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Profile: Robert Kirkman (Georgia Institute of Technology)
  1. Robert Kirkman (2012). Michael Maniates and John M. Meyer, Eds., The Environmental Politics of Sacrifice. Environmental Ethics 34 (3):321-324.
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  2. Robert Kirkman (2012). Transitory Places. Environmental Philosophy 9 (1):95-108.
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  3. Jason Borenstein, Matthew J. Drake, Robert Kirkman & Julie L. Swann (2010). The Engineering and Science Issues Test (ESIT): A Discipline-Specific Approach to Assessing Moral Judgment. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (2):387-407.
    To assess ethics pedagogy in science and engineering, we developed a new tool called the Engineering and Science Issues Test (ESIT). ESIT measures moral judgment in a manner similar to the Defining Issues Test, second edition, but is built around technical dilemmas in science and engineering. We used a quasi-experimental approach with pre- and post-tests, and we compared the results to those of a control group with no overt ethics instruction. Our findings are that several (but not all) stand-alone classes (...)
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  4. Robert Kirkman (2010). Did Americans Chose Sprawl? Ethics and the Environment 15 (1):pp. 123-142.
    Did Americans choose to live in sprawling metropolitan regions? Rhetoric and argumentation driven by this question form a strong undercurrent in the more general debate about urban sprawl in the United States. That debate runs between a broad and diverse coalition of anti-sprawl advocates and those who oppose them in the political arena. It would not be accurate to characterize the opposition as "pro-sprawl": many who speak for the opposition recognize that there are problems with sprawl but, for one reason (...)
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  5. Robert Kirkman (2009). Darwinian Humanism and the End of Nature. Environmental Values 18 (2):217 - 236.
    Darwinian humanism proposes that environmental philosophers pursue their work in full recognition of an irreducible ambiguity at the heart of human experience: we may legitimately regard moral action as fully free and fully natural at the same time, since neither perspective can be taken as the whole truth. A serious objection to this proposal holds that freedom and nature may be unified as an organic whole, and their unity posited as a matter of substantive truth, by appeal to teleology. In (...)
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  6. Robert Kirkman (2008). Ecological Politics and Democratic Theory. Environmental Ethics 30 (4):437-438.
  7. Robert Kirkman (2008). Failures of Imagination: Stuck and Out of Luck in the American Metropolis. Ethics, Place and Environment 11 (1):17 – 32.
    Ethical choice and action in the built environment are complicated by the fact that moral agents often get stuck as they pursue their goals. A common way of getting stuck has its roots in human cognition: the failure of moral imagination, which shows most clearly when moral agents stand on either side of a sharp cultural divide, like the traditional divide between city and suburb. Being stuck is akin to bad moral luck: it is a situation beyond the control of (...)
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  8. Robert Kirkman (2008). Mindful Conservatism. Environmental Ethics 29 (2):217-218.
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  9. Robert Kirkman (2008). Teaching for Moral Imagination. Teaching Philosophy 31 (4):333-350.
    This paper reports the results of an assessment project conducted in a semester-length course in environmental ethics. The first goal of the project was to measure the degree to which the course succeeded in meeting its overarching goal of enriching students’ moral imagination and its more particular objectives relating to ethics in the built environment. The second goal of the project was to contribute toward a broader effort to develop assessment tools for ethics education. Through qualitative analysis of an exit (...)
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  10. Robert Kirkman (2008). The Green State. Environmental Ethics 27 (4):437-440.
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  11. Robert Kirkman (2007). Darwinian Humanism: A Proposal for Environmental Philosophy. Environmental Values 16 (1):3 - 21.
    There are two distinct strands within modern philosophical ethics that are relevant to environmental philosophy: an empiricist strand that seeks a naturalist account of human conduct and a humanist strand rooted in a conception of transcendent human freedom. Each strand has its appeal, but each also raises both strategic and theoretical problems for environmental philosophers. Based on a reading of Kant's critical solution to the antinomy of freedom and nature, I recommend that environmental philosophers consider the possibility of a Darwinian (...)
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  12. Robert Kirkman (2007). Mindful Conservatism: Rethinking the Ideological and Educational Basis of an Ecologically Sustainable Future. Environmental Ethics 29 (2):217-218.
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  13. Robert Kirkman (2005). Ethics and Scale in the Built Environment. Environmental Philosophy 2 (2):38-52.
    On the way to a phenomenology of the moral space within which people make decisions about the built environments they inhabit, I take up Bryan Norton’s proposal for a non-linear, multi-scalar approach to environmental ethics. Inspired by a recent development in ecology, hierarchy theory, Norton’s key insight is that ethical concerns play themselves out across distinct spatio-temporal scales. I adapt this insight to the context of the built environment by way of a phenomenology of constraint as a scaling criterion, then (...)
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  14. Robert Kirkman (2005). The Green State: Rethinking Democracy and Sovereignty. Environmental Ethics 27 (4):437-440.
  15. Deepanwita Dasgupta, Robert Kirkman, Jason W. Moore, François-Xavier Nzi Iyo Nsenga, Lawrence A. Peskin, Dennis E. Skocz & Paul Steege (2004). Earth Ways: Framing Geographical Meanings. Lexington Books.
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  16. Robert Kirkman (2004). Democracy's Dilemma. Environmental Ethics 26 (3):331-332.
  17. Robert Kirkman (2004). Democracy's Dilemma: Environment, Social Equity, and the Global Economy. Environmental Ethics 26 (3):331-332.
  18. Robert Kirkman (2004). Reasons to Dwell on (If Not Necessarily in) the Suburbs. Environmental Ethics 26 (1):77-95.
    Environmental philosophers should look beyond stereotypes to consider American suburbs as an environment worthy of serious philosophical scrutiny for three reasons. First, for better or worse, the suburbs are the environment of primary concern to most Americans, and suburban patterns of development have caught on elsewhere in the industrialized world. Second, the suburbs are much more of a problem than many environmental theorists suppose, in part because suburban patterns of development are entrenched and difficult to change, and in part because (...)
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  19. Robert Kirkman (2004). The Ethics of Metropolitan Growth: A Framework. Philosophy and Geography 7 (2):201 – 218.
    Although debates about the shape and future of the built environment are usually cast in economic and political terms, they also have an irreducible ethical component that stands in need of careful examination. This paper is the report of an exploratory study in descriptive ethics carried out in Atlanta, Georgia. Archival sources and semi-structured interviews provide the basis for identifying and sorting the diverse value judgments and value conflicts that come into play in a rapidly growing metropolitan area. The (...)
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  20. Robert Kirkman (2004). Technological Momentum and the Ethics of Metropolitan Growth. Ethics, Place and Environment 7 (3):125 – 139.
    One goal of environmental ethics is to recommend changes to patterns of human life so as to bring inhabited landscapes into line with a vision of the good. However, the complex intertwining of nature and culture in inhabited landscapes makes this project much more difficult, complicating ethical judgment and limiting the efficacy of ethical action. Technological momentum, a model introduced by historian Thomas P. Hughes to describe the development of complex technological systems, can shed some light on these difficulties. The (...)
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  21. Robert Kirkman (2003). The Greening of Conservative America. Environmental Ethics 25 (2):221-222.
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  22. Robert Kirkman (2003). The Skeptical Environmentalist. Environmental Ethics 25 (4):423-426.
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  23. Robert Kirkman (2002). Through the Looking-Glass: Environmentalism and the Problem of Freedom. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 36 (1):29-43.
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  24. Robert Kirkman (2001). Environmental Justice and the New Pluralism: The Challenge of Difference for Environmentalism. Environmental Ethics 23 (1):109-110.
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  25. Robert Kirkman (2001). Environmental Justice and the New Pluralism. Environmental Ethics 23 (1):109-110.
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  26. Robert Kirkman (2000). Robert Elliott, Faking Nature: The Ethics of Environmental Restoration. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 34 (1):129-133.
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  27. Robert Kirkman (1998). The New Ecological Order. Environmental Ethics 20 (1):101-104.
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  28. Robert Kirkman (1997). Why Ecology Cannot Be All Things to All People: The “Adaptive Radiation” of Scientific Concepts. Environmental Ethics 19 (4):375-390.
    On the basis of a model of the development of scientific concepts as analogous to the “adaptive radiation” of organisms, I raise questions concerning the speculative project of many environmental philosophers, especially insofar as that project reflects on the relationship between ecology (the science) and ecologism (the worldview or ideology). This relationship is often understood in terms of anopposition to the “modern” worldview, which leads to the identification of ecology as an ally or as a foe of environmental philosophy even (...)
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