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Profile: Robert Johnson (University of Missouri, Columbia)
  1. Robert Johnson, Moral Indifference.
    opposed ways. 6:408-9 Understood as "moral apathy", to be indifferent is to be uninfluenced..
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  2. Robert Johnson, Kantian Irrealism.
    Kantian ethics can at times appear to defend the position that there is a unique sort of value that plays a foundational role in morality. For instance, Kant's most well known work in ethics, the Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, begins by trying to establish that a good will is good without qualification' and then ends with a first statement of the fundamental principle that divides right from wrong, the Categorical Imperative.1 This presentation can make it seems as if (...)
     
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  3. Robert Johnson, Merit.
    A few pages into the Groundwork Kant claims that only actions from duty have moral worth.ii Even though as an aside he also says that a dutiful action from sympathy or honor, though lacking in moral worth, "deserves praise and encouragement", it is tempting not to take him very seriously. One suspects that he regards this praise as only a poor and morally insignificant cousin of the esteem reserved for actions from duty. In the end, it seems hard to avoid (...)
     
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  4. Robert Johnson, Obligation.
    Since Plato wrote of political obligation in his dialogue Crito, obligation in general has been of ongoing interest to philosophers. In that dialogue, Socrates argues that he was under an obligation to obey the laws of Athens and comply with a sentence of death. During the course of the argument, he raises and offers solutions to many of the central issues about obligation that philosophers still puzzle over. For instance, how can obligations have the grip on us that they do—in (...)
     
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  5. Robert Johnson, Relativism.
    Although relativism is most often associated with ethics, one can find defenses of relativism in virtually any area of philosophy. In what follows, I will narrow my focus considerably. I first discuss the general structure of relativist positions and arguments. I will then examine several influential ideas concerning relativism in the late 20th century. Finally, I end by considering the rise of relativism in one area outside of ethics, epistemology.
     
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  6. Robert Johnson, Self-Development as an Imperfect Duty.
    'You ought to make something of yourself.' That certainly has the ring of truth about it. But is there really any obligation to develop yourself? Those who let abilities lie idle are shortsighted, of course. But are they guilty of anything more than imprudence? It is easy to think that there could be a moral fault in failing to help others such as your children to develop their talents and abilities. But what about not developing your own? And if this (...)
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  7. Robert Johnson, The Good of Self-Development.
    So Michael Slote argues. There is and can be no obligation to foster one's own wellbeing for Kantians, only an obligation to foster the wellbeing of others. And any distinctively Kantian position both denies that our own wellbeing is the source of our moral duties and denies that a concern for wellbeing can be a morally worthy motive. So not only is the agent's own good not foundational to morality; it is of no moral importance. Hence, Slote concludes, the devaluation (...)
     
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  8. Mark Timmons & Robert Johnson (eds.) (forthcoming). Value, Reason, and Respect: Kantian Themes From the Philosophy of Thomas E. Hill, Jr. Oxford.
    The book features chapters by Bernard and Jan Boxill, Robin S. Dillon, Stephen Darwall, Mark Schroeder, Jonathan Dancy, Onora O’Neill, Gerald Gaus, Jeffrie G. Murphy, Matt Zwolinski and David Schmidtz, Cheshire Calhoun, Marcia Baron, Andrews Reath, and Julia Driver that take up themes and arguments in Tom Hill’s work in ethics, social, political and legal philosophy, as well as his work on Kant’s ethics. The volume concludes with an essay by Tom Hill in which he reflects on how he came (...)
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  9. Two-Level Eudaimonism, Second-Personal Reasons Two-Level Eudaimonism, Second-Personal Reasons, Anita L. Allen, Jack Balkin, Seyla Benhabib, Talbot Brewer, Peter Cane, Thomas Hurka & Robert N. Johnson (2012). Autonomous Action: Self-Determination in the Passive Mode Autonomous Action: Self-Determination in the Passive Mode (Pp. 647-691). [REVIEW] Ethics 122 (4).
     
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  10. Robert N. Johnson (2011). Self-Improvement: An Essay in Kantian Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    Is there any moral obligation to improve oneself, to foster and develop various capacities in oneself? From a broadly Kantian point of view, Self-Improvement defends the view that there is such an obligation and that it is an obligation that each person owes to him or herself. The defence addresses a range of arguments philosophers have mobilized against this idea, including the argument that it is impossible to owe anything to yourself, and the view that an obligation to improve onself (...)
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  11. Robert N. Johnson (2010). Duties to and Regarding Others. In Lara Denis (ed.), Kant's Metaphysics of Morals: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  12. Robert Johnson (2009). Good Will and the Moral Worth of Acting From Duty. In Thomas E. Hill (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Kant's Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
    The first section of the Groundwork begins “It is impossible to imagine anything at all in the world, or even beyond it, that can be called good without qualification— except a good will.”1 Kant’s explanation and defense of this claim is followed by an explanation and defense of another related claim, that only actions performed out of duty have moral worth. He explains that actions performed out of duty are those done from respect for the moral law, and then culminates (...)
     
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  13. Robert Johnson (2009). The Moral Law as Causal Law. In Jens Timmermann (ed.), Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
    Much recent work on Kant's argument that the Categorical Imperative is the fundamental principle of morality has focused on the gap in that argument between the conclusion that rational agents conform to laws that apply to every rational agent, and the requirement contained in the Universal Law of Nature formula.1 While it seems plausible – even trivial– that a rational agent, insofar as she is a rational agent, conforms to whatever laws there are that are valid for all rational agents, (...)
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  14. Robert Johnson, Kant's Moral Philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) argued that moral requirements are based on a standard of rationality he dubbed the “Categorical Imperative” (CI). Immorality thus involves a violation of the CI and is thereby irrational. Other philosophers, such as Locke and Hobbes, had also argued that moral requirements are based on standards of rationality. However, these standards were either desirebased instrumental principles of rationality or based on sui generis rational intuitions. Kant agreed with many of his predecessors that an analysis of practical reason (...)
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  15. Robert Aaron Johnson (2008). The Most Real Being: A Biblical and Philosophical Defense of Divine Determinism. Faith and Philosophy 25 (1):109-112.
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  16. Robert N. Johnson (2008). Was Kant a Virtue Ethicist? In Monika Betzler (ed.), Kant's Ethics of Virtues. Walter De Gruyter.
    You might think a simple “No” would suffice as an answer. But there are features of Kant’s ethics that appear to be strikingly similar to virtue oriented views, so striking that some Kantians themselves have argued that Kant’s ethics in fact shares these features with virtue ethics. In what follows, I will argue against this view, though along the way I will acknowledge the features of Kant’s view that make it appear more like a kind of virtue ethics than it (...)
     
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  17. Robert N. Johnson (2007). Prichard, Falk, and the End of Deliberation. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 37 (5):pp. 131-147.
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  18. Robert N. Johnson (2007). Value and Autonomy in Kantian Ethics. In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics: Volume II. Clarendon Press.
  19. John Lincourt & Robert Johnson (2004). Ethics Training: A Genuine Dilemma for Engineering Educators. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (2):353-358.
    This is an examination of three main strategies used by engineering educators to integrate ethics into the engineering curriculum. They are: (1) the standalone course, (2) the ethics imperative mandating ethics content for all engineering courses, and (3) outsourcing ethics instruction to an external expert. The expectations from each approach are discussed and their main limitations described. These limitations include the insular status of the stand-alone course, the diffuse and uneven integration with the ethics imperative, and the orphaned status of (...)
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  20. Roger Crisp, Larry S. Temkin, Robert Sugden, Robert N. Johnson, George Klosko & Paul Hurley (2003). 10. Jacob Levy, The Multiculturalism of Fear Jacob Levy, The Multiculturalism of Fear (Pp. 891-895). Ethics 113 (4).
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  21. Robert Johnson (2003). ``Virtue and Right&Quot. Ethics 113:810--834.
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  22. Robert N. Johnson (2003). Internal Reasons: Reply to Brady, Van Roojen and Gert. Philosophical Quarterly 53 (213):573–580.
    In an earlier paper I identified two desiderata of a theory of practical reasons which favour internalism, and then argued that forms of this doctrine which are currently on offer lose either one or the other in trying to avoid the conditional fallacy. Michael Brady, Mark van Roojen and Josh Gert have separately attempted to respond to my argument. I set out reasons why all fail.
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  23. Robert N. Johnson (2003). Virtue and Right. Ethics 113 (4):810-834.
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  24. Robert N. Johnson (2002). Happiness as a Natural End. In Mark Timmons (ed.), Kant's Metaphysics of Morals: Interpretative Essays. Clarendon Press.
     
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  25. Robert N. Johnson (2002). Review: The Authority of Reason. [REVIEW] Mind 111 (443):676-679.
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  26. Robert N. Johnson (2002). The Authority of Reason. Mind 111 (443):676-679.
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  27. David G. Bromley, Diana Gay Cutchin, Luther P. Gerlach, John C. Green, Abigail Halcli, Eric L. Hirsch, James M. Jasper, J. Craig Jenkins, Roberta Ann Johnson, Doug McAdam, David S. Meyer, Frederick D. Miller, Suzanne Staggenborg, Emily Stoper, Verta Taylor & Nancy E. Whittier (1999). Waves of Protest: Social Movements Since the Sixties. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  28. Robert N. Johnson (1999). Internal Reasons and the Conditional Fallacy. Philosophical Quarterly 50 (194):53-71.
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  29. Robert Johnson (1998). Love in Vain. Southern Journal of Philosophy 36 (S1):45-50.
    Kant famously argued in the Groundwork that our fundamental moral obligation is simply to respect the humanity in persons. However, his fuller view, found in the Metaphysic of Morals, is that the humanity in persons not only demands our respect, but also our love. Neither of these demands, of course, requires that we feel anything for others, and Kant is much more specific here about what constitutes respect between persons. But in elaborating this position he also claims that these demands (...)
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  30. Robert Johnson (1998). Weakness Incorporated. History of Philosophy Quarterly 15 (3):349 - 367.
    Kant held that “an incentive can determine the will [Willkür] to action only so far as the individual has incorporated it into his maxim”, a view dubbed the “Incorporation Thesis” by Henry Allison (hereafter, “IT”). Although many see IT as basic to Kant’s views on agency, it also seems irreconcilable with the possibility of a kind of weakness, the kind exhibited by a person who acts on incentives that run contrary to principles she holds dear. The problem is this: According (...)
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  31. Robert N. Johnson (1998). Minding One's Manners: Revisiting Moral Explanations. Philosophical Studies 90 (2):181-203.
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  32. Robert N. Johnson (1997). Kantian Ethics Almost Without Apology. Philosophical Review 106 (4):594-595.
  33. Robert Neal Johnson (1997). Reasons and Advice for the Practically Rational. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57 (3):619-625.
    This paper defends a model of the internalism requirement against Michael Smith's recent criticisms of it. On this "example model", what we have reason to do is what we would be motivated to do were we rational. After criticizing the example model, Smith argues that his "advice model", that what we have reason to do is what we would advise ourselves to do were we rational, is obviously preferable. The author argues that Smith's criticisms can quite easily be accommodated by (...)
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  34. Beverly Kracher & Robert R. Johnson (1997). Repurchase Announcements, Lies and False Signals. Journal of Business Ethics 16 (15):1677-1685.
    Prior stock repurchase studies have found evidence that the announcement of a repurchase program sends a positive signal to the market. Firms engaging in open-market repurchase programs do not have to report how, when, and if they actually repurchased any shares. Evidence following the stock market crash of 1987 indicates that many firms announcing repurchase plans did not actually repurchase any share and, by their own admission, had no intention of repurchasing shares. Companies announcing plans and not following through are (...)
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  35. Robert N. Johnson (1996). Expressing a Good Will: Kant on the Motive of Duty. Southern Journal of Philosophy 34 (2):147-168.
    If any action is to be morally good it is not enough that it should conform to the moral law-it must also be done for the sake of the moral law: where this is not so, the conformity is only too contingent and precarious, since the nonmoral ground at work will now and then produce actions which accord with the law, but very often actions which transgress it.
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  36. Robert N. Johnson (1996). Kant's Conception of Merit. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 77:310.
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  37. Robert W. Johnson (1996). Direct Product and Decomposition of Certain Physically Important Algebras. Foundations of Physics 26 (2):197-222.
    I consider the direct product algebra formed from two isomorphic Clifford algebras. More specifically, for an element x in each of the two component algebras I consider elements in the direct product space with the form x ⊗ x. I show how this construction can be used to model the algebraic structure of particular vector spaces with metric, to describe the relationship between wavefunction and observable in examples from quantum mechanics, and to express the relationship between the electromagnetic field tensor (...)
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  38. Hellmut G. Augustin, Detlef H. Kozian & Robert C. Johnson (1994). Differentiation of Endothelial Cells: Analysis of the Constitutive and Activated Endothelial Cell Phenotypes. Bioessays 16 (12):901-906.
  39. C. Stephen Downes, Anderson J. Ryan & Robert T. Johnson (1993). Problems and Paradigms: Fine Tuning of DNA Repair in Transcribed Genes: Mechanisms, Prevalence and Consequences. Bioessays 15 (3):209-216.
  40. Abraham Tesser & Robert Johnson (1974). Dependence and Thought as Determinants of Interpersonal Hostility. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 4 (4):428-430.
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  41. Robert L. Johnson (1973). Humanism and Beyond. Philadelphia,United Church Press.
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  42. Kenneth L. Witte & Robert K. Johnson (1973). Children's Discrimination Learning as Related to Delayed Punishment. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 2 (3):146-148.
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  43. Robert Vincent Johnson (1969). Aestheticism. New York, Barnes & Noble.
     
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  44. Robert N. Johnson, Kantian Irrealism.
    Kantian ethics can at times appear to defend the position that there is a unique sort of value that plays a foundational role in morality. For instance, Kant’s most well known work in ethics, the Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, begins by trying to establish that a good will is good ‘without qualification’ and then ends with a first statement of the fundamental principle that divides right from wrong, the Categorical Imperative.1 This presentation can make it seems as if (...)
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