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Profile: Robert Hopkins (University of Sheffield)
  1. Robert Hopkins (forthcoming). Imagining the Past: On the Nature of Episodic Memory. In Fiona MacPherson Fabian Dorsch (ed.), Memory and Imagination. OUP.
    What kind of mental state is episodic memory? I defend the claim that it is, in key part, imagining the past, where the imagining in question is experiential imagining. To remember a past episode is to experientially imagine how things were, in a way controlled by one’s past experience of that episode. Call this the Inclusion View. I motive this view by appeal both to patterns of compatibilities and incompatibilities between various states, and to phenomenology. The bulk of the paper (...)
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  2. Robert Hopkins (2014). Episodic Memory as Representing the Past to Oneself. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 5 (3):313-331.
    Episodic memory is sometimes described as mental time travel. This suggests three ideas: that episodic memory offers us access to the past that is quasi-experiential, that it is a source of knowledge of the past, and that it is, at root, passive. I offer an account of episodic memory that rejects all three ideas. The account claims that remembering is a matter of representing the past to oneself, in a way suitably responsive to how one experienced the remembered episode to (...)
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  3. Robert Hopkins (2012). Factive Pictorial Experience: What's Special About Photographs? Noûs 46 (4):709-731.
    What is special about photographs? Traditional photography is, I argue, a system that sustains factive pictorial experience. Photographs sustain pictorial experience: we see things in them. Further, that experience is factive: if suchandsuch is seen in a photograph, then suchandsuch obtained when the photo was taken. More precisely, photographs are designed to sustain factive pictorial experience, and that experience is what we have when, in the photographic system as a whole, everything works as it is supposed to. In this respect (...)
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  4. Robert Hopkins (2012). Seeing-in and Seeming to See. Analysis 72 (4):650-659.
    When we see something in a picture, do we enjoy visual experience as of the depicted object? Gombrichians say yes: when viewing ordinary pictures we simultaneously see the picture and seem to see its object. But why, then, isn’t seeing-in contradictory, and how are these two elements somehow integrated into a single experience? Gombrichians’ attempts to answer appeal either to our awareness of the picture’s design, or to the idea that picture and object are not given as in the same (...)
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  5. Robert Hopkins (2012). What Perky Did Not Show. Analysis 72 (3):431-439.
    Some philosophers take Perky's experiments to show that perceiving can be mistaken for visualizing and so that the two sometimes match in phenomenology. On Segal’s alternative interpretation Perky’s subjects did not consciously perceive the stimuli at all. I argue that even setting this alternative aside, Perky's results do not prove what the philosophers think. She showed her subjects, not the objects they were asked to visualise, but pictures of them. What they mistook for visualizing was not perceptual consciousness of stimuli, (...)
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  6. Robert Hopkins (2011). A Word of Introduction From ESA President. Estetika: The Central European Journal of Aesthetics:3-3.
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  7. Robert Hopkins (2011). How to Be a Pessimist About Aesthetic Testimony. Journal of Philosophy 108 (3):138-157.
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  8. Robert Hopkins (2011). Re-Imagining, Re-Viewing and Re-Touching. In Fiona McPherson (ed.), The senses: classic and contemporary philosophical perspectives. Oxford University Press, Usa. 261.
    One strategy for working out how to individuate the senses is to pursue that task in tandem with that of individuating the sensory imaginings. We can tackle both, at least for the spatial senses of sight and touch, if we appeal to the idea that, while both modes represent their objects perspectivally, different forms of perspective are involved in each. This cannot, however, exhaust the differences between tactual and visual. Tactual experience is tied to bodily awareness as visual is not. (...)
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  9. Robert Hopkins (2010). Imagination and Affective Response. In Jonathan Webber (ed.), Reading Sartre: On Phenomenology and Existentialism. Routledge.
    What is the relation between affective states, such as emotions and pleasure, and imagining? Do the latter cause the former, just as perceptual states do? Or are the former merely imagined, along with suitable objects? I consider this issue against the backdrop of Sartre’s theory of imagination, and drawing on his highly illuminating discussion of it. I suggest that, while it is commonly assumed that imaginative states cause affective responses much as do perceptions, the alternatives merit more careful consideration than (...)
     
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  10. Robert Hopkins (2010). Inflected Pictorial Experience: Its Treatment and Significance. In Catharine Abell & Katerina Bantinaki (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on Picturing. Oxford University Press.
    Some (Podro, Lopes) think that sometimes our experience of pictures is ‘inflected’. What we see in these pictures involves, somehow, an awareness of features of their design. I clarify the idea of inflection, arguing that the thought must be that what is seen in the picture is something with properties which themselves need characterising by reference to that picture’s design, conceived as such. I argue that there is at least one case of inflection, so understood. Proponents of inflection have claimed (...)
     
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  11. Robert Hopkins (2010). Its Treatment and Significance. In Catharine Abell Katerina Bantinaki (ed.), Philosophical Perspectives on Depiction. 151.
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  12. Robert Hopkins (2010). Intersubjective Validity, Realism and Aesthetics. Analysis 70 (3):557-562.
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  13. Robert Hopkins (2010). Moving Because Pictures? Illusion and the Emotional Power of Film. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 34 (1):200-218.
    Why does cinema exert such power over our emotions? Many have wanted to answer by appeal to the idea that film sustains some illusion concerning the events it narrates. I compare three such views: that film sustains the illusion that those events are before us; that it sustains that illusion, but only partially; and that, though viewers are always fully aware of seeing pictures, those pictures are experienced as the moving photographic record of the narrated events. I identify these positions’ (...)
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  14. Robert Hopkins (ed.) (2009). A Companion to Aesthetics: The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy, 2d Rev. Ed. Wiley-Blackwell.
     
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  15. Robert Hopkins & Robert Stecker (2009). Davies, Stephen; Higgins, Kathleen Marie. British Journal of Aesthetics 49 (4):462.
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  16. Stuart Sim, Kathleen Marie Higgins, Robert Hopkins, Robert Stecker & David E. Cooper, Deconstruction.
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  17. Robert Hopkins (2008). Reasons for Looking: Lopes on the Value of Pictures. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 77 (2):556-569.
    In ‘Sight and Sensibility: Evaluating Pictures’ Dominic Lopes attempts two things. First, he attempts to solve the ‘Puzzle of Mimesis’: why do we value looking at pictures over looking at the things they depict? Second, he defends ‘interactionism’: the view that some aesthetic evaluations of pictures imply evaluations in moral and cognitive terms. I argue that the attempt to solve the Puzzle turns on the notion of ‘inflection’, and that that notion is more problematic than Lopes admits. I further argue (...)
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  18. Robert Hopkins (2008). What Do We See in Film? Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 66 (2):149–159.
    Many films are made by a two-tier process: the photographing of events which themselves represent the story the film tells. The latter representation is often illusionistic. I explore two consequences. The first concerns what we see in film. I argue that we sometimes see in such films, not events representing the story told, but simply the events composing that story. The way is thereby opened to a unified aesthetic of film, whether made the two-tier way or not. The second consequence (...)
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  19. Robert Hopkins (2007). Speaking Through Silence : Conceptual Art and Conversational Implicature. In Peter Goldie & Elisabeth Schellekens (eds.), Philosophy and Conceptual Art. Oxford University Press.
    I first try to identify what problem, if any conceptual art poses for philosophical aesthetics. It is harder than one might think to formulate some claim about traditional art with which much conceptual art is inconsistent. The idea that sense experience plays a special role in the appreciation of traditional artworks falls foul of literature. Instead I focus on the idea that conceptual art exhibits a particularly loose relation between the properties with which we engage in appreciating it and the (...)
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  20. Robert Hopkins (2007). What is Wrong with Moral Testimony? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 74 (3):611-634.
    Is it legitimate to acquire one’s moral beliefs on the testimony of others? The pessimist about moral testimony says not. But what is the source of the difficulty? Here pessimists have a choice. On the Unavailability view, moral testimony never makes knowledge available to the recipient. On Unusability accounts, although moral testimony can make knowledge available, some further norm renders it illegitimate to make use of the knowledge thus offered. I suggest that Unusability accounts provide the strongest form of pessimist (...)
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  21. Robert Hopkins, Critical Reasoning and Critical Perception.
    The outcome of criticism is a perception. Does this mean that criticism cannot count as a rational process? For it to do so, it seems it would have to be possible for there to be an argument for a perception. Yet perceptions do not seem to be the right sort of item to serve as the conclusions of arguments. Is this appearance borne out? I examine why perceptions might not be able to play that role, and explore what would have (...)
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  22. Robert Hopkins (2006). Painting, History, and Experience. Philosophical Studies 127 (1):19 - 35.
    Two themes run through Wollheim’s work: the importance of history to the practice and appreciation of the arts, and the centrality of experience in appreciation. Prima facie, these are in tension. Reconciling them requires two steps. First, adopt a notion of experience on which features can be experienced even if we must have experience-independent access to the fact that the work exhibits them. Second, state what makes a particular experience appropriate to the work. What does so? Although Wollheim toyed with (...)
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  23. Robert Hopkins (2006). The Speaking Image: Visual Communication and the Nature of Depiction. In Matthew Kieran (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art. Blackwell Pub.. 135--159.
     
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  24. Robert Hopkins (2006). With Sight Too Much in Mind, Mind Too Little in Sight? Philosophical Books 47 (4):293-305.
    This is a critical notice of Colin McGinn's 'Mindsight'.
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  25. Robert Hopkins (2005). Aesthetics, Experience, and Discrimination. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 63 (2):119–133.
    Can indistinguishable objects differ aesthetically? Manifestationism answers ‘no’ on the grounds that (i) aesthetically significant features of an object must show up in our experience of it; and (ii) a feature—aesthetic or not—figures in our experience only if we can discriminate its presence. Goodman’s response to Manifestationism has been much discussed, but little understood. I explain and reject it. I then explore an alternative. Doubles can differ aesthetically provided, first, it is possible to experience them differently; and, second, those experiences (...)
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  26. Robert Hopkins (2005). Molyneux's Question. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 35 (3):441-464.
    What philosophical issue or issues does Molyneux’s question raise? I concentrate on two. First, are there any properties represented in both touch and vision? Second, for any such common perceptible, is it represented in the same way in each, so that the two senses support a single concept of that property? I show that there is space for a second issue here, describe its precise relations to Molyneux’s question, and argue for its philosophical significance. I close by arguing that Gareth (...)
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  27. Robert Hopkins (2005). Sculpture. In Jerrold Levinson (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics. Oup Oxford.
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  28. Robert Hopkins (2005). Thomas Reid on Molyneux's Question. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 86 (3):340-364.
    Reid’s discussion of Molyneux’s question has been neglected. The Inquiry discusses the question twice, offering opposing answers. The first discussion treats the underlying issue as concerning common perceptibles of touch and vision, and in particular whether in vision we originally perceive depth. Although it is tempting to treat the second discussion as doing the same, this would render pointless various novel features Reid introduces in reformulating Molyneux’s question. Rather, the issue now is whether the blind can form a reasonable conception (...)
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  29. Stephen Davies, Robert Hopkins, Jenefer Robinson & Elisabeth Schellekens (2004). Aesthetics and Subjectivity: From Kant to Nietzsche. British Journal of Aesthetics 44 (3):304-307.
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  30. Robert Hopkins (2004). Painting, Sculpture, Sight, and Touch. British Journal of Aesthetics 44 (2):149-166.
    I raise two questions that bear on the aesthetics of painting and sculpture. First, painting involves perspective, in the sense that everything represented in a painting is represented from a point, or points, within represented space; is sculpture also perspectival? Second, painting is specially linked to vision; is sculpture linked in this way either to vision or to touch? To clarify the link between painting and vision, I describe the perspectival structure of vision. Since this is the same structure we (...)
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  31. Robert Hopkins, Perspective, Convention and Compromise.
    What is special about picturing according to the rules of perspectival drawing systems? My answer is at once both radical and conciliatory. I think that depiction essentially involves a distinctive experience, an experience of resemblance. More precisely, the picture must be seen as preserving what Thomas Reid (Enquiry 1764) called the "visible figure" of what is represented. It follows from this, and from some other plausible premises, that if a picture is to depict detailed spatial arrangements, rather than simply to (...)
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  32. Robert Hopkins (2003). Pictures, Phenomenology and Cognitive Science. The Monist 86 (4):653-675.
    This paper argues that an account of picturing in terms of the experience it sustains, in particular an experience of resemblance in outline shape, is superior to Dominic Lopes’, view, on which pictures engage our recognitional capacities for the objects they depict. Lopes’ position fails to do the work proper to a philosophical theory of picturing. Lopes argues that the experienced resemblance view pays insufficient attention to empirical work, and that it incurs unwelcome empirical commitments. I refuse the commitments Lopes (...)
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  33. Robert Hopkins (2003). Review: Invariances: The Structure of the Objective World. [REVIEW] Mind 112 (447):558-563.
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  34. Robert Hopkins, Sculpture and Space.
    What is distinctive about sculpture as an artform? I argue that it is related to the space around it as painting and the other pictorial arts are not. I expound and develop Langer's suggestive comments on this issue, before asking what the major strengths and weaknesses of that position might be.
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  35. Robert Hopkins (2003). What Makes Representational Painting Truly Visual? Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 77 (1):149–167.
    I offer two, complementary, accounts of the visual nature of representational picturing. One, in terms of six features of depiction, sets an explanatory task. The other, in terms of the experience to which depiction gives rise, promises to meet that need. Elsewhere I have offered an account of this experience that allows this promise to be fulfilled. I sketch that view, and defend it against Wollheim's claim that it cannot meet certain demands on a satisfactory account. I then turn to (...)
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  36. Robert Hopkins (2001). Kant, Quasi-Realism, and the Autonomy of Aesthetic Judgement. European Journal of Philosophy 9 (2):166–189.
    Aesthetic judgements are autonomous, as many other judgements are not: for the latter, but not the former, it is sometimes justifiable to change one's mind simply because several others share a different opinion. Why is this? One answer is that claims about beauty are not assertions at all, but expressions of aesthetic response. However, to cover more than just some of the explananda, this expressivism needs combining with some analogue of cognitive command, i.e. the idea that disagreements over beuaty can (...)
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  37. Robert Hopkins, The Spectator in the Picture.
    This paper considers whether pictures ever implicitly represent internal spectators of the scenes they depict, and what theoretical construal to offer of their doing so. Richard Wollheim's discussion (Painting as an Art, ch.3) is taken as the most sophisticated attempt to answer these questions. I argue that Wollheim does not provide convincing argument for his claim that some pictures implicitly represent an internal spectator with whom the viewer of the picture is to imaginatively identify. instead, I defend a view on (...)
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  38. Robert Hopkins (2000). Beauty and Testimony. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 47:209-236.
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  39. Robert Hopkins (2000). Touching Pictures. British Journal of Aesthetics 40 (1):149-167.
    Congenitally blind people can make and understand ‘tactile pictures’ – representations form of raised ridges on flat surfaces. If made visible, these representations can serve as pictures for the sighted. Does it follow that we should take at face value the idea that they are pictures made for touch? I explore this question, and the related issue of the aesthetics of ‘tactile pictures’ by considering the role in both depiction and pictorial aesthetics of experience, and by asking how far the (...)
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  40. Robert Hopkins (1999). Pictures and Film; Philosophy and the Empirical Disciplines: A Reply to Dean. Film-Philosophy 3 (1).
    Jeffrey T. Dean Getting a Good View of Depiction _Film-Philosophy_, vol. 3 no. 26, June 1999.
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  41. Robert Hopkins (1998). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] British Journal of Aesthetics 38 (3):283-286.
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  42. Robert Hopkins (1998). Fictional Points of View. Philosophical Review 107 (1):140-142.
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  43. Robert Hopkins (1998). Picture, Image and Experience: A Philosophical Inquiry. Cambridge University Press.
    How do pictures represent? In this book Robert Hopkins casts new light on an ancient question by connecting it to issues in the philosophies of mind and perception. He starts by describing several striking features of picturing that demand explanation. These features strongly suggest that our experience of pictures is central to the way they represent, and Hopkins characterizes that experience as one of resemblance in a particular respect. He deals convincingly with the objections traditionally assumed to be fatal to (...)
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  44. Robert Hopkins (1997). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] British Journal of Aesthetics 37 (3):283-286.
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  45. Robert Hopkins (1997). El Greco's Eyesight: Interpreting Pictures and the Psychology of Vision. Philosophical Quarterly 47 (189):441-458.
    There is a common assumption about pictures, that seeing them produces in us something like the same effects as seeing the things they depict. This assumption lies behind much empirical research into vision, where experiments often expose subjects to pictures of things in order to investigate the processes involved in cognizing those things themselves. Can philosophy provide any justification for this assumption? I examine this issue in the context of Flint Schier's account of pictorial representation. Schier attempts to infer the (...)
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  46. Robert Hopkins (1997). Pictures and Beauty. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 97 (2):177–194.
    What reasons are there to value pictures? I consider one: that pictures enable us to judge, and more than that to savour, the beauty (if any) of the objects they depict. I clarify and defend this claim, tentatively explore what might explain it, consider how far it might generalize beyond beauty to other features of aesthetic interest, and assess its importance for the aesthetics of pictures.
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  47. David E. Cooper & Robert Hopkins (eds.) (1995). A Companion to Aesthetics: The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  48. Robert Hopkins (1995). Explaining Depiction. Philosophical Review 104 (3):425-455.
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  49. Robert Hopkins (1994). Pragmatist Aesthetics: Living Beauty, Rethinking Art. Philosophical Books 35 (1):73-75.
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  50. Robert Hopkins (1994). Resemblance and Misrepresentation. Mind 103 (412):421-438.
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