SUVs. At the time of the recall, the tires and vehicles had been linked to numerous accidents and deaths, most of which occurred when tire blowouts resulted in vehicle rollovers. While Firestones role in this case has been widely acknowledged, Ford executives have managed to deflect much of the (...)
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  43. Robert M. Stewart (1992). Butler's Argument Against Psychological Hedonism. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 22 (2):211-221.score: 15.0
    It is widely thought among philosophers that Joseph Butler's criticism of psychological egoism in his Sermons is, in the words of A.E. Duncan-Jones, 'the classic refutation of it.' Indeed, no less a philosopher than David Hume restated and put forth Butler's central argument against hedonistic egoism - without due credit - as part of his own critique. Yet recent commentators have begun to question Butler's arguments, albeit usually with sympathy and in the hope of saving what they take to be (...)
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  44. Robert Boyd, Why Is Culture Adaptive?score: 15.0
    species is the extent t0 which behavior is acquired by teaching and imitation. The rapid radiation of the human species into a large variety of ecological niches over a wide geographical range during the last 100,000 years suggests that this mode of adaptation may be quite effective. Until recently, however, few evolutionary biologists have attempted to identify the properties of cultural transmission that make it an effective way of acquiring behavior. Very different answers to this question have been suggested by (...)
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  45. E. Thomas Lawson & Robert N. McCauley, The Cognitive Representation of Religious Ritual Form: A Theory of Participants' Competence with Their Religious Ritual Systems.score: 15.0
    Theorizing about religious ritual systems from a cognitive viewpoint involves (1) modeling cognitive processes and their products and (2) demonstrating their influence on religious behavior. Particularly important for such an approach to the study of religious ritual is the modeling of participants' representations of ritual form. In pursuit of that goal, we presented in Rethinking Religion a theory of religious ritual form that involved two commitments. The theory’s first commitment is that the cognitive apparatus for the representation of action in (...)
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  46. Robert Cowan (forthcoming). Cognitive Penetrability and Ethical Perception. Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-18.score: 15.0
    In recent years there has been renewed philosophical interest in the thesis that perceptual experience is cognitively penetrable, i.e., roughly, the view that the contents and/or character of a subject’s perceptual experience can be modified by what a subject believes and desires. As has been widely noted, it is plausible that cognitive penetration has implications for perception’s epistemic role. On the one hand, penetration could make agents insensitive to the world in a way which epistemically ‘downgrades’ their experience. On the (...)
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  47. Ruth R. Faden, Tom L. Beauchamp & Nancy E. Kass (2011). Learning Health Care Systems and Justice. Hastings Center Report 41 (4):3-3.score: 15.0
    Emily Largent, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller offer a stimulating contribution to the literature on integrating medical research and practice. We agree on both the need to move toward what the Institute of Medicine has called a learning health care system and the need for new conceptions for integrating research and practice within it. We also agree with the authors’ view, first advanced by Robert Truog and colleagues in 1999, that it can be ethically acceptable to randomize patients without (...)
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  48. Robert Audi & Patrick E. Murphy (2006). The Many Faces of Integrity. Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (1):3-21.score: 15.0
    Integrity is a central topic in business ethics, and in the world of business it is quite possibly the most commonly cited morally desirable trait. But integrity is conceived in widely differing ways, and as often as it is discussed in the literature and given a central place in corporate ethics statements, the notion is used so variously that its value in guiding everyday conduct may be more limited than is generally supposed. Two central questions for this paper are what (...)
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  49. Robert Klitzman (2011). How Local IRBs View Central IRBs in the US. BMC Medical Ethics 12 (1):13-.score: 15.0
    Background: Centralization of IRB reviews have been increasing in the US and elsewhere, but many questions about it remain. In the US, a few centralized IRBs (CIRBs) have been established, but how they do and could operate remain unclear. Methods: I contacted 60 IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by NIH funding), and interviewed leaders from 34 (response rate = 55%) and an additional 12 members and administrators. Results: These interviewees had often interacted with (...)
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