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Robert T. Pennock [27]Robert Pennock [9]
  1. Robert Pennock, Evolution — Once More, with Feeling.
    Dual review of George Levine’s Darwin Loves You and David Sloan Wilson’s Evolution for Everyone.) American Scientist. (Vol. 95, November-December, pp. 528-531, 2007).
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  2. Robert Pennock, Investigating the Emergence of Phenotypic Plasticity in Evolving Digital Organisms.
    In the natural world, individual organisms can adapt as their environment changes. In most in silico evolution, however, individual organisms tend to consist of rigid solutions, with all adaptation occurring at the population level. If we are to use artificial evolving systems as a tool in understanding biology or in engineering robust and intelligent systems, however, they should be able to generate solutions with fitness-enhancing phenotypic plasticity. Here we use Avida, an established digital evolution system, to investigate the selective pressures (...)
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  3. Robert Pennock, Models, Simulations, Instantiations and Evidence: The Case of Digital Evolution.
    Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence (Vol. 19, No. 1, 2007) What is the difference between a simulation of X and simply another instance of X? Is there a point at which the ‘‘virtual reality’’ of a model becomes the real thing? This paper examines these questions using cases taken from recent developments in evolutionary engineering and artificial life research. By implementing the Darwinian mechanism and setting it to work on a design problem, scientists and engineers find that evolution (...)
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  4. Robert Pennock, Pre-Existing Conditions: Genetic Testing, Causation and the Justice of Medical Insurance.
    In Rosamond Rhodes, Leslie Francis & Anita Silvers (eds.) Blackwell Guide to Medical Ethics. (Ch. 23, pp. 407-424, 2006).
     
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  5. Robert Pennock, Science Education and Religion: Holding the Center.
     
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  6. Robert T. Pennock, Controversy About Creationism.
    Teach the Controversy? Kansas just can't get a break. In 1999, the state became an international laughingstock when creationists on the State Board of Education, led by Steve Abrams, gutted what would have been a model science curriculum, removing the theme of evolution as well as mentions of the Big Bang and the geological timescale (Pennock, 1999b, 2000). These board members and the creationist groups that assisted them seemed to confirm every stereotype of Kansas as an ignorant backwater. The creationists (...)
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  7. Robert T. Pennock, DNA by Design?
    In his keynote address at a recent Intelligent Design (ID) conference at Biola University, ID leader William Dembski began by quoting "a well-known ID sympathizer" whom he had asked to assess the current state of the ID movement. Dembski explained that he had asked because, "after some initial enthusiasm on his part three years ago, his interest seemed to have flagged" (Dembski 2002). The sympathizer replied that..
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  8. Robert T. Pennock, I. Basis of My Expertise.
    I am Associate Professor of Science & Technology Studies at Michigan State University’s Lyman Briggs School of Science and Associate Professor of Philosophy in the Department of Philosophy. I’m also a faculty member in MSU’s Ecology & Evolutionary Biology and Behavior Program and in the Department of Computer Science.
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  9. Robert T. Pennock, Should Students Be Able to Opt Out of Evolution? Some Philosophical Considerations.
    One new development in the ongoing creationism/ evolution controversy has been the proposal to institute optout policies that would allow creationist parents to exempt their children from any instruction involving evolution. By way of an explanation of some of the philosophical issues at play in the debate over evolution and the nature of science, this article shows the educational folly of such policies. If evolution is taught properly, it should not be possible to opt out of it without opting out (...)
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  10. Kenneth O. Stanley, Robert T. Pennock & Charles Ofria, On the Performance of Indirect Encoding Across the Continuum of Regularity.
    ��This paper investigates how an evolutionary al- gorithm with an indirect encoding exploits the property of phenotypic regularity, an important design principle found in natural organisms and engineered designs. We present the first comprehensive study showing that such phenotypic regularity enables an indirect encoding to outperform direct encoding con- trols as problem regularity increases. Such an ability to produce regular solutions that can exploit the regularity of problems is an important prerequisite if evolutionary algorithms are to scale to high-dimensional real-world (...)
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  11. Robert Pennock, Death and Taxes: On the Justice of Conscientious War Tax Resistance Robert T. Pennock.
    Resistance to paying war taxes that stems from a principled pacifism is not the same as tax-dodging and should be accommodated in the law by broadening the scope of Conscientious Objector (CO) status and by legislating a nonmilitary alternative fund so COs may redirect their tax money to peaceful uses. Using the religious example of the Society of Friends (Quakers) and various secular examples of pacifism I show that resisters’ conscientious opposition to paying for war is of a kind with (...)
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  12. Robert Pennock, Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence.
    Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdf This article maybe used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.
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  13. Robert Pennock, Learning Evolution and the Nature of Science Using Evolutionary Computing and Artificial Life.
    Because evolution in natural systems happens so slowly, it is dif- ficult to design inquiry-based labs where students can experiment and observe evolution in the way they can when studying other phenomena. New research in evolutionary computation and artificial life provides a solution to this problem. This paper describes a new A-Life software environment – Avida-ED – in which undergraduate students can test evolutionary hypotheses directly using digital organisms that evolve on their own through the very mechanisms that Darwin discovered.
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  14. Robert Pennock, Whose God? What Science?: Reply to Michael Behe.
    In his review of my book Tower of Babel: The Evidence against the New Creationism that he recently published in The Weekly Standard under the title “The God of Science: The Case for Intelligent Design” (Behe 1999), Michael Behe takes me to task for criticizing the “intelligent design” group, of which he is a member, in the same pages that I criticize Genesis literalists and other religious anti-evolutionists. He writes.
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  15. Robert T. Pennock, Early Evolution of Memory Usage in Digital Organisms.
    We investigate the evolution of memory usage in environments where information about past experience is required for optimal decision making. For this study, we use digital organisms, which are self-replicating computer programs that are subject to mutations and natural selection. We place the digital organisms in a range of experimental environments: simple ones where environmental cues indicate that a specific action should be taken (e.g., turn left to find food) as well as slightly more complex ones where cues refer to (...)
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  16. Robert T. Pennock, The Postmodern Sin of Intelligent Design Creationism.
    That Intelligent Design Creationism rejects the methodological naturalism of modern science in favor of a premodern supernaturalist worldview is well documented and by now well known. An irony that has not been sufficiently appreciated, however, is the way that ID Creationists try to advance their premodern view by adopting (if only tactically) a radical postmodern perspective. This paper will reveal the deep threads of postmodernism that run through the ID Creationist movement’s arguments, as evidenced in the writings and interviews of (...)
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  17. Robert T. Pennock & Benjamin E. Beckmann, HybrID: A Hybridization of Indirect and Direct Encodings for Evolutionary Computation.
    Evolutionary algorithms typically use direct encodings, where each element of the phenotype is specified independently in the genotype. Because direct encodings have difficulty evolving modular and symmetric phenotypes, some researchers use indirect encodings, wherein one genomic element can influence multiple parts of a phenotype. We have previously shown that Hyper- NEAT, an indirect encoding, outperforms FT-NEAT, a direct-encoding control, on many problems, especially as the regularity of the problem increases. However, HyperNEAT is no panacea; it had difficulty accounting for irregularities (...)
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  18. Robert T. Pennock (2012). Negotiating Boundaries in the Definition of Life: Wittgensteinian and Darwinian Insights on Resolving Conceptual Border Conflicts. [REVIEW] Synthese 185 (1):5-20.
    What is the definition of life? Artificial life environments provide an interesting test case for this classical question. Understanding what such systems can tell us about biological life requires negotiating the tricky conceptual boundary between virtual and real life forms. Drawing from Wittgenstein’s analysis of the concept of a game and a Darwinian insight about classification, I argue that classifying life involves both causal and pragmatic elements. Rather than searching for a single, sharp definition, these considerations suggest that life is (...)
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  19. Robert T. Pennock (2011). Can't Philosophers Tell the Difference Between Science and Religion? Demarcation Revisited. Synthese 178 (2):177-206.
    In the 2005 Kitzmiller v Dover Area School Board case, a federal district court ruled that Intelligent Design creationism was not science, but a disguised religious view and that teaching it in public schools is unconstitutional. But creationists contend that it is illegitimate to distinguish science and religion, citing philosophers Quinn and especially Laudan, who had criticized a similar ruling in the 1981 McLean v. Arkansas creation-science case on the grounds that no necessary and sufficient demarcation criterion was possible and (...)
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  20. Robert T. Pennock & Michael Ruse (eds.) (2009). But is It Science?: The Philosophical Question in the Creation/Evolution Controversy. Prometheus Books.
     
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  21. Robert T. Pennock (2007). Biology and Religion. In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press.
  22. Robert T. Pennock (2007). God of the Gaps: The Argument From Ignorance and the Limits of Methodological Naturalism. In A. J. Petto & L. R. Godfrey (eds.), Scientists Confront Intelligent Design and Creationism. Norton. 309--338.
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  23. Robert T. Pennock (2006). The Premodern Sins of Intelligent Design. In Philip Clayton (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Science. Oup Oxford. 732-747.
    Accession Number: ATLA0001712273; Hosting Book Page Citation: p 732-747.; Language(s): English; General Note: Bibliography: p 746-748.; Issued by ATLA: 20130825; Publication Type: Essay.
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  24. Robert T. Pennock (2003). Bowler on Science and Religion. [REVIEW] Endeavour 27 (3):101-102.
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  25. Robert T. Pennock (2003). Creationism and Intelligent Design. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 4:143-163.
    Key Words creation science, evolution education s Abstract Creationism, the rejection of evolution in favor of supernatural design, comes in many varieties besides the common young-earth Genesis version. Creationist attacks on science education have been evolving in the last few years through the alliance of different varieties. Instead of calls to teach “creation science,” one now finds lobbying for “intelligent design” (ID). Guided by the Discovery Institute’s “Wedge strategy,” the ID movement aims to overturn evolution and what it sees as (...)
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  26. Robert T. Pennock (2002). Should Creationism Be Taught in the Public Schools? Science and Education 11 (2):111-133.
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  27. Robert T. Pennock (ed.) (2001). Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics: Philosophical, Theological, and Scientifc Perspectives. MIT Press.
    An anthology of writings by proponents and critics of intelligent design creationism.
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  28. Robert T. Pennock (2000). Can Darwinian Mechanisms Make Novel Discoveries?: Learning From Discoveries Made by Evolving Neural Networks. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 5 (2):225-238.
    Some philosophers suggest that the development of scientificknowledge is a kind of Darwinian process. The process of discovery,however, is one problematic element of this analogy. I compare HerbertSimon's attempt to simulate scientific discovery in a computer programto recent connectionist models that were not designed for that purpose,but which provide useful cases to help evaluate this aspect of theanalogy. In contrast to the classic A.I. approach Simon used, ``neuralnetworks'' contain no explicit protocols, but are generic learningsystems built on the model of (...)
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  29. Robert T. Pennock (1999). Tower of Babel: The Evidence Against the New Creationism. MIT.
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  30. Robert T. Pennock (1998). Evidential Relevance and the Grue Paradox. Kagaku Tetsugaku 31 (1):101-119.
    use of the Hempelian instance confirmation relation, there are asymmetries than can be exploited if we adopt an "ontic" confirmation theory that uses a causal notion of evidential relevance. I sort out a variety of interpretive confusions about the intended content of the definition of grue and show how the causal approach resolves each in a way that is not paradoxical.
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  31. Robert T. Pennock (1996). Inappropriate Authorship in Collaborative Science Research. Public Affairs Quarterly 10 (4):379-393.
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  32. Robert T. Pennock (1996). Naturalism, Evidence and Creationism: The Case of Phillip Johnson. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 11 (4):543-559.
    Phillip Johnson claims that Creationism is a better explanation of the existence and characteristics of biological species than is evolutionary theory. He argues that the only reason biologists do not recognize that Creationist's negative arguments against Darwinism have proven this is that they are wedded to a biased ideological philosophy —Naturalism — which dogmatically denies the possibility of an intervening creative god. However,Johnson fails to distinguish Ontological Naturalism from Methodological Naturalism. Science makes use of the latter and I show how (...)
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  33. Robert T. Pennock (1996). Reply: Johnson's Reason in the Balance. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 11 (4):565-568.
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  34. Robert T. Pennock (1995). Epistemic and Ontic Theories of Explanation and Confirmation. Kagaku Tetsugaku 28:31-45.
  35. Robert T. Pennock (1995). Moral Darwinism: Ethical Evidence for the Descent of Man. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 10 (3):287-307.
    Could an ethical theory ever play a substantial evidential role in a scientific argument for an empirical hypothesis? InThe Descent of Man, Darwin includes an extended discussion of the nature of human morality, and the ethical theory which he sketches is not simply developed as an interesting ramification of his theory of evolution, but is used as a key part of his evidence for human descent from animal ancestors. Darwin must rebut the argument that, because of our moral nature, humans (...)
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  36. Robert T. Pennock (1994). Book Review:Explaining Explanation David-Hillel Ruben. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 61 (1):146-.
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