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  1. Robert Sugden (2013). How Fictional Accounts Can Explain. Journal of Economic Methodology 20 (3):237 - 243.
    In this note, I comment on Julian Reiss's paper ?The explanation paradox?. I argue in support of two of the propositions that make up that paradox (that economic models are false, and that they are explanatory) but challenge the third proposition, that only true accounts can explain. I defend the ?credible worlds? account of models as fictions that are explanatory by virtue of similarity relations with real-world phenomena. I argue that Reiss's objections to the role of subjective similarity judgements in (...)
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  2. Robert Sugden (2013). The Behavioural Economist and the Social Planner: To Whom Should Behavioural Welfare Economics Be Addressed? Inquiry 56 (5):519 - 538.
    ABSTRACT This paper compares two alternative answers to the question ?Who is the addressee of welfare economics?? These answers correspond with different understandings of the status of the normative conclusions of welfare economics and have different implications for how welfare economics should be adapted in the light of the findings of behavioural economics. The conventional welfarist answer is that welfare economics is addressed to a ?social planner?, whose objective is to maximize the overall well-being of society; the planner is imagined (...)
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  3. Robert Sugden (2012). Altruistic Punishment as an Explanation of Hunter-Gatherer Cooperation: How Much has Experimental Economics Achieved? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (1):40-40.
    The discovery of the altruistic punishment mechanism as a replicable experimental result is a genuine achievement of behavioural economics. The hypothesis that cooperation in hunter-gatherer societies is sustained by altruistic punishment is a scientifically legitimate conjecture, but it must be tested against real-world observations. Guala's doubts about the evidential support for this hypothesis are well founded.
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  4. Robert Sugden (2012). Must Group Agents Be Rational? List and Pettit's Theory of Judgement Aggregation and Group Agency. Economics and Philosophy 28 (2):265-273.
    Review Articles Robert Sugden, Economics and Philosophy , FirstView Article.
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  5. Nicholas Bardsley, Chris Starmer, Robin Cubitt, Graham Loomes, Peter Moffatt & Robert Sugden (2011). A Response to Binmore, Harrison and Ross onExperimental Economics: Rethinking the Rules. Journal of Economic Methodology 18 (2):195-199.
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  6. Andrea Isoni, Anders Poulsen, Robert Sugden & Kei Tsutsui (2011). Focal Points in Tacit Bargaining Games. Human Nature 1739 (40):509-10.
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  7. Stefania Sitzia & Robert Sugden (2011). Implementing Theoretical Models in the Laboratory, and What This Can and Cannot Achieve. Journal of Economic Methodology 18 (4):323-343.
    We investigate the methodology used in a significant genre of experimental economics, in which experiments are designed to test theoretical models by implementing them in the laboratory. Using two case studies, we argue that such an experiment is a test, not of what the model says about its target domain, but of generic theoretical components used in the model. The properties that make a model interesting as a putative explanation of phenomena in its target domain are not necessarily appropriate (...)
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  8. Robert Sugden (2011). Explanations in Search of Observations. Biology and Philosophy 26 (5):717-736.
    The paper explores how, in economics and biology, theoretical models are used as explanatory devices. It focuses on a modelling strategy by which, instead of starting with an unexplained regularity in the world, the modeller begins by creating a credible model world. The model world exhibits a regularity, induced by a mechanism in that world. The modeller concludes that there may be a part of the real world in which a similar regularity occurs and that, were that the case, the (...)
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  9. Robert Sugden (2010). Opportunity as Mutual Advantage. Economics and Philosophy 26 (1):47-68.
    This paper argues that measurements of opportunity which focus on the contents of a person's opportunity set fail to capture open-ended aspects of opportunity that liberals should value. I propose an alternative conception of which does not require the explicit specification of opportunity sets, and which rests on an understanding of persons as responsible rather than rational agents. I suggest that issues of distributive fairness are best framed in terms of real income, and that meaningful measurements of real income are (...)
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  10. Nicholas Bardsley, Robin Cubitt, Graham Loomes, Peter Moffatt, Chris Starmer & Robert Sugden (2009). Experimental Economics: Rethinking the Rules. Princeton University Press.
    The authors explore the history of experiments in economics, provide examples of different types of experiments and show that the growing use of experimental methods is transforming economics into an empirical science.
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  11. Luigino Bruni & Robert Sugden (2009). Fraternity, Intrinsic Motivation and Sacrifice: A Reply to Gui and Nelson. Economics and Philosophy 25 (2):195-198.
    This paper responds to Gui and Nelson's separate comments on our paper , which analysed sociality in markets as joint commitment to mutual assistance. We argue that our analysis is fundamentally different both from Nelson's analysis (a mixture of self-interested and intrinsic motivations) and from that provided by theories of warm glow or guilt aversion, as discussed by Gui. We agree with Gui that, in initiating and maintaining cooperative relationships, individuals sometimes incur personal costs to benefit others without any certainty (...)
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  12. Robert Sugden (2009). Credible Worlds, Capacities and Mechanisms. Erkenntnis 70 (1):3 - 27.
    This paper asks how, in science in general and in economics in particular, theoretical models aid the understanding of real-world phenomena. Using specific models in economics and biology as test cases, it considers three alternative answers: that models are tools for isolating the ‘capacities’ of causal factors in the real world; that modelling is ‘conceptual exploration’ which ultimately contributes to the development of genuinely explanatory theories; and that models are credible counterfactual worlds from which inductive inferences can be made. The (...)
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  13. Robert Sugden (2009). On Modelling Vagueness—and on Not Modelling Incommensurability. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 83 (1):95-113.
    This paper defines and analyses the concept of a 'ranking problem'. In a ranking problem, a set of objects, each of which possesses some common property P to some degree, are ranked by P-ness. I argue that every eligible answer to a ranking problem can be expressed as a complete and transitive 'is at least as P as' relation. Vagueness is expressed as a multiplicity of eligible rankings. Incommensurability, properly understood, is the absence of a common property P. Trying to (...)
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  14. Robert Sugden (2009). Rational Economic Manrevisited. Journal of Economic Methodology 16 (4):422-426.
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  15. Luigino Bruni & Robert Sugden (2008). Fraternity: Why the Market Need Not Be a Morally Free Zone. Economics and Philosophy 24 (1):35-64.
    This paper reappraises the idea, traceable to Adam Smith, of a fundamental distinction between market transactions and genuinely social relationships. On Smith's account, each party to a market transaction pursues his own interests, subject only to the law of contract. Using the work of Smith's contemporary Antonio Genovesi as our starting point, we reconstruct an alternative understanding of market interactions as instances of a wider class of reciprocal relationships in civil society, characterized by joint intentions for mutual assistance. We consider (...)
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  16. Robert Sugden (2008). Capability, Happiness And Opportunity. In Luigino Bruni, Flavio Comim & Maurizio Pugno (eds.), Capabilities and Happiness. Oup Oxford.
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  17. Robert Sugden (2008). David Hume's Treatise of Human Nature. Topoi 27 (1-2):153-159.
    This ‘untimely review’ of Hume’s Treatise is written as if the book had just been published. I use this fiction to argue that the Treatise is a more fundamental critique of the concept of reason than most readers have thought. Hume’s analysis of human reasoning is grounded in empirical psychology, in which he made significant discoveries. He presents a non-propositional theory of desires, in which choice can be neither rational nor irrational. He shows that the idea that reason has authority, (...)
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  18. Robert Sugden (2008). 1. The Capability Approach. In Luigino Bruni, Flavio Comim & Maurizio Pugno (eds.), Capabilities and Happiness. Oup Oxford. 299.
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  19. Robert Sugden (2008). The Changing Relationship Between Theory and Experiment in Economics. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):621-632.
    Until recently, economics was generally understood to be a nonexperimental science with a hypothetico‐deductive methodology. This article considers how the methodology of economics has changed with the spread of experimental methods. Initially, most experimental economists saw their work as testing pre‐existing theories. However, a method of systematic inductive enquiry in which theory plays a less central role is now evolving. This method is structured around the discovery and progressive refinement of regularities. “Exhibits”—experimental designs that generate significant regularities—are taking over some (...)
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  20. Natalie Gold & Robert Sugden (2007). Collective Intentions and Team Agency. Journal of Philosophy 104 (3):109-137.
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  21. Robert Sugden (2007). Collective Intentions and Team Agency. Journal of Philosophy 104 (3):109-137.
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  22. Robert Sugden & Natalie Gold (2007). Theories of Team Agency. In Fabienne Peter & Hans Bernhard Schmid (eds.), Rationality and Commitment. Oup Oxford.
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  23. Robert Sugden (2006). Review: Ethics, Economics and Politics: Principles of Public Policy. [REVIEW] Mind 115 (458):434-436.
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  24. Robert Sugden (2006). Hume's Non-Instrumental and Non-Propositional Decision Theory. Economics and Philosophy 22 (3):365-391.
    Hume is often read as proposing an instrumental theory of decision, in which an agent's choices are rational if they maximally satisfy her desires, given her beliefs. In fact, Hume denies that rationality can be attributed to actions. I argue that this is not a gap needing to be filled. Hume's theory provides a coherent and self-contained understanding of action, compatible with current developments in experimental psychology and behavioural economics. On Hume's account, desires are primitive psychological motivations which do not (...)
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  25. Robert Sugden (2006). Taking Unconsidered Preferences Seriously. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 81 (59):209-.
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  26. Robert Sugden (2006). What We Desire, What We Have Reason to Desire, Whatever We Might Desire: Mill and Sen on the Value of Opportunity. Utilitas 18 (1):33-51.
    I compare Mill's and Sen's accounts of the value of opportunity, focusing on a tension between two ideas they both uphold: that individual freedom is an important component of well-being, and that, because desires can be adaptive, actual desire is not always a good indicator of what will give well-being. The two writers' responses to this tension reflect different understandings of the relationship between freedom and desire. Sen links an individual's well-being to her freedom to choose what she has reason (...)
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  27. Robert Sugden (2005). Experiments as Exhibits and Experiments as Tests. Journal of Economic Methodology 12 (2):291-302.
    Two roles of experiments in behavioural economics are distinguished ? experiments as exhibits and experiments as tests of theories. An exhibit is an experimental design which reliably induces a surprising regularity, typically combined with an informal hypothesis about the underlying causal mechanism. ?Deviation theories? ? generalisations of received theories which incorporate additional causal mechanisms ? are constructed so as to be consistent with known exhibits, and tested in new situations. The paper argues that the principles of good practice are different (...)
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  28. Robert Sugden (2005). Experiment, Theory, World: A Symposium on the Role of Experiments in Economics. Journal of Economic Methodology 12 (2):177-184.
    (2005). Experiment, theory, world: A symposium on the role of experiments in economics. Journal of Economic Methodology: Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 177-184. doi: 10.1080/13501780500085943.
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  29. Robert Sugden (2004). Review: Prelude to Political Economy: A Study of the Social and Political Foundations of Economics. [REVIEW] Mind 113 (452):730-732.
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  30. Roger Crisp, Larry S. Temkin, Robert Sugden, Robert N. Johnson, George Klosko & Paul Hurley (2003). 10. Jacob Levy, The Multiculturalism of Fear Jacob Levy, The Multiculturalism of Fear (Pp. 891-895). Ethics 113 (4).
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  31. Robin P. Cubitt & Robert Sugden (2003). Common Knowledge, Salience and Convention: A Reconstruction of David Lewis' Game Theory. Economics and Philosophy 19 (2):175-210.
    David Lewis is widely credited with the first formulation of common knowledge and the first rigorous analysis of convention. However, common knowledge and convention entered mainstream game theory only when they were formulated, later and independently, by other theorists. As a result, some of the most distinctive and valuable features of Lewis' game theory have been overlooked. We re-examine this theory by reconstructing key parts in a more formal way, extending it, and showing how it differs from more recent game (...)
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  32. Robert Sugden (2003). Opportunity as a Space for Individuality: Its Value and the Impossibility of Measuring It. Ethics 113 (4):783-809.
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  33. Robert Sugden (2003). The Logic of Team Reasoning. Philosophical Explorations 6 (3):165 – 181.
    Abstract Orthodox decision theory presupposes that agency is invested in individuals. An opposing literature allows team agency to be invested in teams whose members use distinctive modes of team reasoning. This paper offers a new conceptual framework, inspired by David Lewis's analysis of common reasons for belief, within which team reasoning can be represented. It shows how individuals can independently endorse a principle of team reasoning which prescribes acting as a team member conditional on assurance that others have endorsed the (...)
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  34. Robert Sugden (2002). Beyond Sympathy and Empathy: Adam Smith's Concept of Fellow-Feeling. Economics and Philosophy 18 (1):63-87.
    When modern economists use the notions of sympathy or empathy, they often claim that their ideas have their roots in Adam Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759/1976), while sometimes complaining that Smith fails to distinguish clearly enough between the two concepts. Recently, Philippe Fontaine (1997) has described various forms of sympathy and empathy, and has explored their respective roles in Smith's work. My objective in this paper is to argue that Smith's analysis of how people's sentiments impinge on one another (...)
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  35. Robin P. Cubitt, Chris Starmer & Robert Sugden (2001). Discovered Preferences and the Experimental Evidence of Violations of Expected Utility Theory. Journal of Economic Methodology 8 (3):385-414.
    The discovered preference hypothesis appears to insulate expected utility theory (EU) from disconfirming experimental evidence. It asserts that individuals have coherent underlying preferences, which experiments may not reveal unless subjects have adequate opportunities and incentives to discover which actions best satisfy their preferences. We identify the confounding effects to be expected in experiments, were that hypothesis true, and consider how they might be controlled for. We argue for a design in which each subject faces just one distinct choice task for (...)
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  36. Martin Jones & Robert Sugden (2001). Positive Confirmation Bias in the Acquisition of Information. Theory and Decision 50 (1):59-99.
    An experiment is reported which tests for positive confirmation bias in a setting in which individuals choose what information to buy, prior to making a decision. The design – an adaptation of Wason's selection task – reveals the use that subjects make of information after buying it. Strong evidence of positive confirmation bias, in both information acquisition and information use, is found; and this bias is found to be robust to experience. It is suggested that the bias results from a (...)
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  37. Robert Sugden (2001). Equilibrium and Rationality: Game Theory Revised by Decision Rules. Philosophical Review 110 (3):425-427.
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  38. Robert Sugden (2001). The Bond of Society: Reason or Sentiment? Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 4 (4):149-170.
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  39. Robert Sugden (2001). The Evolutionary Turn in Game Theory. Journal of Economic Methodology 8 (1):113-130.
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  40. Luigino Bruni & Robert Sugden (2000). Los canales morales: la confianza y el capital social en la obra de Hume, Smith y Genovesi. Economics and Philosophy 16:21-45.
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  41. Luigino Bruni & Robert Sugden (2000). Moral Canals: Trust and Social Capital in the Work of Hume, Smith and Genovesi. Economics and Philosophy 16 (1):21-45.
    It is a truism that a market economy cannot function without trust. We must be able to rely on other people to respect our property rights, and on our trading partners to keep their promises. The theory of economics is incomplete unless it can explain why economic agents often trust one another, and why that trust is often repaid. There is a long history of work in economics and philosophy which tries to explain the kinds of reasoning that people use (...)
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  42. Robert Sugden (2000). Credible Worlds: The Status of Theoretical Models in Economics. Journal of Economic Methodology 7 (1):1-31.
    Using as examples Akerlof's 'market for ''lemons''' and Schelling's 'checkerboard' model of racial segregation, this paper asks how economists' abstract theoretical models can explain features of the real world. It argues that such models are not abstractions from, or simplifications of, the real world. They describe counterfactual worlds which the modeller has constructed. The gap between model world and real world can be filled only by inductive inference, and we can have more confidence in such inferences, the more credible the (...)
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  43. Robert Sugden (2000). Martin Hollis: Philosopher of Social Science. Journal of Economic Methodology 7 (3):427-445.
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  44. Robert Sugden (2000). Team Preferences. Economics and Philosophy 16 (2):175-204.
    When my family discusses how we should spend a summer holiday, we start from certain common understandings about our preferences. We prefer self-catering accommodation to hotels, and hotels to campsites. We prefer walking and looking at scenery and wildlife to big-city sightseeing and shopping. When it comes to walks, we prefer walks of six miles or so to ones which are much shorter or much longer, and prefer well-marked but uncrowded paths to ones which are either more rugged or more (...)
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  45. Steven Lukes, Roberta Sassatelli & Robert Sugden (1999). Discussione Su "Trust Within Reason" di Martin Hollis. Iride 12 (1):197-216.
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  46. Robert Sugden (1999). Freedom in Economics: New Perspectives in Normative Analysis, Jean-François Laslier, Marc Fleurbaey, Nicolas Gravel and Alain Trannoy (Eds.). Routledge, 1988, X + 299 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 15 (02):324-.
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  47. Robert Sugden (1999). Isaac Levi, The Covenant of Reason: Rationality and the Commitments of Thought:The Covenant of Reason: Rationality and the Commitments of Thought. Ethics 109 (4):906-909.
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  48. Robert Sugden (1999). Trust Within Reason, Martin Hollis. Cambridge University Press, 1998, Viii + 170 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 15 (01):127-.
  49. Robert Sugden (1998). J. B. Schneewind, Ed., Giving: Western Ideas of Philanthropy:Giving: Western Ideas of Philanthropy. Ethics 108 (4):826-828.
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  50. Robert Sugden (1998). Difficulties in the Theory of Rational Choice [Review Article]. Journal of Economic Methodology 5 (1):157-63.
     
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