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  1. Robert K. Shope (2008). Abnormality, Cognitive Virtues, and Knowledge. Synthese 163 (1):99 - 118.
    Causal analyses of one’s knowing that p have recently emphasized the involvement of cognitive virtues in coming to believe that p. John Greco suggests that in order to deal with Gettier-type cases, a virtue analysis of knowing should include a requirement that one’s knowing does not in a certain way involve abnormality. Yet Greco’s emphasis on statistical abnormality either renders his analysis subject to a generality problem or to objections regarding certain Gettier-type cases. When (...)
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  2. Robert K. Shope (2004). The Analysis of Knowing. In M. Sintonen, J. Wolenski & I. Niiniluoto (eds.), Handbook of Epistemology. Kluwer. 283--329.
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  3. Robert K. Shope (2002). Conditions and Analyses of Knowing. In Paul K. Moser (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology. Oxford University Press. 25--70.
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  4. Robert K. Shope (2002). The Truth Condition. In Paul K. Moser (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology. Oxford University Press. 26.
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  5. Robert K. Shope (1999). The Nature of Meaningfulness: Representing, Powers, and Meaning. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  6. Robert K. Shope (1996). Nondeviant Chains in Intentional Action. Journal of Philosophical Research 21:15-49.
    When employing causal terminology in analyzing intentional action, and sometimes in analyzing additional phenomena, philosophers have required that relevant causal chains be free of what they call causal deviance or waywardness. But there is a wider type of deviance that needs to be excluded, of which causal deviance is only a species. Carl Ginet’s On Action considers examples of both types of deviance. A criticism of his treatment of such examples leads to a more satisfactory general analysis of nondeviant chains (...)
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  7. John D. Sommer, Ed Casey, Mary C. Rawlinson, Eva Kittay, Michael A. Simon, Patrick Grim, Clyde Lee Miller, Rita Nolan, Marshall Spector, Don Ihde, Peter Williams, Anthony Weston, Donn Welton, Dick Howard, David A. Dilworth, Tom Foster Digby 3d, Anthony Appiah, David Auerbach, Annette Baier, Seyla Benhabib, Akeel Bilgrami, Richard Boyd, Robert Brandon, Joshua Cohen, Arnold Davidson, Owen Flanagan, Nancy Fraser, Marcia Lind, Alexander Nehamas, Linda Nicholson, Adrian Piper, Lynne Tirrell, Lawrence Blum, Lawrence Foster, Roma Farion, Mitchel Silver, Jenifer Radden, Jack Bayne, Robert K. Shope, Jane Roland Martin, Arthur B. Millman, Beebe Nelson, Robert Rosenfeld, Janet Farrell-Smith, David E. Flesche, Daniel E. Anderson, J. R. Brown, F. Cunningham, D. Goldstick, I. Hacking, C. Normore, A. Ripstein, W. Sumner, Alison M. Jaggar, Harry Deutsch, Irving Stein, John Hund, George Englebretsen, Fred Strohm, D. L. Ouren, P. Bilimoria, F. B. D. & Nora Nevin (1993). Letters to the Editor. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 66 (5):97 - 112.
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  8. Robert K. Shope (1992). You Know What You Falsely Believe (Or: Pollock, Know Thyself!). Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52 (2):405-410.
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  9. Robert K. Shope (1991). Firth's Critique of Epistemological Rule-Utilitarianism. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 51 (1):129-135.
  10. Robert K. Shope (1991). Non-Deviant Causal Chains. Journal of Philosophical Research 16:251-291.
    Causal processes that are technically called deviant or wayward causal chains must be ruled out when analyzing various phenomena, including intentional action, perception, and the operation of causal mechanisms involved in the manifesting of causal powers. Irving Thalberg is incorrect in arguing that this problem does not arise when analyzing intentional action. After criticizing solutions proposed by Christopher Peacocke and David Lewis, I provide a general analysis of non-deviance. In application to intentional action, the account is seen to be preferable (...)
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  11. Robert K. Shope (1990). A Causal Theory of Intending. Journal of Philosophical Research 15:361-394.
    Having an intention can be analyzed in terms of certain causal powers possessed by an instance of one’s having a thought of a certain state of affairs, where a certain preference is what causes those powers to be present. A suitable understanding of such a prcference emerges from a discussion of Wayne A. Davis’ analysis of intending. However, Davis’ emphasis on belief and desire rather than on instances of having a thought leads to difficulties for his analysis of intending. After (...)
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  12. Robert K. Shope (1989). Justification, Reliability, and Knowledge. Philosophia 19 (2-3):133-154.
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  13. Robert K. Shope (1988). Powers, Causation, and Modality. Erkenntnis 28 (3):321 - 362.
    A complex theory concerning powers, natures, and causal necessity has emerged from the writings of P. H. Hare, E. H. Madden, and R. Harré. In the course of rebutting objections that other critics have raised to the power account of causation, I correct three of its genuine difficulties: its attempt to analyze power attributions in terms of conditional statements; its characterization of the relation between something's powers and its nature; and its doctrines concerning conceptual necessity. The resulting interpretation of causal (...)
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  14. Robert K. Shope (1987). An Interpretation of Conditionals, If-Sentences, and Since-Sentences in Terms of Power Manifestations. Erkenntnis 27 (3):379 - 432.
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  15. Robert K. Shope (1984). Cognitive Abilities, Conditionals, and Knowledge: A Response to Nozick. Journal of Philosophy 81 (1):29-48.
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  16. Robert K. Shope (1983). The Analysis of Knowing: A Decade of Research. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
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  17. Robert K. Shope (1979). Eliminating Mistakes About Eliminative Materialism. Philosophy of Science 46 (4):590-612.
    Richard Rorty's eliminative materialism is an attack on dualism that has frequently been misrepresented and incorrectly criticized. By taking account of the mistakes that philosophers have made concerning eliminative materialism, a proper definition of the doctrine and a clarification of its relation to traditional materialism will emerge, as well as an understanding of its true strengths and weaknesses. The discussion centers around the original manner in which Rorty defended eliminative materialism by means of analogies to the elimination of talk about (...)
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  18. Robert K. Shope (1979). Knowledge and Falsity. Philosophical Studies 36 (4):389 - 405.
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  19. Robert K. Shope (1978). Rawls, Brandt, and the Definition of Rational Desires. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 8 (2):329 - 340.
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  20. Robert K. Shope (1978). The Conditional Fallacy in Contemporary Philosophy. Journal of Philosophy 75 (8):397-413.
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  21. Robert K. Shope (1975). Geoffrey Clive 1927-1975. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 49:154 - 155.
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  22. Robert K. Shope (1973). Functional Equivalence and the Defense of Materialism. Philosophical Forum 4:500-12.
     
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  23. Robert K. Shope (1973). Remembering, Knowledge, and Memory Traces. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 33 (March):303-22.
  24. Robert K. Shope (1972). The Neutrality of Experiential Statements. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 32 (3):377-383.
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  25. Robert K. Shope (1971). Physical and Psychic Energy. Philosophy of Science 38 (1):1-12.
    In order to assess the tenacity of psychoanalysts in continuing to use a concept of psychic energy, it is advisable to consider whether, as they sometimes claim, the concepts of energy, force, and work in psychoanalysis are akin to those in the natural sciences. Strong disanalogies suggest that the psychoanalytic concepts are quite different and used equivocally even within psychoanalysis. However, they may not be subject to the objections which certain critical psychoanalysts have raised.
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  26. Robert K. Shope (1970). Dispositional Treatment of Psychoanalytic Motivation Terms. Journal of Philosophy 67 (7):195-208.
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  27. Robert K. Shope (1967). The Psychoanalytic Theories of Wish‐Fulfilment and Meaning. Inquiry 10 (1-4):421-438.
    Psychoanalysis regards many previously inexplicable phenomena as wish?fulfilments, which have meaning inasmuch as they express the person's wishes or affects. This might appear to make such psychoanalytic explanations rather like ordinary explanations of conduct and to enlarge the area of intentional and possibly that of responsible behavior. But a critique of these psychoanalytic accounts will show that they are very unlike accounts in terms of ordinary notions of fulfilling or expressing wishes and that the psychoanalytic concept of wish?fulfilment differs sufficiently (...)
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  28. Robert K. Shope (1967). Explanation in Terms of "the Cause". Journal of Philosophy 64 (10):312-320.
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  29. Robert K. Shope (1965). Prima Facie Duty. Journal of Philosophy 62 (11):279-287.
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